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  1. 1

    AIDS fighter. Liberia.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women [OSAGI]

    New York, New York, OSAGI, [2004]. [2] p.

    Her name is Joyce Puta, a 48-year-old Zambian army colonel on secondment to the United Nations. An unabashed fighter, her enemy for the last ten years has been HIV/AIDS. Her latest battleground is Liberia, and by all accounts she has been waging a successful campaign. Working with the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Colonel Puta points out that any environment requiring peacekeepers is also a risky one for the spread of HIV/AIDS. In post-conflict situations, social structures crumble and economies are unstable. In order to survive, desperate young women may turn to commercial sex work, often around military bases. So how did a career Zambian army officer find herself on the frontlines in the fight against HIV/AIDS? Joyce Puta joined the army at eighteen. Six years later she became a registered nurse and midwife, and then nursing services manager for Zambia's main military hospital. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    HIV / AIDS does not recognize borders.

    Choices. 2001 Dec; 1.

    As UNDP's Goodwill Ambassador to combat poverty, I am deeply aware of the link between poverty and AIDS. Poor people suffer more from disease, and HIV/ AIDS creates more poverty. Being poor is hard enough, but poverty added to a deadly disease is nothing short of a disaster for families and whole communities. Since HIV/ AIDS is found especially among the youngest and most active, the more it spreads, the more people in the prime of life must stop working and support those who depend on them. The results are devastating for low-income families. HIV/AIDS is becoming a major development problem affecting all sectors of society and, even worse, it is wiping out the progress made thus far. While it has been possible to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS in rich countries through prevention campaigns and investment in research and treatment, things have been very different in many poor countries. In the poorest countries, many have no access to information that could prevent infection, and those who are infected do not have the drugs that could give them a few more precious years to live. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Haiti battles both poverty and HIV / AIDS.

    Chantal R

    Choices. 2001 Dec; 17.

    Each passing day, one is more and more aware of the devastating scope of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and of the toll it will take on future generations in Haiti. This island nation has a population of eight million people, 70 percent of whom are poor, 50 percent illiterate and 70 percent unemployed. The combination of high rates of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment increases people's vulnerability to the AIDS virus. Haiti, the poorest country in the Americas, has the highest rate of infection of that region, and 67 percent of all the cases reported in the Caribbean. Since the advent of the epidemic in the 1980s, some 300,000 Haitians have died from it; more than 160,000 children have been orphaned, and about 260,000 currently live with the virus. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    HIV / AIDS programme strategic framework. Making the possible happen.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    [Kyiv], Ukraine, UNDP, [2004]. 11 p.

    HIV/AIDS presents the greatest challenge to human development the world has ever seen. With nearly 42 million people living with HIV/ AIDS, 20 million already dead and 15,000 new infections daily, its devastating scale and impact constitute a global emergency that is undermining social and economic development throughout the world and affecting individuals, families, communities and nations. HIV/AIDS reverses gains in human development and denies people the basic opportunities for living long, healthy, creative and productive lives. It impoverishes people and places burdens on households and communities to care for the sick and dying, while claiming the lives of people in their most productive years. HIV/AIDS also results in social exclusion and violations of human dignity and rights affecting people's psychological well-being. While the long-term consequences may not yet be visible here, Ukraine is glimpsing the enormity of the problem in its newly independent country. The number of reported cases of HIV infection in the country has increased 20 times in the past five years yielding estimates of 300,000 to 400,000 people already infected, which is approximately 1% of the adult population. The Declaration of Commitment of the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS notes "the potential exists for a rapid escalation of the epidemic". The dynamics of the spread of the epidemic can be indicative of the potential magnitude of future human development impacts, deepening over time and affecting future generations. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Death in the pot. Zambia.

    Mwale L

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2004 Jul. 13 p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)

    This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of workshops supported by UNESCO and UNFPA. The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is simultaneously a health and a social cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and medial professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessment of their potential readers. At the workshops, participants go through exercises helping them to fine-tune their sensitivity to gender issues and how these affect people's risks of HIV/AIDS. The analysis of these assessments at the workshops serves as the basis for identifying the priority issues to be addressed in the booklets. They are also exposed to principles of writing for people with limited reading skills. Each writer then works on his or her booklet with support from the group. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Shock therapy in Brazil. By combining prevention campaigns and free access to drug treatment, Brazil has successfully curbed the AIDS epidemic. [Tratamiento de shock en Brasil. La combinación de campañas de prevención con el libre acceso al tratamiento con fármacos ha permitido a Brasil frenar exitosamente la epidemia de SIDA]

    Paraguassu L

    New Courier. 2004 Oct; 46-47.

