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In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 311-329.The world has witnessed a remarkable surge in the women's movement that has put forward over the last two decades a bold vision of social transformation and challenged the global community to respond. This article reviews the response of one set of key players: the international donor agencies dealing with women's development issues. It focuses on the actions of four donors, two bilateral (Norway and Canada) and two multilateral (the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program) and attempts to assess their performance in the last twenty years in broad strokes. It asks three basic sets of questions. First, what were the articulated objectives of their special policies and measures to promote women's advancement? Were they responsive to the aspiration of the women's movement? Second, did the donors adopt any identifiable set of strategies to realize the policy objectives? Were they effective? And finally, what were the results? Was there any quantitative and qualitative evidence to suggest progress? The two bilateral donors--Canada and Norway--were selected because they have a reputation among donors of mounting major initiatives for women. They number among the few agencies who adopted detailed women-in-development (WID) or gender-and-development (GAD) policies. In contrast, the two multilateral donors--United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank---were chosen not on the strength of their WlD/GAD mandates and policies, but because of the influence they wield in shaping the development strategies of the countries of the South. The World Bank through its conditionalities often dictates policy reforms to aid-recipient governments. The UNDP, as the largest fund, has a big presence within the United Nations system. The actions of these two agencies-- what they advocate and what they omit or marginalize--have a strong impact on the policy analysis and investments of the aid-recipient countries. The study is primarily based on published and unpublished data collected from the four donor agencies. (excerpt)
Dhaka, Bangladesh, ICDDR,B, 1991. , 99 p.This publication reports on the 1990 activities of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B). a non- profit organization that promotes and conducts research, education, training, and clinical service on diarrheal diseased and related subjects. headquartered in Dhaka, ICDDR,B operates through funding from donor nations and international aid organizations. The Center contains 4 scientific divisions: Population Science and Extension, Clinical Services, Community Health, and Laboratory Sciences. In the introductory section of the report, the director of the Center, Dr. Demissie Habte, discusses the Center's efforts to confront budgetary and staffing concerns. During 1990, the Center reduced the number of redundant staff and was able to fill some key positions that had been previously vacant. The Center also succeeded in avoiding a potentially large deficit, partly a result of the streamlining of staff and austerity measures. The director also reports that while research output remained at the same level as in the past few years, some major initiatives in research and service delivery took place, including the introduction of a microcomputer-based health and family planning management information and research system in Matlab. Furthermore, construction on the Matlab Health and Research Center was completed in February 1990. The bulk of the report describes following research: 1) watery and persistent diarrhea, and dysentery research; 2) diarrhea- related research -- urban, population, environmental, and family planning and maternal and child health studies; and 3) health care research. The report also discusses the accomplishments in the areas of support services, training and staff development.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL. 1988 Jan; 23(1):55-7.The local associations of Maisons Familiales (MF) in Senegal periodically conduct participatory evaluations of community projects. 2 evaluations often used include internal exercises by and for the staff, such as a written questionnaire, and an assisted self evaluation. An assisted self evaluation often involves participant subgroups discussing problems and possible solutions with each subgroup later sharing items with a national and/or a foreign evaluation facilitator. The facilitator(s) meets with all the subgroups and brings out important issues in the subgroups, then all the subgroups discuss the issues and form a consensus on what actions should be taken. The training staff at an MF center thought the program was fine based on what a few people said, but, after looking at statistics on the number of trainees over a couple of years, the staff learned that the numbers have declined. The staff then discussed the situation and learned that a barrier had developed between the training staff and villagers. As in any evaluation, one must distinguish between the subjective view (what people say) and objective reality (the actual situation using data). In another type of self evaluation, a group discussed dynamism in a village and came up with 4 different points of view. After visiting a "dynamic" and a "nondynamic" village using the 4 points as measurements, the group learned that its previous impressions of the 2 villages were not completely borne out. This evaluation helped the staff to see villagers' priorities and to listen better. Despite wanting to conduct a real impact evaluation, workers have not yet done so because they do not have time to schedule evaluations, do not have enough base line data, and do not know how to account for influences on changes in the villages other than the MF training programs.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1988 Jun; 26(2):133-46.International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory mechanism consists basically of a dialogue between the ILO and the Government that is responsible for a law, regulation, or practice alleged to be in contravention of principles it voluntarily accepted. The control machinery is often set in motion by workers' organizations. The UN General Assembly is currently elaborating a new instrument designed to cover both regular and irregular migrant workers and their families.
