Your search found 38 Results

  1. 1
    377652

    WHO guideline on health policy and system support to optimize community health worker programmes.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 116 p.

    The guideline uses state-of-the-art evidence to identify effective policy options to strengthen community health worker (CHW) programme performance through their proper integration in health systems and communities. The development of this guideline followed the standardized WHO approach. This entailed a critical analysis of the available evidence, including 16 systematic reviews of the evidence, a stakeholder perception survey to assess feasibility and acceptability of the policy options under consideration, and the deliberations of a Guideline Development Group which comprised representation from policy makers and planners from Member States, experts, labour unions, professional associations and CHWs. Critical to the success of these efforts will be ensuring appropriate labour conditions and opportunities for professional development, as well as creating a health ecosystem in which workers at different levels collaborate to meet health needs. Adapted to context, the guideline is a tool that supports optimizing health policies and systems to achieve significant gains to meet the ambition of universal access to primary health care services.
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  2. 2
    389374

    Introducing an accountability framework for polio eradication in Ethiopia: results from the first year of implementation 2014-2015.

    Kassahun A; Braka F; Gallagher K; Gebriel AW; Nsubuga P; M'pele-Kilebou P

    Pan African Medical Journal. 2017; 27(Suppl 2):12.

    INTRODUCTION: the World Health Organization (WHO), Ethiopia country office, introduced an accountability framework into its Polio Eradication Program in 2014 with the aim of improving the program's performance. Our study aims to evaluate staff performance and key program indicators following the introduction of the accountability framework. METHODS: the impact of the WHO accountability framework was reviewed after its first year of implementation from June 2014 to June 2015. We analyzed selected program and staff performance indicators associated with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance from a database available at WHO. Data on managerial actions taken were also reviewed. Performance of a total of 38 staff was evaluated during our review. RESULTS: our review of results for the first four quarters of implementation of the polio eradication accountability framework showed improvement both at the program and individual level when compared with the previous year. Managerial actions taken during the study period based on the results from the monitoring tool included eleven written acknowledgments, six discussions regarding performance improvement, six rotations of staff, four written first-warning letters and nine non-renewal of contracts. CONCLUSION: the introduction of the accountability framework resulted in improvement in staff performance and overall program indicators for AFP surveillance.
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  3. 3
    362679
    Peer Reviewed

    Completion of the modified World Health Organization (WHO) partograph during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Yisma E; Dessalegn B; Astatkie A; Fesseha N

    Reproductive Health. 2013; 10:23.

    BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using the partograph to follow labour and delivery, with the objective to improve health care and reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and death. The partograph consists of a graphic representation of labour and is an excellent visual resource to analyze cervix, uterine contraction and foetal presentation in relation to time. However, poor utilization of the partograph was found in the public health institutions which reflect poor monitoring of mothers in labour and/or poor pregnancy outcome. METHODS: A retrospective document review was undertaken to assess the completion of the modified WHO partograph during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 420 of the modified WHO partographs used to monitor mothers in labour from five public health institutions that provide maternity care were reviewed. A structured checklist was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Frequency distributions, cross-tabulations and a graph were used to describe the results of the study. RESULTS: All facilities were using the modified WHO partograph. The correct completion of the partograph was very low. From 420 partographs reviewed across all the five health facilities, foetal heart rate was recorded into the recommended standard in 129(30.7%) of the partographs, while 138 (32.9%) of cervical dilatation and 87 (20.70%) of uterine contractions were recorded to the recommended standard. The study did not document descent of the presenting part in 353 (84%). Moulding in 364 (86.7%) of the partographs reviewed was not recorded. Documentation of state of the liquor was 113(26.9%), while the maternal blood pressure was recorded to standard only in 78(18.6%) of the partographs reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a poor completion of the modified WHO partographs during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings may reflect poor management of labour or simply inappropriate completion of the instrument and indicate the need for pre-service and periodic on-job training of health workers on the proper completion of the partograph. Regular supportive supervision, provision of guidelines and mandatory health facility policy are also needed in support of a collaborative effort to reduce maternal and perinatal deaths.
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  4. 4
    303296

    Employers' handbook on HIV / AIDS: a guide for action.