    Explosive. That was the word to describe the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. In 1992, the World Bank predicted that the number of cases would exceed one million in the year 2000. The demographic growth of Brazil, a country of nearly 170 million people, heightened fears of an epidemic comparable to that sweeping Africa. But while Brazil is one of the countries in Latin America that has been hardest hit by the disease, with more than 600,000 people living with HIV, the numbers are far below the catastrophic forecasts made 10 years ago. The country has even become a point of reference for numerous developing countries in the throes of the epidemic. The daring policy adopted by the authorities in Brasilia - based on active prevention campaigns and, since 1996, the free distribution of anti-retroviral drugs to those who are sick - has turned out to be particularly effective. Currently, 140,000 Brazilians, or nearly all of those who are aware that they have the disease, are receiving free medication. Result: the AIDS related death rate has been cut in half since 1997. And contrary to what some people feared, the widespread access to treatment has not had an adverse effect on prevention. The number of new HIV infections stood at 22,000 in 2003, down from 25,000 in the 1990s. In addition, the incidence of high-risk behavior has dropped. For example, the percentage of soldiers who use a condom when having sex with a paid partner increased from 69 percent in 1999 to 77 percent in 2002. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Close your eyes to the HIV problem today and tomorrow you'll be living in a country of old people and won't have a partner to play chess with.

    Connections. 2005 Jan; [2] p..

    What is the best way to tackle the HIV/AIDS problem in Russia when the scale of this infection's spread has passed all the bounds? What can be done when the efforts of numerous HIV-service organizations and domestic and international NGOs to implement short-term educational programs and information campaigns are not effective enough to appeal to the common sense of both those who are at risk and those who have the power to stop the virus from spreading further? Do the people of this country have eyes and, if so, what does their future look like when some 80 percent of the estimated 1.5 million HIV-positive Russians are under the age of 30 . . . when only 3,000 out of the 50,000 who are in dire need of treatment have access to it? Will this country still be a strong power if one million young people die from AIDS by 2008, as forecasted by Vadim Pokrovsky, head of the Federal AIDS Center, unless appropriate steps are done by the government to prevent it? (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    WHO launches world-wide AIDS 'awareness' campaign.

    UN Chronicle. 1987 Aug; 24:[2] p..

    The World Health Organization (WHO) on 2 June launched a global public information campaign with the theme "AIDS: A world-wide effort will stop it'. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a "global epidemic that demands a global attack', said Dr. Jonathan Mann, Director of the WHO Special Programme on AIDS." WHO's global strategy for AIDS control is to stop the spread of AIDS worldwide by striking every way the virus spreads, in every country, using every scientific and educational tool available. AIDS has created a world-wide emergency. The disease has assumed pandemic proportions affecting every continent of the world. A major priority for this campaign is to increase awareness that AIDS threatens all countries.' Since AIDS was first identified in 1981, the number of countries reporting cases of the disease has risen dramatically. As of 27 May, 51,069 AIDS cases had been reported to WHO from 112 countries. The number of reported cases, however, represented only a percentage of the total cases to date, which are estimated to be in excess of 100,000. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    A call to action. Children: the missing face of AIDS.

    UNICEF; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005. 25 p.

    The world must take urgent account of the specific impact of AIDS on children, or there will be no chance of meeting Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 6 - to halt and begin to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. Failure to meet the goal on HIV/AIDS will adversely affect the world's chances of progress on the other MDGs. The disease continues to frustrate efforts to reduce extreme poverty and hunger, to provide universal primary education, and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. World leaders, from both industrialized and developing countries, have repeatedly made commitments to step up their efforts to fight the spread of HIV/AIDS. They are beginning to increase the political leadership and the resources needed to fight the disease. Significant progress is being made in charting the past and future course of the pandemic, in providing free antiretroviral treatment to those who need it, and in expanding the coverage of prevention services. But children are still missing out. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Women: the face of AIDS in Africa.

    Fleshman M

    Africa Renewal. 2004 Oct; 18(3):[10] p..

    The need for urgency is clear. In July, UNAIDS announced that of all Africans aged 1549 who are HIV-positive, women make up a disproportionate 57 per cent. Even worse, noted UNAIDS Deputy Director Kathleen Cravero, of those in the 1524 age group, fully 75 per cent were young women. "That's a remarkable figure," she told Africa Renewal. "We're actually looking at young women becoming almost an endangered species in Africa due to this epidemic." Part of the explanation for the staggering rates, she continued, is biological. Because of their reproductive systems, women's bodies are more susceptible to infection by the human immunodeficiency virus than are men's bodies. That is particularly true of sexually active young women, whose bodies are still developing. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Massive AIDS campaign gears up.

    Fleshman M

    Africa Recovery. 2004 Apr; 18(1):[8] p..