[Institutions of youth promotion and services in La Paz, Bolivia: an analytical-descriptive study] Las instituciones de promocion y servicio a la juventud en La Paz, Bolivia. Un estudio analitico-descriptivo.
La Paz, Bolivia, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, . 104 p. (Estudios de Recursos Humanos No. 8)This work presents the results of an evaluation of 30 institutions in La Paz, Bolivia, which offer recreational, nonformal educational, training, and sports programs to young people. The 1st chapter provides theoretical background on the psychological, social, and sexual problems and tasks of adolescents in modern societies. The 2nd chapter briefly discusses the roles of the family, friendships, and organizations in the development of adolescents, and briefly describes the goals, programs, and financing of 17 of the 20 organizations studied. 21 of the 30 had formal legal status. 16 of the organizations were public and 13 were private. 7 were national in scope and 15 had international ties. 2 were for women only, 23 were for both sexes, and 5 included children. The primary program objectives were educational in 11 cases, cultural in 8, and sports and religious in 5 cases each. 24 of the organizations reported that they fulfilled their objectives and 5 that they possibly did so. 9 of the organizations had vertical patterns of authority, 16 had horizontal, and 5 had other types. 26 reported that their personnel were qualified. 21 were financed by member contributions, 5 by donations, and 1 by parental contributions. 21 reported that attendance was normal and 5 that there was little participation or interest among members. None of the organizations provided more than very superficial sex education programs, although 26 organizations indicated their belief that sex education is important. 12 of the organizations had professionals on their staffs and 17 had volunteers only. 19 reported they had sufficient manpower and 2 that they did not. The material resources of the organizations were scarce; only 6 had their own meeting places. 15 relied on financing by members, 8 had governmental help or received donations from nonmembers, and 4 had international assistance.
PEOPLE. 1987; 14(2):33.3 agencies in Turkey are placing family planning centers in factory settings: the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT), the Confederation of Trade Unions (TURK-IS), and the Family Health and Planning Foundation, a consortium of industrialists. The FPAT started with 27 factories 7 years ago, educating and serving 35,000 workers. The 1st work with management, then train health professionals in family planning, immunization, infant and child care, maternal health, education, motivation techniques, record-keeping and follow-up. Worker education is then begun in groups of 50. New sites are covered on a 1st-come-1st-served basis. This program is expected to be successful because newcomers to city jobs are beginning to see the need for smaller families, and accept family planning. TURK-IS has conducted seminars for trade union leaders and workers' representatives and provided contraceptives in 4 family planning clinics and in 20 hospitals run by Social Security, a workers' health organization. They have distributed condoms in factories and trained nurses to insert IUDs in factory units. The businessmen have opened family planning services in 15 factories, with support from the Pathfinder Fund, and hope to make the project self-supporting.
In: Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care, edited by Ronald G. Wilson, Barbara E. Echols, John H. Bryant, and Alexandre Abrantes. Geneva, Switzerland, Aga Khan Foundation, 1988. 17-20.A wide array of issues must be addressed if the development and use of management information system (MIS) and microcomputers are to improve management of primary health care (PHC) programs and increase the equity and cost-effectiveness of PHC. These issues include: specification of the purpose and objectives of MIS at community and district levels; distinquishing types of information required; the understanding of organizational issues that must be resolved as a result of introducing MIS; the practical definition of the most useful indicators of program effectiveness and efficiency; the specification and monitoring of data collection, compilation, and analysis requirements and procedures; procedures for generating and using processed MIS data and management information; the PHC program's capacity to absorb technological innovations; and personnel requirements. The need for improved data systems must be recognized. Data quality and systematic flow of information must be ensured from the field level upwards, and minimum information requirements need to be defined. The success of any MIS is heavily dependent on feedback of the data collected. Unless staff at all levels of a PHC program understand the importance of the data they are collecting, the value and use of the information system will be negligible. Examples of the Egyptian government's National Health Information System and the role of the World Bank are used to show how MIS and microcomputer can be introduced and used in PHC.