    International Organisation of Employers; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 May. 39 p. (UNAIDS/02.17E)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a global crisis affecting all levels of society. Increasingly affected is the business world, which is suffering not only from the human cost to the workforce but also in terms of losses in profits and productivity that result in many new challenges for both employers and employees. Across the world, AIDS is having a direct and indirect impact on business. In southern Africa, for example, it is estimated that more than 20% of the economically active population in the 15--49-year-old age group are infected with HIV. In the workplace, employers are experiencing reduced productivity as a result of employee absenteeism and death. Consequently, employers are being challenged to manage the impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace, which includes dealing with issues of stigma and discrimination, changing requirements for health-care benefits, training of replacement staff, and loss of skills and knowledge among employees. One of the missions of the International Organisation of Employers (IOE) is to facilitate the transfer of information and experience to employers' organizations in the social and labour fields. It is hoped that this Handbook will serve as a guide to employers' organizations and their members in their endeavours to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on their companies and business environments. The Handbook outlines a framework for action by both employers' organizations and their members, providing examples of innovative responses to the pandemic by their counterparts in other parts of the world. Constructive and proactive responses to HIV in the workplace can lead to good industrial relations and uninterrupted production. The Handbook was elaborated with information provided by IOE members, sectoral associations and individual companies, as listed on the inside cover. Without the extra effort that they made to document initiatives in their countries and companies, this Handbook would not have been possible. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    303294

    AIDS and HIV infection: information for United Nations employees and their families. Revised.

    Mikulencak M

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2000 Apr. [46] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material)

    This booklet is a straightforward and practical resource, designed to give you and your families the most up-to-date information available on HIV and AIDS, such as: basic facts about HIV/AIDS, how it is transmitted and how it is not transmitted; ways to protect yourselves and your families against infection; advice on HIV antibody testing and how to cope with the disease if you or a family member test positive; a global overview of the epidemic and the UN's response to AIDS at international and country levels; and a list of valuable resources to direct you and your family to additional information or support services. This booklet also contains the United Nations HIV/AIDS Personnel Policy. It is important that each of us be aware of the policy and be guided by it in our daily lives. I urge you to seek out additional information and to stay informed. The United Nations Staff Counsellors and the United Nations Medical Directors, both part of the Office of Human Resource Management, are available to answer your questions. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    186765

    Mainstreaming women in development: four agency approaches.

    Jahan R

    In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 311-329.

    The world has witnessed a remarkable surge in the women's movement that has put forward over the last two decades a bold vision of social transformation and challenged the global community to respond. This article reviews the response of one set of key players: the international donor agencies dealing with women's development issues. It focuses on the actions of four donors, two bilateral (Norway and Canada) and two multilateral (the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program) and attempts to assess their performance in the last twenty years in broad strokes. It asks three basic sets of questions. First, what were the articulated objectives of their special policies and measures to promote women's advancement? Were they responsive to the aspiration of the women's movement? Second, did the donors adopt any identifiable set of strategies to realize the policy objectives? Were they effective? And finally, what were the results? Was there any quantitative and qualitative evidence to suggest progress? The two bilateral donors--Canada and Norway--were selected because they have a reputation among donors of mounting major initiatives for women. They number among the few agencies who adopted detailed women-in-development (WID) or gender-and-development (GAD) policies. In contrast, the two multilateral donors--United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank---were chosen not on the strength of their WlD/GAD mandates and policies, but because of the influence they wield in shaping the development strategies of the countries of the South. The World Bank through its conditionalities often dictates policy reforms to aid-recipient governments. The UNDP, as the largest fund, has a big presence within the United Nations system. The actions of these two agencies-- what they advocate and what they omit or marginalize--have a strong impact on the policy analysis and investments of the aid-recipient countries. The study is primarily based on published and unpublished data collected from the four donor agencies. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    069430

    Evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) of Belize, 26 March to 13 April 1984.