    Almost a decade ago, the development of an effective treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS opened an ugly new gap in the global divide between rich and poor. People in wealthy countries could get the expensive new drugs, known as anti-retrovirals (ARVs), and live. For people in poor countries, there would be no drugs, only the certainty of a slow and agonizing death. And die they did, in the millions. Declaring the inability of the poor to obtain HIV/ AIDS medications "a global health emergency," the director-general of the UN's World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. Lee Jong-wook, launched a global drive to provide life-extending ARVs to 3 million people, including 2 million in Africa, by the end of 2005. It is known as the "3x5" campaign. About 6 million people worldwide currently require ARVs, which are prescribed only to those in the last stages of the disease. It is also a long-term commitment, since the drugs do not cure the disease and must continue for life. "To deliver anti-retroviral treatment to the millions who need it we must change the way we think and change the way we act," noted Dr. Lee. "Business as usual will not work. Business as usual means watching thousands of people die every single day." (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Breaking the cycle of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination.

    Seale A

    Sexual Health Exchange. 2004; (2):[5] p..

    Sex, death, prolonged illness, blood, drug use, poverty, race and ethnicity, promiscuity and homosexuality are all linked to HIV and AIDS. Not surprisingly, such a heady cocktail of judgement-laden associations can trigger strong and complex reactions, including frustration, aggression, denial and silence. HIV/AIDS – and the complex issues it represents – challenges our ability to reason, and amplifies existing inequalities, prejudices and human rights abuses. Individuals and communities already stereotyped, stigmatised and disadvantaged, are further marginalized by the fear, ignorance and intolerance generated by HIV/AIDS. "HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a real or perceived negative response to a person or persons by individuals, communities or societies. It is characterized by rejection, denial, discrediting, disregarding, underrating and social distance. It frequently leads to discrimination and violation of human rights." HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination pose a serious threat to the basic human rights for all people infected, affected or associated with the disease. The right to health care, the right to freedom of speech and movement, the right to services like housing and education, the right to confidentiality, dignity, liberty and security, and ultimately the right to life, are all threatened by stigma and discrimination. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Global action against HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination.

    Hikuam F

    Sexual Health Exchange. 2004; (2):[3] p..

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a powerful, devaluating social label that changes the way people are viewed and/or view themselves in relation with their perceived or real HIV status. It reinforces and builds on existing prejudices, and strengthens existing social inequalities – especially those of gender, sexuality and race. Due to their size, credibility and influence, international humanitarian organisations like the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies can play a key role in reducing stigma and discrimination. By forging partnerships that exploit the comparative advantages of each partner organisation, international organisations can partner with PLWHA to provide leadership in bringing the issues of stigma and discrimination to the agenda. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    3 by 5: ensuring HIV / AIDS care for all?

    ActionAid International

    Johannesburg, South Africa, ActionAid International, 2004 Jun. 11 p. (3 by 5 Discussion Paper)

    This paper addresses these concerns. Prevention, care and support: in the push to provide antiretrovirals, prevention, care and support programmes must not slip down the priority list of the world’s governments. ActionAid International calls on developing countries to demonstrate clearly in their 3 by 5 plans how ARV treatment delivery will interface with, and be balanced by, other prevention, care and support initiatives, including the promotion of good nutrition. Equity: initially, the limited supply of ARVs under 3 by 5 will be the focus of a struggle between different interest groups trying to ensure access for their client populations. ActionAid International’s past experience would suggest that men, and those that are better off or living in urban areas, will win out over women, children, marginalised groups and those living in rural areas. We call on all involved in developing 3 x 5 plans to ensure equity in access by focusing on the special needs of women, marginalised groups, poor and rural communities. Ideally, such groups should be involved in the design and implementation of care services that will be appropriate to their needs and be located close to where they live. Health systems: ActionAid International welcomes the recent emphasis given by the WHO World Health Assembly to health system strengthening as an essential component in delivery of 3 by 5. In many of the countries most affected by HIV/AIDS health systems are not working, having been undermined by World Bank/IMF structural adjustment programmes as well as attrition caused by HIV/AIDS. The rapid rebuilding of health systems is a basic requirement if 3 by 5 is to succeed. ActionAid International calls on donors to provide increased funding and support and to ensure that large-scale capacity building programmes for health service personnel are instituted without delay. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    UN urges broadcasters to air AIDS programmes. Entertainment is better than factual films for increasing awareness.

    Brown H

    Lancet. 2004 Jan 24; 363(9405):295.

    UN secretary-general Kofi Annan hosted a roundtable meeting at the UN headquarters in New York on Jan 15 to launch the Global AIDS Media Initiative—a project to help increase awareness of AIDS by use of international media. Executive representatives from over 20 broadcast media companies were invited to pledge their support and to commit airtime to entertainment programmes involving AIDS-related storylines. “As leaders of the media, you have the power and the reach to disseminate the information people need to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS”, Annan told delegates. (excerpt)
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