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  1. 1
    330598
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV/AIDS in the last 10 years.

    Osman AS

    Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2008; 14 Suppl:S90-6.

    Now, 28 years after acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first recognised, it has become a global pandemic affecting almost all countries. WHO/UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) estimate the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide in 2007 at 33.2 million. Every day 68 000 become infected and over 5700 die from AIDS; 95% of these infections and deaths have occurred in developing countries. The HIV pandemic remains the most serious of infectious disease challenges to public health. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most seriously affected region, with AIDS the leading cause of death there. Although percentage prevalence has stabilized, continuing new infections (even at a reduced Estimated number of people living with HIV globally, 1990-2007, data from UNAIDS rate) contribute to the estimated number of persons living with HIV, 33.2 million (30.6-36.1 million). A defining feature of the pandemic in the current decade is the increasing burden of HIV infection in women, which has additional implications for mother-to-child transmission. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 61% of adults living with HIV in 2007 were women. The impact of HIV mortality is greatest on people in their 20s and 30s; this severely distorts the shape of the population pyramid in affected societies. Globally, the number of children living with HIV increased from 1.5 million in 2001 to 2.5 million in 2007, 90% of them in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS also poses a threat to economic growth in many countries already in distress. According to the World Bank analysis of 80 developing countries, as the prevalence of HIV infection increases from 15% to 30%, the per capita gross domestic product decreases 1.0%-1.5% per year. The powerful negative impact of AIDS on households, productive enterprises and countries stems partly from the high cost of treatment, which diverts resources from productive investments, but mostly from the fact that AIDS affects people during their economically productive adult years, when they are responsible for the support and care of others. This crisis has necessitated a unique and truly global response to meld the resources, political power, and technical capacity of all UN organizations, developing countries and others in a concerted manner to curb the pandemic. AIDS often engenders stigma, discrimination, and denial, because of its association with marginalized groups, sexual transmission and lethality, hence it requires a more comprehensive and holistic approach. During the past 10 years, many developments have occurred in response to this pandemic. WHO has played an important role in this response. This article reviews the major developments in treatment and prevention and the role of WHO in response to these developments.
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  2. 2
    328453
    Peer Reviewed

    A critique of the financial requirements to fight HIV/AIDS.

    Gordon JG

    Lancet. 2008 Jul 26; 372(9635):333-6.

    Funds available for HIV/AIDS programmes in low-income and middle-income countries rose from US$300 million in 1996 to $10 billion in 2007. However, a combination of worldwide economic uncertainty, a global food crisis, and publications that indicate discontent with progress in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic will not only threaten to restrict increases in the overall availability of both donor and national funds, but will also increase the competition for resources during the move towards universal access to treatment and prevention services. Thus, UNAIDS will be under increasing pressure in its presentation and justification of resources needed for HIV/AIDS programming. Here I discuss UNAIDS' 2007 estimates of resource requirements for fighting HIV/AIDS in terms of their usefulness to both donor and recipient governments for budget planning and for setting priorities for HIV/AIDS programmes. I identify weaknesses in the UNAIDS estimates in terms of financial transparency and priority setting, and recommend changes to improve budgeting and priority setting.
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  3. 3
    322953
    Peer Reviewed

    Elizabeth Mataka: UN Special Envoy for HIV / AIDS in Africa.

    Schatz JJ

    Lancet. 2007 Dec 1; 370(9602):1821.

    One Sunday morning last year, an elderly Zambian woman, four grandchildren in tow, showed up at Elizabeth Mataka's door. "I'm looking for Mrs Mataka-people said she will help me. She's the one who helps grandmothers", the woman said. She had found exactly the right person. Mataka, herself a grandmother of three, heads the Zambia National AIDS Network (ZNAN) and helps coordinate funds fl owing in from donors. And earlier this year she was elevated to the highest levels of the global response to the pandemic. In April, 61-year-old Mataka was elected Vice Chair of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The next month, she got a surprise midnight call from New York with the news that she had been chosen to replace the outgoing United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Canadian diplomat Stephen Lewis. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    319304

    An effective, well-coordinated response to HIV in Djibouti.

    El-Saharty S; Ali O

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Global HIV / AIDS Program, 2006 Jul. 7 p.

