Your search found 6 Results
Comparative effectiveness of congregation- versus clinic-based approach to prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: Study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Implementation Science. 2013 Jun 8; 8(62):p.Background: A total of 22 priority countries have been identified by the WHO that account for 90% of pregnant women living with HIV. Nigeria is one of only 4 countries among the 22 with an HIV testing rate for pregnant women of less than 20%. Currently, most pregnant women must access a healthcare facility (HF) to be screened and receive available prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions. Finding new approaches to increase HIV testing among pregnant women is necessary to realize the WHO/ President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) goal of eliminating new pediatric infections by 2015. Methods: This cluster randomized trial tests the comparative effectiveness of a congregation-based Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI) versus a clinic-based approach on the rates of HIV testing and PMTCT completion among a cohort of church attending pregnant women. Recruitment occurs at the level of the churches and participants (in that order), while randomization occurs only at the church level. The trial is unblinded, and the churches are informed of their randomization group. Eligible participants, pregnant women attending study churches, are recruited during prayer sessions. HBI is delivered by trained community health nurses and church-based health advisors and provides free, integrated on-site laboratory tests (HIV plus hemoglobin, malaria, hepatitis B, sickle cell gene, syphilis) during a church-organized 'baby shower.' The baby shower includes refreshments, gifts exchange, and an educational game show testing participants' knowledge of healthy pregnancy habits in addition to HIV acquisition modes, and effective PMTCT interventions. Baby receptions provide a contact point for follow-up after delivery. This approach was designed to reduce barriers to screening including knowledge, access, cost and stigma. The primary aim is to evaluate the effect of HBI on the HIV testing rate among pregnant women. The secondary aims are to evaluate the effect of HBI on the rate of HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women and the rate of PMTCT completion among HIV-infected pregnant women. Discussion: Results of this study will provide further understanding of the most effective strategies for increasing HIV testing among pregnant women in hard-to-reach communities.
SAfAIDS News. 2005 Sep; 11(3):2.Most people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) are found in severely resource-constrained settings, where the pandemic continues to grow at an alarming rate, throwing into disarray the already enormous treatment challenge. High AIDS mortality rates are mainly experienced in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in the southern Africa region. Yet recent events paint a gloomy picture regarding financial support for international remedial efforts against HIV and AIDS. There is uncertainty over continued funding of AIDS programmes in the future, forcing us to ask tough questions such as whether the aim of providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to individuals clinically qualified to receive these medicines will be feasible and whether it will be possible to retain those already on treatment in the future. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2005.349)The goal of this series of annual reports is to chart progress in global TB control and, in particular, to evaluate progress in implementing the DOTS strategy. The first targets set for global TB control were ratified in 1991 by WHO’s World Health Assembly. They are to detect 70% of new smearpositive TB cases, and to successfully treat 85% of these cases. Since these targets were not reached by the end of year 2000 as originally planned, the target year was deferred to 2005.4 In 2000, the United Nations created a new framework for monitoring progress in human development, the MDGs. Among 18 MDG targets, the eighth is to “have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases”. Although the objective is expressed in terms of incidence, the MDGs also specify that progress should be measured in terms of the reduction in TB prevalence and deaths. The target for these two indicators, based on a resolution passed at the 2000 Okinawa (Japan) summit of G8 industrialized nations, and now adopted by the Stop TB Partnership, is to halve TB prevalence and death rates (all forms of TB) between 1990 and 2015. All three measures of impact (incidence, prevalence and death rates) have been added to the two traditional measures of DOTS implementation (case detection and treatment success), so that the MDG framework includes five principal indicators of progress in TB control. All five MDG indicators will, from now on, be evaluated by WHO’s Global TB Surveillance, Planning and Financing Project. The focus is on the performance of NTPs in 22 HBCs, and in priority countries in WHO’s six regions. (excerpt)
Fighting AIDS. HIV / AIDS prevention and care among armed forces and UN peacekeepers: the case of Eritrea.
Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2003 Aug. 40 p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against AIDS. Case Study No. 1; UNAIDS/03.44E)Uniformed services, including peacekeepers, frequently rank among the population groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Military personnel are two-to-five times more likely to contract STIs than the civilian population and, during conflict, this factor can increase significantly. However, soldiers may also become important agents for behavioural change in reversing the spread of HIV within the army and beyond. If equipped with the right information, knowledge and tools, the military can achieve lower HIV prevalence rates than the national average, as can be seen from the experiences among the armed forces of Ethiopia and Uganda. HIV/AIDS poses a particular threat to peacekeeping, which is a pillar of the international security system. Conflict and post-conflict situations represent high-risk environments for the spread of HIV/AIDS. One-third of the officers and soldiers under UN command are stationed in Africa, which is home to 70% of people living with HIV. As early as 1995, the US State Department noted, “worldwide peacekeeping operations may pose a danger of spreading HIV… peacekeepers could both be a source of HIV infection to local populations and be infected by them, thus becoming a source of the infection when they return home”. For example, the HIV infection rate was 11% among Nigerian peacekeepers who returned home from duty in Sierra Leone and Liberia in 2000, when the rate in the civilian adult population in Nigeria was5%. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] . Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, Georgia.  p.HIV infection with clinical progression to AIDS appears to be among the most severe human infectious diseases documented to date. As of 1st September 1989, the cumulative total of cases of AIDS reported from 152 countries was 177,965 cases of which 30,978 (17.4%) have been reported from Africa. However, it is known that the reporting of AIDS cases from Africa is incomplete and the proportion may be higher. The AIDS situation has been recognized as a global emergency and the World Health Organization has been given the mandate to coordinate global efforts to prevent the infection and control the disease. The World Health Assembly and the United Nations General Assembly have called upon all countries to establish national AIDS prevention and control programmes in line with the Global Strategy. The WHO has developed several guidelines and strategies to assist the development of national AIDS prevention and control programmes. The Global AIDS Strategy has three objectives: (1) to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); (2) to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection; and (3) to unify national and international efforts against AIDS. (excerpt)
New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 Feb 20; 348(8):758-759.The report by Khatri and Frieden (Oct. 31 issue) on tuberculosis control in India echoes the official line of the Indian government, health policy bureaucrats, and the World Health Organization. Sadly, data collection in India cannot be taken at face value, and the accuracy of the impressive cure rates has been questioned. The 200,000 new health workers alluded to are but a small fraction of those required to take on the additional burden imposed by direct observation. This shortage constrains the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) to recommend direct observation of only 6 of the 18 continuation-phase doses, and this incomplete supervision at a time when the illness is improving and the patient is least compliant has been dismissed as only partially observed therapy. (excerpt)