POPULI. 1987; 14(4):4-14.Field operations are the cutting edge of population activities of the UNFPA. It is there that services are provided; policies are tested in the crucible of reality, and progress measured. Aware that these were uncharted waters, the Fund leadership initiated a bold but carefully studied move. It was designed to move from research, dissemination and broad policy prescription into field programs to assist individual governments to convert knowledge to action-oriented policies to be implemented through practical projects that would reach all segments of society. UNFPA developed a series of committees which manage the program, set major policies, approve projects and control the finances of the program under the guidance of the UNDP Governing Council. This article summarizes how these committees operate in relation the evolution of the field program, interaction with other governments, and the monitoring and evaluation of the programs. While the field management system has generated some remarkable developments considering the complexity of the population issue, field staff have identified some of the critical issues concerned with evolving new program approaches.
General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Dec. iv, 41 p.4 maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects were evaluated by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the Southern Africa Region between 1981-1984. The projects were in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. An overriding finding at the time of the Evaluation Missions was the acceptance of family planning (child spacing) by all 4 governments, when at the onset of the projects, family planning was either not included in the project documents or was included only as a minor contributant to the MCH programs. The intervention by UNFPA was very important for the acceptance and promotion of family planning activities by the governments. The Evaluation Missions concluded that there were 3 primary reasons for the successful intervention: UNFPA has a broad mandate to provide assistance in MCH and FP, a commitment to development projects in line with the governments' priorities, and the ability to fund projects very quickly, facilitating project implementation. Each of the 4 projects is assessed in terms of population policy changes, MCH/FP program strategy and serive delivery, organization of the MCH/Fp unit, health education, training, evaluation and research systems, and administration and management. Essential factors affecting the project are outlined and recommendations made. The last section discusses general lessons derived from the MCH/FP projects evaluated. 5 areas are identified where similar problems exist to varying degrees in all the projects evaluated. These are: training of medical personnel in FP (the main MCH/FP service provider in these projects was the nurse/midwife); supervision of personnel and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation, especially regarding the sociocultural setting of target populations and the inadequacy of existing service statistics and other sources of data; project monitoring (technical and financial) and finally project execution by the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically in regard to the recruitment of experts, the provision of supplies and equipment, and the provision of funds for local costs, WHO execution has been deficient.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the Sudan population and housing census of 1983: project SUD/79/P01.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1985 Mar. xi, 40 p.Since the evaluation report of the 1973 Census of Sudan made recommendations on how to improve census implementation for the 1980 round, UNFPA felt it to be important to see if the 1983 census took them into account and if it achieved better results. The project document included 3 objectives concerning data collection and analysis: the availability of accurate and up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan, on the components of population growth, and on demographic, social and economic characteristics; and 2 objectives concerning institution building: the availability of trained statistical personnel and the strengthening of data processing facilities. 2 of the 5 objectives have been achieved--up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan and for all recognized civil sub-divisions is available and a new computer facility with adequate capacity and configuration has been installed and is in operation. The caliber of staff in the census office is high, and the training program overall was adequate. The census communication campaign emphasized the use of mass media. Overall, the publicity for the census was considered by the Mission to have been good. Although the enumeration took longer than scheduled in some areas, the observance of the enumeration timetable can be considered satisfactory. Data preparation and electronic processing have been severely delayed due to the low productivity of the computer staff. The strong points of the project were the high priority given to the census by the government; the better planning for the 1983 census as compared with the 1973 census; and the high quality of technical assistance provided by UN advisors. Weak points have been the lack of long-term resident advisors in general census organization, cartography and data analysis; the delay in the provision of government and UNFPA inputs; and the loss of trained personnel from the Department of Statistics, particularly in data processing.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the civil registration demonstration project in Kenya: project KEN/79/P04.