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  1. 1
    303410
    Peer Reviewed

    The HIV-AIDS pandemic at 25 - the global response.

    Merson MH

    New England Journal of Medicine. 2006 Jun 8; 354(23):2414-2417.

    On June 5, 1981, when the Centers for Disease Control reported five cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in young homosexual men in Los Angeles, few suspected it heralded a pandemic of AIDS. In 1983, a retrovirus (later named the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV) was isolated from a patient with AIDS. In the 25 years since the first report, more than 65 million persons have been infected with HIV, and more than 25 million have died of AIDS. Worldwide, more than 40 percent of new infections among adults are in young people 15 to 24 years of age. Ninety-five percent of these infections and deaths have occurred in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to almost 64 percent of the estimated 38.6 million persons living with HIV infection. In this region, women represent 60 percent of those infected and 77 percent of newly infected persons 15 to 24 years of age. AIDS is now the leading cause of premature death among people 15 to 59 years of age. In the hardest-hit countries, the foundations of society, governance, and national security are eroding, stretching safety nets to the breaking point, with social and economic repercussions that will span generations. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    291371

    Prison health: a threat or an opportunity? [editorial]

    Lancet. 2005 Jul 2; 366(9479):1.

    Last week, WHO distributed to all European ministries of health one of the most important documents on prison health ever published. The report, Status Paper on Prisons, Drugs and Harm Reduction, brings together the wealth of evidence that shows that infectious disease transmission in prisons can be prevented and even reversed by simple, safe, and cheap harm-reduction strategies. Perhaps most importantly, the paper affirms WHO’s commitment to harm reduction, despite opposition from many governments who view such approaches as a tacit endorsement of illegal behaviour. The public-health case for action is strong, but political commitment to this method of combating health problems in prisons remains elusive. Indeed, health problems in prisons are numerous. Prisoners are often from the poorest sectors of society and consequently already suffer from health inequalities. Being in prison commonly exacerbates existing health problems—incarcerating anyone, especially vulnerable groups such as drug users and those with mental illness, has serious health and social consequences. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    181170

    AIDS and the military. UNAIDS point of view.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998 May. 8 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection)

    Military personnel are a population group at special risk of exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. In peace time, STD infection rates among armed forces are generally 2 to 5 times higher than in civilian populations; in time of conflict the difference can be 50 times higher or more. Paradoxically -- and fortunately -- strong traditions of organization and discipline give the military significant advantages if they move decisively against HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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