    Belize. Ministry of Health; Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Belize City, Belize, Ministry of Health, 1984. [3], 54 p. (EPI/84/003)

    An evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Belize was conducted by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization at the request of the country's Ministry of Health. The evaluation was undertaken to identify obstacles to program implementation, and subsequently provide national managers and decision makers with viable potential solutions. General background information is provided on Belize, with specific mention made of demographic, ethnic, and linguistic characteristics, the health system, and the EPI program in the country. EPI evaluation methodology and vaccination coverage are presented, followed by detailed examination of study findings and recommendations. Achievements, problems, and recommendations are listed for the areas of planning and organizations, management and administration, training, supervision, resources, logistics and the cold chain, delivery strategies, the information and surveillance system, and promotion and community participation. A 23-page chronogram of recommended activities follows, with the report concluding in acknowledgements and annexes.
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  8. 8
    723567

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.

    UNICEF/WHO JOINT COMMITTEE

    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  9. 9
    074381

    Organizing and managing tropical disease control programs. Case studies.

    Liese BH; Sachdeva PS; Cochrane DG

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. vi, 123 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 167)

    The World Bank has complied a report of 7 case studies of successful tropical disease control programs. In Brazil, the Superintendency for Public Health Campaigns plans and implements tropical disease control programs (malaria, yellow fever, schistosomiasis, dengue, plague, and Chagas disease) based on previous campaign results. China operates a large and complex schistosomiasis control program which has a different task and strategy for each of the 3 targeted regions: the plans, hills and mountains, and marshlands and lakes. Egypt manages a schistosomiasis control program which protects 18 million people in 12 governates from the disease at a cost of
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  10. 10
    064771

    Child survival strategy for Sudan, USAID/Khartoum.

    Harvey M; Louton L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33, [22] p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
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  11. 11
    070620

    Organizing and managing tropical disease control programs. Lessons of success.

    Liese BH; Sachdeva PS; Cochrane DG

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. x, 51 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 159)

    A World Bank report outlines the results of an empirical study. It lists institutional characteristics connected with successful tropical disease control programs, describes their importance, and extracts useful lessons for disease control specialists and managers. The study covers and compares 7 successful tropical disease control programs: the endemic disease program in Brazil; schistosomiasis control programs in China, Egypt, and Zimbabwe; and the malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis programs in the Philippines. All of these successful programs, as defined by reaching goals over a 10-15 year period, are technology driven. Specifically they establish a relevant technological strategy and package, and use operational research to appropriately adapt it to local conditions. Further they are campaign oriented. The 7 programs steer all features of organization and management to applying technology in the field. Moreover groups of expert staff, rather than administrators, have the authority to decide on technical matters. These programs operate both vertically and horizontally. Further when it comes to planning strategy they are centralized, but when it comes to actual operations and tasks, they are decentralized. Besides they match themselves to the task and not the task to the organization. Successful disease control programs have a realistic idea of what extension activities, e.g., surveillance and health education, is possible in the field. In addition, they work with households rather than the community. All employees are well trained. Program managers use informal and professional means to motivate then which makes the programs productive. The organizational structure of these programs mixes standardization of technical procedures with flexibility in applying rules and regulations, nonmonetary rewards to encourage experience based use of technological packages, a strong sense of public service, and a strong commitment to personal and professional development.
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  12. 12
    068891

    WHO AIDS program: moving on a new track.

    Palca J

    SCIENCE. 1991 Oct 25; 254:511-2.

    The 1st Director of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Program on AIDS (GPA) abruptly resigned March, 1990. Jonathan Mann led the GPA in an innovative, aggressive, and comparatively non-bureaucratic style since its inception in 1986, building a staff of nearly 200 under an eventual 1990 budget of $90 million. Mann's non-conformist style and ever-growing budget, however, ran counter to the bureaucratic forces in WHO, causing him to leave for a position at Harvard University. A 12-year WHO veteran, Michael H. Merson succeeded Mann, and has since managed the GPA in a more conventional, bureaucratic manner. Senior staff have resigned, and the budget will drop to only $75 million for 1992. Staff replacements are used to the bureaucratic structure and demands of WHO, but lack experience in the field of AIDS. This paper discusses the markedly different management styles and approaches of Merson and Mann, with concern voiced over the future of the GPA. Critics are uncertain of GPA's present direction, and whether or not it is a necessary, positive change in the fight against the AIDS pandemic. As AIDS appears with less frequency and centrality i the world's media, the GPA is needed now even more than just a few years ago to inform the world of the dangers of AIDS. Merson is expected to promote relatively simple treatment options for AIDS, with some emphasis upon technological fixes like the condom. With cuts to the behavioral research budget, however, it is almost certain that inadequate steps will be taken to effect behavioral change for the prevention and control of HIV infection.
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  13. 13
    068407

    Annual report 1990.