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xi, 36 p.Kenya established a compulsory vital statistics and civil registration system in 1963 and it was extended nationwide in phases until it covered the whole country by 1971. Serious under-registration of births and deaths however, has persisted. In order to improve registration coverage, the government submitted a proposal to UNFPA to support experimentation with ways to promote registration in some model areas. The original project document included 4 immediate objectives: the strengthening of the civil registration system in the model areas including the creation of a new organizational structure, the training of project personnel and the decentralization of registration activities; the improvement of methods and procedures of registration through experimentation; the collection of reliable vital statistics in the model areas; and, the establishment of a public awareness program on the need for civil registration to ensure the continuation and extension of the new system. Of the 4 objectives of the project, 2 have been achieved--the strengthening of civil registration in the model areas and the improvement of methods and procedures of registration. The major deficiency during the project period was the lack of required staff in the field. The primary feature which distinguishes the project is that traditional birth attendants and village elders become key persons at the village level and act as registration informants after receiving training. The strong points of the project are the high quality of technical assistance provided by the executing agency, the close collaboration among various government departments, and the choice of project strategy and model area. Recommendations have been made to correct the problems of a lack of key personnel at the head office and in the field, and the expansion of registration to new areas before consolidation was completed in the old areas.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the family health programme of Zambia: project ZAM/74/PO2 (February - March 1984).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Sep. x, 38,  p.The objective of the Family Health Program of Zambia is to enhance the health and welfare of Zambians, particularly mothers and children, through an increase in coverage of the population served through under-5s clinics, pre- and post-natal services and child spacing activities. The Mission found that the strong points of the project are the increasing commitment of the Government to incorporate family planning activities as an essential component of its family health and primary health care programs; the training and health education components of the program; and the enthusiasm and ability of the Zambian Enrolled Nurse/Midwives in organizing maternal child health/family planning services at service delivery points. Factors which appear to have hindered a more effective project performance have been the restriction on prescribing contraceptives by anyone but physicians; the imbalance in implementation among the project components; the failure to appoint international and national staff to key positions and with a timing that would have enabled staff members to support each other as members of a coordinated team; weak supervision; no research and evaluation activities; transport problems; the lack of use of, and updating of, the project plans; and the absence of a tripartite review early in the project's life to address implementation problems.
[Unpublished] 1984. v, 37,  p.This is an evaluation of the Rural Health Systems Project funded in 1979 through a contract between AID, the Rural Health Development Staff of the University of Hawaii and the government of Guyana. The goal of the project is to improve and expand primary care services to rural areas of Guyana through training community health workers and medexes, and utilizing them in an interlocking, tiered, supervisory and referral structure. The evaluation team was to assess the adequacy and relevancy of medex training; the performance of graduates, the adequacy of support and management systems for medexes, and the ability and commitment to continue the training by the government of Guyana. The evluation team visited a large number of health facilities staffed by medexes, interviewed key persons in the Ministry of Health, AID, and the Health Manpower Developement Staff of the University of Hawaii. The team's findings show that the Medex Training Program is of high quality. Medex are working effectively in medically underserved areas; progress is being made in financial information, 2-way radio and supply systems, this despite severe economic difficulties. The development of transportation systems has been extremely slow and difficult and contracts for building housing have not been completed. The team offers a number of recommendations which include the continuation of the Medex Training Program in order to maintain a steady supply of trained personnel; the need to develop a comprehensive career structure and professional incentive program; the regionalization of the expanded 2-way radio system as a continuing education medium; the immediate implementation and careful monitoring of the new financial managements information system; and the necessity for further action to improve the transportation systems. Furthermore, the team's recommendations emphasize that AID expedite its approval of documents necessary for housing contracts to be negotiated; that responsibility for supervisory medexes in rural health centers be gradually transferred to the regional health teams and that Medex headquarters and training staff be more closely integrated. The report includes various appendices: a map of the country, a list of persons interviewed by the team; training and education manuals for diabetes; samples of the system for teaching essentials to medex (e.g., clinical practice, history taking and physical examination) and the declaration of Alma Ata on primary health care.
