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Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33,  p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
In: [Ford Foundation]. Conference on Social Science Research on Population and Development, Ford Foundation, 1974. [New York, Ford Foundation], 1975. 283-310.This paper presents a statement of research issues and questions to which USAID intends to give major program support over the next 2 or 3 years. 2 central questions needing further research are socioeconomic correlates and determinants of fertility, and the demographic impact of family planning programs. Historically USAID has been more interested in applied than in basic research and in research where fertility is the central demographic variable. Short-term rather than long-term benefits were the results. Social science research is not oriented toward the less developed countries, especially those experiencing the most rapid rates of population growth. "A Strategy for A.I.D. Support of Social Research on Determinants of Fertility," is an attachment to the paper and outlines abstract issues and the partiuclar circumstances of each country where they may be applied in terms of a research strategy. A hierarchy of questions is presented. The first question asks how, holding all other variables constant, much of the observed variation in fertility can be dirctly attributed to family planning programs and how much can be attributed to variables other than family planning. Many writings suggest that 1 of the most powerful determinants of societal fertility is income. Other writings claim that changes in individual perceptions of the future accompanying modernization are more important factors in family planning decisions.