    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [ICDDR,B]

    Dhaka, Bangladesh, ICDDR,B, 1991. [5], 99 p.

    This publication reports on the 1990 activities of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B). a non- profit organization that promotes and conducts research, education, training, and clinical service on diarrheal diseased and related subjects. headquartered in Dhaka, ICDDR,B operates through funding from donor nations and international aid organizations. The Center contains 4 scientific divisions: Population Science and Extension, Clinical Services, Community Health, and Laboratory Sciences. In the introductory section of the report, the director of the Center, Dr. Demissie Habte, discusses the Center's efforts to confront budgetary and staffing concerns. During 1990, the Center reduced the number of redundant staff and was able to fill some key positions that had been previously vacant. The Center also succeeded in avoiding a potentially large deficit, partly a result of the streamlining of staff and austerity measures. The director also reports that while research output remained at the same level as in the past few years, some major initiatives in research and service delivery took place, including the introduction of a microcomputer-based health and family planning management information and research system in Matlab. Furthermore, construction on the Matlab Health and Research Center was completed in February 1990. The bulk of the report describes following research: 1) watery and persistent diarrhea, and dysentery research; 2) diarrhea- related research -- urban, population, environmental, and family planning and maternal and child health studies; and 3) health care research. The report also discusses the accomplishments in the areas of support services, training and staff development.
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  14. 14
    060142

    Implementing a counseling training program to enhance quality of care in family planning programs in Ecuador.

    Kopp Z; Cox K; Marangoni P

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the 117th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Chicago, Illinois, October 22-26, 1989. 9, [2] p.

    To address the need to improve and expand the level of counseling offered trough family planning programs in Latin America, the Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, provided counseling and interpersonal communication training to its 149 staff members in 1988- 89. Before the workshops were held, 724 clients at 6 APROFE clinics were surveyed to provide a baseline assessment of the quality of care from the client's point of view. The 2-day workshops focused on counseling skills, values clarification activities in the area of human sexuality, and the importance of informed choice to the quality of client care. A KAP test was administered to staff before and after the training. The client surveys indicated overall satisfaction with APROFE in the areas addressed--cost, hours, privacy, informed consent, and attitudes of personnel--but pinpointed areas for change, including a preference for specific appointment times, more information on sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and a failure of some staff to provide information on the entire range of contraceptive choices. The clinic's director of counseling has become involved in the selection and training of new staff members. Workshop participants have expressed a need for additional training about ways to counsel clients on matters related to human sexuality and to overcome the sociocultural barriers to such discussions.
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  15. 15
    058213
    Peer Reviewed

    Maisons Familiales -- Senegal.

    Rugh J

    COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL. 1988 Jan; 23(1):55-7.

    The local associations of Maisons Familiales (MF) in Senegal periodically conduct participatory evaluations of community projects. 2 evaluations often used include internal exercises by and for the staff, such as a written questionnaire, and an assisted self evaluation. An assisted self evaluation often involves participant subgroups discussing problems and possible solutions with each subgroup later sharing items with a national and/or a foreign evaluation facilitator. The facilitator(s) meets with all the subgroups and brings out important issues in the subgroups, then all the subgroups discuss the issues and form a consensus on what actions should be taken. The training staff at an MF center thought the program was fine based on what a few people said, but, after looking at statistics on the number of trainees over a couple of years, the staff learned that the numbers have declined. The staff then discussed the situation and learned that a barrier had developed between the training staff and villagers. As in any evaluation, one must distinguish between the subjective view (what people say) and objective reality (the actual situation using data). In another type of self evaluation, a group discussed dynamism in a village and came up with 4 different points of view. After visiting a "dynamic" and a "nondynamic" village using the 4 points as measurements, the group learned that its previous impressions of the 2 villages were not completely borne out. This evaluation helped the staff to see villagers' priorities and to listen better. Despite wanting to conduct a real impact evaluation, workers have not yet done so because they do not have time to schedule evaluations, do not have enough base line data, and do not know how to account for influences on changes in the villages other than the MF training programs.
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  16. 16
    049129

    Community participation in family planning: some suggestions for organisation development and management change.