Journal of Population and Health Studies. 1981 Dec; 1(1):135-78.This paper concentrates on the management development aspects of the Korean family planning program which began in 1962. Population growth rate in Korea went from 2.9% in 1962 to 2% in 1971, and total fertility rate declined 57% from 1960 to 1979. Program cost during 1962-80 totaled $147.7 million, of which 81.2% came from the national government. It has been calculated that between 1962-80 about 3.5 million births were averted. In December 1980 the program employed a total of 3811 full time employees in 4 different organizations; currently the coverage is about 1 family planning worker for every 4200 urban couples, and for every 1200 rural couples. Major methods of birth control used the IUD, the condom, the pill, female sterilization, male sterilization, and menstrual regulation. A total of 1.107 million acceptors received services between 1962-80. Responsibility for the national program rests with the Ministry of Health and with the Economic Planning Board. If it is reasonable to say that the program has been successful, there are still problems to be solved which include: 1) an inadequate approach to contraceptive services in rural areas, 2) a high discontinuation rate of contraceptive usage, 3) high turnover of fieldworkers, 4) poor coordination with other health programs, 5) poor quality of research, and 6) weak management training. Improvements in program management functions include program planning, better distribution of economic resources, better training and use of personnel, and better use of private clinics and mobile vans. Also necessary are interministerial and interagency coordination, improvements in the record reporting system, and better program evaluation. The current management system is making efforts to integrate family planning services with maternal and child health and expand the role of international agencies in training courses and research investment.
In: [Ford Foundation]. Conference on Social Science Research on Population and Development, Ford Foundation, 1974. [New York, Ford Foundation], 1975. 283-310.This paper presents a statement of research issues and questions to which USAID intends to give major program support over the next 2 or 3 years. 2 central questions needing further research are socioeconomic correlates and determinants of fertility, and the demographic impact of family planning programs. Historically USAID has been more interested in applied than in basic research and in research where fertility is the central demographic variable. Short-term rather than long-term benefits were the results. Social science research is not oriented toward the less developed countries, especially those experiencing the most rapid rates of population growth. "A Strategy for A.I.D. Support of Social Research on Determinants of Fertility," is an attachment to the paper and outlines abstract issues and the partiuclar circumstances of each country where they may be applied in terms of a research strategy. A hierarchy of questions is presented. The first question asks how, holding all other variables constant, much of the observed variation in fertility can be dirctly attributed to family planning programs and how much can be attributed to variables other than family planning. Many writings suggest that 1 of the most powerful determinants of societal fertility is income. Other writings claim that changes in individual perceptions of the future accompanying modernization are more important factors in family planning decisions.
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 1983; 19(3):307-17.Applied behavioral science is both relevant and responsible to Third World development, but so far, these qualities have neither been recognized nor acted upon. This relevancy and responsibility lie in 3 basic areas that could significantly contribute to development programs and that have numerous implications for the ABS field: the training of trainers, organization design and development, and development strategies. In programs that generally last 4 weeks, officers were trained in a wide variety of practice theories and skills. Basic communication skills--active listening, paraphrasing, giving and receiving feedback have formed the foundation of these programs. An effective linkage between development programs and the community requires that the development worker not only transfer cognitive material but also work with farmers in developing skills and in exploring attitudes and values. The area of organizational design relates specifically to the professional and experience of ABS practitioners. Third World countries need to design development organizations that do not depend upon such external influences as donor agencies; to design organizations connected to the constituent culture, history, and traditions; and to design organizations that focus on problems. As a field, ABS exercises little influence on development in the Third World. In order to further its influence, development strategies should include exchanges between ABS professionals. Third World practitioners, for example, need support in building in-country capabilities. With an ABS exchange network, they may look to their colleagues in the industrialized countries for such support, and in turn, they may offer ABS practitioners in industrialized countries opportunities for involvement in development in Third World countries.