    A Grant from the World Bank provided a strong impetus to Djibouti's national HIV response in 2003. Clear objectives and priorities, effective government action and commitment, and close cooperation among the key donors and government organizations have contributed to strong results in the national response to HIV. The Global Fund cites Djibouti as a "best practice" example of donor coordination and harmonization and UNICEF recognizes the outreach to young people and community interventions as best practices. (author's)
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  5. 5
    314243

    Aid can work.

    Bourguignon F; Sundberg M

    Finance and Development. 2007 Mar; 44(1):[5] p.

    This approach is a bit like setting up a straw man only to knock it down. The aid industry unquestionably provides ample fodder for critics: many cases exist of aid funding poorly conceived, badly executed, unsustainable projects (for example, cement factories built far from sources of gypsum and sand). And some badly managed countries have, indeed, received millions, especially during the Cold War, when aid was extended for geopolitical objectives. At times, aid agencies followed fads that later proved misguided (recall the popular integrated rural development projects of the 1970s). This does not prove that all aid has been, or is, ineffective. It is entirely unsurprising that many economists have found the relationship between aggregate aid and growth to be weak. Evidence suggests a high level of heterogeneity in the effects of aid, which comes on top of the typical statistical problems that arise in cross-country analysis. Multiple markers for development success--income growth, poverty reduction, literacy, access to sanitation, and inoculations--further complicate empirical analysis. Case studies do not solve this problem because of the difficulty of establishing a counterfactual: some argue that aid has not prevented growing numbers of poor in Africa; others argue that the situation would be far worse without aid. Although these findings may make aid seem indefensible, much of the criticism is misguided. This isn't to say the impact of aid is easily known or that we can fine-tune aid to improve results. Even though it will be difficult for some time to come up with adequate evidence, there are strong grounds for believing that aid fosters development. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    312212
    Peer Reviewed

    Responding to the global HIV / AIDS crisis: A peace corps for health.

    Mullan F

    JAMA. 2007 Feb 21; 29(7):744-746.

    HIV disease is essentially the black death of the 21st century, killing on a massive scale and threatening to cripple economies and topple governments. However, the continued spread of the HIV epidemic and the new availability of lifesaving antiretroviral drugs have triggered an extraordinary response by governments, international organizations, philanthropies, pharmaceutical companies, religious organizations, and individuals. Campaigning against HIV/AIDS has no precedent in the history of medicine. Smallpox was eliminated by a globally coordinated strategy that required a single patient encounter to deliver the vaccine. In contrast, the directly observed therapy strategy at the core of modern tuberculosis treatment necessitates daily patient contact over much of the treatment course and, therefore, a much larger health workforce. Treating AIDS requires the daily delivery of medications as well as the clinical management of patients-- for the rest of their lives. Antiretroviral medications can help control disease, but do not cure it. More problematic yet, stopping treatment once started promotes the emergence of resistant strains of the virus, making halfway programs hazardous to public health. The sheer volume of health workers needed to tackle HIV disease--and the health systems to support their work--is off the scale of any previous public health campaign. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    310470
    Peer Reviewed

    South Africa's "rollout" of highly active antiretroviral therapy: A critical assessment.

    Nattrass N

    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2006 Dec; 43(5):618-623.

    The number of people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South Africa has risen from < 2000 in October 2003, to almost 200,000 by the end of 2005. Yet South Africa's performance in terms of HAART coverage is poor both in comparison with other countries and the targets set by the government's own Operational Plan. The public-sector HAART ''rollout'' has been uneven across South Africa's nine provinces and the role of external assistance from NGOs and funding agencies such as the Global Fund and PEPFAR has been substantial. The National Treasury seems to have allocated sufficient funding to the Department of Health for a larger HAART rollout, but the Health Minister has not mobilized it accordingly. Failure to invest sufficiently in human resources-- especially nurses--is likely to constrain the growth of HAART coverage. (author's)
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  8. 8
    309702

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mozambique. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Mozambique has over one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.3 million as of the end of 2003). Although Mozambique's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the region, it is higher than the sub-Saharan African region overall and recent estimates suggest that the prevalence rate may be on the rise. The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Mozambique formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) in 2000, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    309711