    Askew I; Lenton C

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1987. [2], 36 p. (Occasional Series on Community Participation)

    Community participation in a family planning program implies a partnership between the people served and the family planning association (FPA). That partnership requires the people themselves to participate in identifying their needs as well as assuming responsibility for planning, managing and controlling the actions to meet those needs. The FPA is particularly well suited to manage a community participation program because the FPA is concerned with the problems of individuals, works routinely at the community level, and is organized to serve small communities. If an FPA is to manage a community participation program, it must itself be organized as a hybrid structure, somewhere between a centralized, hierarchical, "mechanistic" structure and a decentralized, flexible, "organic" structure. At the local level the structure is organic and must include a team from the community's organizational structure, a team from the FPA which includes the community Worker, and a team responsible for seeing that the needs assessed by the community team are met by the resources of the FPA. At the central level the FPA must retain a hierarchical, mechanistic structure, but it should be oriented toward serving the needs of the local units rather than determining how they operate. The local and central levels can be linked by a "linking-pin" arrangement, in which at every level, from the community organization, through the community development workers, the block supervisors, the field supervisors, and the project manager, there is 1 person from the next lower level. The management style appropriate to management of a community participation project may be described as "humanistic-democratic-participative" (HDP). Decisions are made by consensus; information flows evenly up and down; and staff activities are coordinated by teamwork. Overall responsibility for the project rests with the project manager, who must be a flexible, creative leader, willing to make mistakes and learn from them. In some cases, where the manager has been trained in standard hierarchical management technics, it is necessary to "convert" him to HDP-type philosophy by a process known as "organization development." In the HDP philosophy of management, supervision is achieved by the use of "socialized power," where the manager exchanges his trust in the staff for their acceptance of his authority. In addition to participatory supervision, the project manager must be able to think "synthetically," i.e., to improvise and innovate and be able to confront uncertainty and solve problems as they arise. The field staff, whatever else their duties may be, must function as an interface between the community and the FPA. They are an integral element in the support system provided by the FPA to the community in that they function as a supervisory system for coordinating the work of the community level teams, and as a supply system for providing resources and technical assistance. They must have the responsibility for making decisions, and their personality and attitude is at least as important as their technical skills. The community workers form the front line of primary health care. Their work includes service delivery, referral, education, community organization, resource procurement, record keeping and data collection, and demonstrating innovations. They may be full or part-time, paid or voluntary, although a joint payment from the community and the FPA would seem to be best in terms of community respect. The training of the community worker is one of the most tangible ways of empowering the community by giving it a participatory role in the program.
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  17. 17
    205329

    The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    Bohning WR

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1988 Jun; 26(2):133-46.

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory mechanism consists basically of a dialogue between the ILO and the Government that is responsible for a law, regulation, or practice alleged to be in contravention of principles it voluntarily accepted. The control machinery is often set in motion by workers' organizations. The UN General Assembly is currently elaborating a new instrument designed to cover both regular and irregular migrant workers and their families.
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  18. 18
    040754

    [Institutions of youth promotion and services in La Paz, Bolivia: an analytical-descriptive study] Las instituciones de promocion y servicio a la juventud en La Paz, Bolivia. Un estudio analitico-descriptivo.

    Salazar C; La Fuente G; Cisneros C; De Cisneros MT; De Alencar C

    La Paz, Bolivia, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, [1984]. 104 p. (Estudios de Recursos Humanos No. 8)

    This work presents the results of an evaluation of 30 institutions in La Paz, Bolivia, which offer recreational, nonformal educational, training, and sports programs to young people. The 1st chapter provides theoretical background on the psychological, social, and sexual problems and tasks of adolescents in modern societies. The 2nd chapter briefly discusses the roles of the family, friendships, and organizations in the development of adolescents, and briefly describes the goals, programs, and financing of 17 of the 20 organizations studied. 21 of the 30 had formal legal status. 16 of the organizations were public and 13 were private. 7 were national in scope and 15 had international ties. 2 were for women only, 23 were for both sexes, and 5 included children. The primary program objectives were educational in 11 cases, cultural in 8, and sports and religious in 5 cases each. 24 of the organizations reported that they fulfilled their objectives and 5 that they possibly did so. 9 of the organizations had vertical patterns of authority, 16 had horizontal, and 5 had other types. 26 reported that their personnel were qualified. 21 were financed by member contributions, 5 by donations, and 1 by parental contributions. 21 reported that attendance was normal and 5 that there was little participation or interest among members. None of the organizations provided more than very superficial sex education programs, although 26 organizations indicated their belief that sex education is important. 12 of the organizations had professionals on their staffs and 17 had volunteers only. 19 reported they had sufficient manpower and 2 that they did not. The material resources of the organizations were scarce; only 6 had their own meeting places. 15 relied on financing by members, 8 had governmental help or received donations from nonmembers, and 4 had international assistance.
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  19. 19
    044969