Evaluation of the regional advisory services in population education and communication in Sub-Saharan Africa of FAO, the ILO and UNESCO, 1978-1982.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Jun. iv, 64 p.This evaluation was conducted to assess alternative modes of providing regional population education and communication (PEC) advisory services in the African Region in the future, in addition to assessing past performance of existing projects. In the absence of specific and measurable project objectives, as well as uniform, reliable and comparative data for the different projects included in this evaluation, it was not possible to determine exactly the quantity and quality of the achievements of the regional advisory projects over the period under review. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the achivements had been relatively limited, partially because of inherent difficulties associated with the provision of advisory services in the region (e.g., distances, inter-and intra-country communication problems) but more so because of weaknesses in the formulation and implementation of the regional advisory projects. These weaknesses include: 1) differing views on the part of the Executing Agencies and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) about the functions of the regional advisors which underlie the rather vaguely defined functions presented in the project documents; 2) insufficient planning of the regional advisory teams' activities; and 3) recruitment difficulties which led to vacancies and high turnover as well as to the hiring of partially qualified advisors. Furthermore, the present arrangement for the delivery of regional PEC advisory services, e.g., separate agency teams and advisors located in different countries, impedes the effective delivery of services because the advisors under this arrangement cannot function as 1 team. It is recommended that the functions of the regional PEC advisors in Africa be concentrated on assistance to country project formulation, advice on country project management and systemenatic particiaption in country project monitoring and evaluation. Recommended regional PEC advisory services are 1 team for PEC in the non-formal sector and another team for population education in the formal sector. Other recommendations deal with the role of Headquarters vis a vis regional follow-up and monitoring/supervision of regional advisors, other in-country activites and need for resident country advisors.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1982 Dec. xi, 44,  p. (Project SWA/75/P01)The long range objective of this project (1976-1981) was to improve and enhance the health and welfare of mothers and children, especially in rural areas. In assessing Project achievements and the degree to which progress toward the long term objective has been accomplished, the Evaluation Mission found that the immediate objectives had, to a large degree, been met within the general framework of the Ministry of Health's (MOH) development program. Service delivery points in governmental, mission private and industrial/plantation health facilities are now widely distributed throughout Swaziland. The integration of preventive and curative is clearly in place in the rural health clinics and health centers. Analysis of service statistics data indicates that a large % of pregnant women attend antenatal clinics. Family planning services are now offered in 86 clinics with 27,094 clinic attendances recorded for 1981. The pill is the most popular method, followed by condoms, injectables and IUDs. An adequate though incipient health education program is functioning. The MOH strengthened the health infrastructure for, and has in place a program of, maternal child health (MCH) and family planning (FP). The strong points of the program are the government's commitment to MCH/FP, the general strategy, the training component, the number and quality of staff involved in service delivery, the number of service delivery points and the system of recruitment and the employment of Rural Health Motivators (RHM). Weak points, which appear to have hindered a more effective program performance, are planning and management, the lack of solid socio-anthropological knowledge to base, the lack of a focal point for FP, supervision at all levels and the lack of monitoring and evaluation which, if properly undertaken, could have led to changes and adjustments in the program. Future activities supported by the United Nations Fund for Population in the organization and management of family planning activities within the MCH program and within other government and voluntary organizations. UNFPA should help the government prepare a new proposal for UNFPA assistance to family planning activities in the country and should consider supporting supervision and training activities.