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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    New guidance on recommended HIV testing and counselling.

    Tarantola D; Gruskin S

    Lancet. 2007 Jul 21; 370(9583):202-203.

    After a series of meetings, open internet-based reviews, and consultations over a year, WHO and UNAIDS recently released guidance on HIV testing and counselling initiated by health providers. Those not engaged in this exercise might not fully appreciate the evolution of thinking represented by this final document, nor the role played by active debate between constituencies with diverging views on key issues. Among these issues was whether HIV testing should be included in the panoply of routine tests given in health settings on the initiative of the clinician, unless the patient specifically opted-in by asking to be tested for HIV or opted-out by refusing the test, despite not having been prompted to consent to it. Many found the ideas confusing and questioned the underlying assumption of this approach-ie, that patients who signed off on admission forms when consulting or being admitted to a care facility de-facto agree to any diagnostic test found necessary by the treating doctor. Concerns were raised that, unlike other tests, in view of prevailing stigma, discrimination, and risks of violence attached to an HIV-positive result in many settings, particularly for women, specific individual agreement to the test remained necessary. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Handbook for appropriate communication for behavior change. Information / education / communication. A cultural approach to HIV / AIDS prevention and care.

    UNESCO; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies, 2001. [54] p. (Methodological Handbooks, Special Series, Issue No. 1; HIV / AIDS Prevention and Care: a Cultural Approach)

    The Joint UNESCO/UNAIDS Project "A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care" was launched in mid-1998, in relation to the new approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care inaugurated by UNAIDS. The UNAIDS strategy emphasizes the necessity of giving priority to the multidimensional configuration of the issue and to the diversity of its environment, in order to build comprehensive and adaptable strategies and policies. In this sense, "A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care", represents a new contribution towards finding solutions to this apparently insuperable challenge. Its major methodological output aims at tailoring the content and pace of action to people's mentalities, beliefs, value systems, capacity to mobilize and, as a consequence to accordingly modify international and national strategies and policies, project design and field work. In this respect, this initiative clearly meets the principles and orientations of the Declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted by the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on HIV/AIDS (June 2001), that states the importance of emphasizing the role of cultural, family, ethical and religious factors in the prevention of the epidemic and in treatment, care and support, taking into account the particularities of each country as well as the importance of respecting all human rights and fundamental freedoms. On the basis of the research carried out to date, this handbook deals with building culturally appropriate Information/Education/Communication (IEC) material. After a conceptual introduction, it presents the methodological research to be carried out: evaluation of the current activities, understanding, sensitizing and mobilizing cultural references and resources accordingly. Then it identifies the proposed target audiences and their specific characteristics. Finally, it proposes appropriate IEC models, combining message elaboration and delivery. (excerpt)
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