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zimbabwe has almost two million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.8 million as of the end of 2003), representing the third largest HIV/AIDS burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Zimbabwe is among the highest in the world, although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline. The epidemic continues to pose significant development challenges to this low-income country, which faces additional complications including drought conditions, substantial internal migration and displacement, and other factors that exacerbate the epidemic's impact. The Government of Zimbabwe established a National AIDS Coordination Programme (NACP) in 1987. In 2000, the Government formed the National AIDS Council (NAC), and is currently developing its National AIDS Strategic Framework for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    309710

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zambia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zambia has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (920,000 as of the end of 2003). Zambia's HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall and the epidemic continues to pose one of the most significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Zambia established a National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in 1986. In 2000, the Government formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) and is currently implementing its National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Implementation Plan for 2002-2005. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    309709

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Uganda. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Uganda has more than a half million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (530,000 as of the end of 2003). The country of Uganda is widely considered to be an HIV/AIDS success story, having reduced its HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) significantly over time, from one of the most severe epidemics in the 1980s, with a peak in the early-1990s, to a rate lower than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, the epidemic has already had a significant impact in Uganda, and continues to pose development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Uganda established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) in 1986, the first HIV/AIDS control program in the region. In 1992, the Government formed the Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC), and is currently operating its National Strategic Framework for 2000/2001-2005/2006. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    309708

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the United Republic of Tanzania. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The United Republic of Tanzania (mainland Tanzania and the island of Zanzibar), the largest country in East Africa, had an estimated 1.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS as of the end of 2003. Although Tanzania's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the sub-Saharan African region, it is higher than the prevalence rate of the region overall (8.8% compared to 7.5%). The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. In 1985, the National AIDS Control Programme was established to respond to the epidemic. The Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC) were created in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Tanzania is currently operating its National Multi-Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2007. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    309707

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Swaziland. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Swaziland has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (38.8% compared to 7.5%). Moreover, a recent survey suggests that HIV prevalence rates in Swaziland continue to increase. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 220,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Swaziland, or almost 4 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Swaziland, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Swaziland created the Swaziland National AIDS Programme in 1987 to respond to the epidemic and declared HIV/AIDS a national disaster in 1999. In 2001, the National Emergency Response Council on HIV and AIDS (NERCHA) was established, and the National AIDS Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2006 - 2008 is currently under development. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    309706

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in South Africa. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    South Africa has the highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (5.3 million as of the end of 2003) and is one of the countries hardest hit by the epidemic. South Africa's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is much higher than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall, and although prevalence rates have begun to stabilize, the South African Government's most recent surveillance study indicates that prevalence may still be on the rise. The epidemic has already had a profound impact on many aspects of South African society and is projected to affect the country's economic, education, and health sectors if more is not done to stem its tide. As a middle-income country of significant political and economic importance in the African continent, the future course of South Africa's HIV/AIDS epidemic will have broader implications for Africa overall. The Government of South Africa established the National AIDS Coordinating Committee of South Africa (NACOSA) in 1992 and created the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) in 2000. The country's HIV/AIDS/STD Strategic Plan for South Africa: 2000-2005 is currently being implemented. (author's)
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  15. 15
    309705

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Seychelles. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with HIV/AIDS) in Seychelles remains fairly low, and significantly lower than other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence in Seychelles was 0.2% as of the end of 2002, or less than 200 people. However, the prevalence rate has increased over time, and data indicate that HIV/AIDS may be more widespread in this middle-income country than previously thought. The Seychelles Government began its response to the epidemic shortly after the first case of HIV was diagnosed in 1987, with an initial short-term plan; the following year, an AIDS-IEC Committee was formed within the Ministry of Health. The National AIDS Council (NAC) was launched in 2002. The Government also created a National AIDS Trust Fund in 2002 to help mobilize resources and coordinate prevention and care efforts. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    309704

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Nigeria has the third highest number of people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in the world (3.6 million as of the end of 2003), after South Africa and India. Although Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low compared to some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria is considered to be a "next wave" country; that is, it stands at a critical point in its epidemic where increased prevention and treatment efforts today could help stem the tide of a much more significant epidemic in the future. As the most populous country in Africa and one of the most populous nations in the world, even a small increase in the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in this low-income country would represent a significant share of the global HIV/AIDS burden. The Government of Nigeria established the National AIDS Action Committee (NACA) in 2000 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for the 2005-2009 period. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    309703