    Turkey's workforce backs family planning.

    Fincancioglu N

    PEOPLE. 1987; 14(2):33.

    3 agencies in Turkey are placing family planning centers in factory settings: the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT), the Confederation of Trade Unions (TURK-IS), and the Family Health and Planning Foundation, a consortium of industrialists. The FPAT started with 27 factories 7 years ago, educating and serving 35,000 workers. The 1st work with management, then train health professionals in family planning, immunization, infant and child care, maternal health, education, motivation techniques, record-keeping and follow-up. Worker education is then begun in groups of 50. New sites are covered on a 1st-come-1st-served basis. This program is expected to be successful because newcomers to city jobs are beginning to see the need for smaller families, and accept family planning. TURK-IS has conducted seminars for trade union leaders and workers' representatives and provided contraceptives in 4 family planning clinics and in 20 hospitals run by Social Security, a workers' health organization. They have distributed condoms in factories and trained nurses to insert IUDs in factory units. The businessmen have opened family planning services in 15 factories, with support from the Pathfinder Fund, and hope to make the project self-supporting.
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  20. 20
    042317

    Management training for IEC.

    Bhatia B; Mathur KB

    POPULATION MANAGER: ICOMP REVIEW. 1987 Jun; 1(1):19-22.

    Communication plays an essential role in creating the necessary social climate for the development and adoption of population policies and in supporting actions undertaken to implement these policies. To be effective, however, there must be integrated communication for population and development programs. In addition to knowledge of the mass media and community organizations, communicators in the field of population must have the ability to collaborate with other development programs in an intersectoral effort, Toward this end, UNESCO, in collaboration with the Asia-Pacific Institute for broadcasting Development, has organized specialized courses in the management of population communication programs. A review of the situation at the time this program was initiated revealed that IEC directors had minimal knowledge and understanding of the role of IEC in family planning programs, little practical experience in planning and managing multimedia, community-based, interpersonal communication activities, and these programs had no scientifically established data base. As result, a pilot 2-week course comprised of o modules was held in India in 1983. Module 1 focused on a systematic problem-solving approach to IEC program situations, Module ii emphasized human resource management, and Module III was designed to impart specific communication skills. The course was subsequently expanded to 3 weeks, and has in the past 3 years involved 54 persons from 20 countries. Unesco has also developed a population communication course in collaboration with the Arab States Broadcasting Union.
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  21. 21
    048164

    Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care: issues and challenges.

    Schware R

    In: Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care, edited by Ronald G. Wilson, Barbara E. Echols, John H. Bryant, and Alexandre Abrantes. Geneva, Switzerland, Aga Khan Foundation, 1988. 17-20.

    A wide array of issues must be addressed if the development and use of management information system (MIS) and microcomputers are to improve management of primary health care (PHC) programs and increase the equity and cost-effectiveness of PHC. These issues include: specification of the purpose and objectives of MIS at community and district levels; distinquishing types of information required; the understanding of organizational issues that must be resolved as a result of introducing MIS; the practical definition of the most useful indicators of program effectiveness and efficiency; the specification and monitoring of data collection, compilation, and analysis requirements and procedures; procedures for generating and using processed MIS data and management information; the PHC program's capacity to absorb technological innovations; and personnel requirements. The need for improved data systems must be recognized. Data quality and systematic flow of information must be ensured from the field level upwards, and minimum information requirements need to be defined. The success of any MIS is heavily dependent on feedback of the data collected. Unless staff at all levels of a PHC program understand the importance of the data they are collecting, the value and use of the information system will be negligible. Examples of the Egyptian government's National Health Information System and the role of the World Bank are used to show how MIS and microcomputer can be introduced and used in PHC.
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  22. 22
    270399

    The management of UNFPA programmes in the field.

