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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. vi, 123 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 167)The World Bank has complied a report of 7 case studies of successful tropical disease control programs. In Brazil, the Superintendency for Public Health Campaigns plans and implements tropical disease control programs (malaria, yellow fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, plague, and Chagas disease) based on previous campaign results. China operates a large and complex schistosomiasis control program which has a different task and strategy for each of the 3 targeted regions: the plans, hills and mountains, and marshlands and lakes. Egypt manages a schistosomiasis control program which protects 18 million people in 12 governates from the disease at a cost ofAdd to my documents.2070620
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. x, 51 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 159)A World Bank report outlines the results of an empirical study. It lists institutional characteristics connected with successful tropical disease control programs, describes their importance, and extracts useful lessons for disease control specialists and managers. The study covers and compares 7 successful tropical disease control programs: the endemic disease program in Brazil; schistosomiasis control programs in China, Egypt, and Zimbabwe; and the malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis programs in the Philippines. All of these successful programs, as defined by reaching goals over a 10-15 year period, are technology driven. Specifically they establish a relevant technological strategy and package, and use operational research to appropriately adapt it to local conditions. Further they are campaign oriented. The 7 programs steer all features of organization and management to applying technology in the field. Moreover groups of expert staff, rather than administrators, have the authority to decide on technical matters. These programs operate both vertically and horizontally. Further when it comes to planning strategy they are centralized, but when it comes to actual operations and tasks, they are decentralized. Besides they match themselves to the task and not the task to the organization. Successful disease control programs have a realistic idea of what extension activities, e.g., surveillance and health education, is possible in the field. In addition, they work with households rather than the community. All employees are well trained. Program managers use informal and professional means to motivate then which makes the programs productive. The organizational structure of these programs mixes standardization of technical procedures with flexibility in applying rules and regulations, nonmonetary rewards to encourage experience based use of technological packages, a strong sense of public service, and a strong commitment to personal and professional development.