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Namibia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Namibia has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (21.3% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were 210,000 people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in Namibia, or more than one in five adults. Although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline, the epidemic already poses significant challenges to this middle-income country, and high levels of unemployment and income disparity may further the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS. The Government of Namibia established a National AIDS Committee (NAC) in 1990 and is currently implementing the third National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS (2004-2009). (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    309701

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mauritius. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mauritius remains fairly concentrated. With fewer than one thousand people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (700 as of the end of 2001), Mauritius' HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is significantly lower than many of its neighboring countries and among the lowest in the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, there are signs of an increasing trend in HIV/AIDS cases in recent years in this middle-income country. In 1987, the Mauritius Ministry of Health and Quality of Life implemented a National AIDS Control and Prevention Programme. The Government of Mauritius also formed a National Coordinating Committee on HIV/AIDS and is currently operating under its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    309700

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Malawi. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Malawi has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (900,000 as of the end of 2003). Malawi's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is almost twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall (14.2% compared to 7.5% in 2003). The HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country, which has been exacerbated by high levels of food insecurity. In 2001, the Government of Malawi formed a National AIDS Commission (NAC), which has been led by the Minister of State Responsible for HIV/AIDS Programmes since 2003. The Government developed a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (2000-2004) to coordinate the country's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and a new framework is being developed. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    309699

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Madagascar. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 140,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Madagascar, up from 100,000 in 2001.1 Recent studies suggest that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Madagascar has begun to increase. Although Madagascar's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is still relatively low (1.7%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to its neighboring countries, there is concern that high levels of sexually transmitted infections (STI's) such as syphilis, could fuel the HIV/AIDS epidemic in this low-income country, as could other factors such as poverty and limited access to health and social services. The Government of Madagascar formed a National AIDS Committee in 2002 and is currently operating a National Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    309698

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Lesotho. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Lesotho has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world, a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall (28.9% compared to 7.5%). As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 320,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Lesotho, or almost 3 in 10 adults. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Lesotho, posing significant development challenges to this very low-income country. The Government of Lesotho formed the Lesotho AIDS Programme Coordinating Authority (LAPCA) in 2001, and is currently developing a National AIDS Strategic Plan for 2005-2008. The Government has also established a National AIDS Commission (NAC) to coordinate the country's response to the epidemic. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    309697

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Kenya. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Kenya has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.2 million as of the end of 2003). Kenya's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is just below that of the sub-Saharan African region overall (6.7% compared to 7.5%). Recent data indicate that the country's HIV prevalence rate may be on the decline in some areas. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses significant challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Kenya first established a National AIDS Control Council (NACC) in 1999, and has a National Strategic Framework for HIV/AIDS for 2005-2010. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    309696

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Ghana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    There were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana as of the end of 2003. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Ghana is still relatively low compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall, and appears to be fairly stable, but there are an increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS in this low-income country, posing challenges to both prevention and treatment efforts. The Government of Ghana created a National Advisory Commission on AIDS (NACA) in 1985 and established a National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in 1987. The Ghana AIDS Commission was inaugurated in 2000, followed by the implementation of the country's National Strategic Framework (NSF) on HIV/AIDS for 2001-2005. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    309695

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.1 million as of the end of 2003). Although the DRC's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease), is still relatively low (4.2%) compared to the sub-Saharan African region overall and to some of the region's hardest hit countries, this low-income country is in a post-conflict period and faces numerous challenges including HIV/AIDS. The Government of the DRC established a National AIDS Control Programme in 1987 and has a National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for 1999-2008. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    309694

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Botswana. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Botswana has the second highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in the world (37.3%), a much higher rate than the sub-Saharan African region overall. As of the end of 2003, there were an estimated 350,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Botswana, or more than a third of the country's adult population. The epidemic has already had a profound effect in Botswana, posing significant development challenges to this middle-income country. The Government of Botswana created a National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) in 1999, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS for 2003-2009. (excerpt)
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