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In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 311-329.The world has witnessed a remarkable surge in the women's movement that has put forward over the last two decades a bold vision of social transformation and challenged the global community to respond. This article reviews the response of one set of key players: the international donor agencies dealing with women's development issues. It focuses on the actions of four donors, two bilateral (Norway and Canada) and two multilateral (the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program) and attempts to assess their performance in the last twenty years in broad strokes. It asks three basic sets of questions. First, what were the articulated objectives of their special policies and measures to promote women's advancement? Were they responsive to the aspiration of the women's movement? Second, did the donors adopt any identifiable set of strategies to realize the policy objectives? Were they effective? And finally, what were the results? Was there any quantitative and qualitative evidence to suggest progress? The two bilateral donors--Canada and Norway--were selected because they have a reputation among donors of mounting major initiatives for women. They number among the few agencies who adopted detailed women-in-development (WID) or gender-and-development (GAD) policies. In contrast, the two multilateral donors--United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank---were chosen not on the strength of their WlD/GAD mandates and policies, but because of the influence they wield in shaping the development strategies of the countries of the South. The World Bank through its conditionalities often dictates policy reforms to aid-recipient governments. The UNDP, as the largest fund, has a big presence within the United Nations system. The actions of these two agencies-- what they advocate and what they omit or marginalize--have a strong impact on the policy analysis and investments of the aid-recipient countries. The study is primarily based on published and unpublished data collected from the four donor agencies. (excerpt)
Belize City, Belize, Ministry of Health, 1984. , 54 p. (EPI/84/003)An evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Belize was conducted by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization at the request of the country's Ministry of Health. The evaluation was undertaken to identify obstacles to program implementation, and subsequently provide national managers and decision makers with viable potential solutions. General background information is provided on Belize, with specific mention made of demographic, ethnic, and linguistic characteristics, the health system, and the EPI program in the country. EPI evaluation methodology and vaccination coverage are presented, followed by detailed examination of study findings and recommendations. Achievements, problems, and recommendations are listed for the areas of planning and organizations, management and administration, training, supervision, resources, logistics and the cold chain, delivery strategies, the information and surveillance system, and promotion and community participation. A 23-page chronogram of recommended activities follows, with the report concluding in acknowledgements and annexes.
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 1983; 19(3):307-17.Applied behavioral science is both relevant and responsible to Third World development, but so far, these qualities have neither been recognized nor acted upon. This relevancy and responsibility lie in 3 basic areas that could significantly contribute to development programs and that have numerous implications for the ABS field: the training of trainers, organization design and development, and development strategies. In programs that generally last 4 weeks, officers were trained in a wide variety of practice theories and skills. Basic communication skills--active listening, paraphrasing, giving and receiving feedback have formed the foundation of these programs. An effective linkage between development programs and the community requires that the development worker not only transfer cognitive material but also work with farmers in developing skills and in exploring attitudes and values. The area of organizational design relates specifically to the professional and experience of ABS practitioners. Third World countries need to design development organizations that do not depend upon such external influences as donor agencies; to design organizations connected to the constituent culture, history, and traditions; and to design organizations that focus on problems. As a field, ABS exercises little influence on development in the Third World. In order to further its influence, development strategies should include exchanges between ABS professionals. Third World practitioners, for example, need support in building in-country capabilities. With an ABS exchange network, they may look to their colleagues in the industrialized countries for such support, and in turn, they may offer ABS practitioners in industrialized countries opportunities for involvement in development in Third World countries.