    Duncan R

    POPULI. 1987; 14(4):4-14.

    Field operations are the cutting edge of population activities of the UNFPA. It is there that services are provided; policies are tested in the crucible of reality, and progress measured. Aware that these were uncharted waters, the Fund leadership initiated a bold but carefully studied move. It was designed to move from research, dissemination and broad policy prescription into field programs to assist individual governments to convert knowledge to action-oriented policies to be implemented through practical projects that would reach all segments of society. UNFPA developed a series of committees which manage the program, set major policies, approve projects and control the finances of the program under the guidance of the UNDP Governing Council. This article summarizes how these committees operate in relation the evolution of the field program, interaction with other governments, and the monitoring and evaluation of the programs. While the field management system has generated some remarkable developments considering the complexity of the population issue, field staff have identified some of the critical issues concerned with evolving new program approaches.
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  23. 23
    033841

    General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Dec. iv, 41 p.

    4 maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects were evaluated by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the Southern Africa Region between 1981-1984. The projects were in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. An overriding finding at the time of the Evaluation Missions was the acceptance of family planning (child spacing) by all 4 governments, when at the onset of the projects, family planning was either not included in the project documents or was included only as a minor contributant to the MCH programs. The intervention by UNFPA was very important for the acceptance and promotion of family planning activities by the governments. The Evaluation Missions concluded that there were 3 primary reasons for the successful intervention: UNFPA has a broad mandate to provide assistance in MCH and FP, a commitment to development projects in line with the governments' priorities, and the ability to fund projects very quickly, facilitating project implementation. Each of the 4 projects is assessed in terms of population policy changes, MCH/FP program strategy and serive delivery, organization of the MCH/Fp unit, health education, training, evaluation and research systems, and administration and management. Essential factors affecting the project are outlined and recommendations made. The last section discusses general lessons derived from the MCH/FP projects evaluated. 5 areas are identified where similar problems exist to varying degrees in all the projects evaluated. These are: training of medical personnel in FP (the main MCH/FP service provider in these projects was the nurse/midwife); supervision of personnel and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation, especially regarding the sociocultural setting of target populations and the inadequacy of existing service statistics and other sources of data; project monitoring (technical and financial) and finally project execution by the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically in regard to the recruitment of experts, the provision of supplies and equipment, and the provision of funds for local costs, WHO execution has been deficient.
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  24. 24
    268451

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the Sudan population and housing census of 1983: project SUD/79/P01.

    Kannisto V; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1985 Mar. xi, 40 p.

    Since the evaluation report of the 1973 Census of Sudan made recommendations on how to improve census implementation for the 1980 round, UNFPA felt it to be important to see if the 1983 census took them into account and if it achieved better results. The project document included 3 objectives concerning data collection and analysis: the availability of accurate and up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan, on the components of population growth, and on demographic, social and economic characteristics; and 2 objectives concerning institution building: the availability of trained statistical personnel and the strengthening of data processing facilities. 2 of the 5 objectives have been achieved--up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan and for all recognized civil sub-divisions is available and a new computer facility with adequate capacity and configuration has been installed and is in operation. The caliber of staff in the census office is high, and the training program overall was adequate. The census communication campaign emphasized the use of mass media. Overall, the publicity for the census was considered by the Mission to have been good. Although the enumeration took longer than scheduled in some areas, the observance of the enumeration timetable can be considered satisfactory. Data preparation and electronic processing have been severely delayed due to the low productivity of the computer staff. The strong points of the project were the high priority given to the census by the government; the better planning for the 1983 census as compared with the 1973 census; and the high quality of technical assistance provided by UN advisors. Weak points have been the lack of long-term resident advisors in general census organization, cartography and data analysis; the delay in the provision of government and UNFPA inputs; and the loss of trained personnel from the Department of Statistics, particularly in data processing.
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  25. 25
    268450

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the civil registration demonstration project in Kenya: project KEN/79/P04.

    Kannisto V; Makannah TJ; Mehta DC; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xi, 36 p.

    Kenya established a compulsory vital statistics and civil registration system in 1963 and it was extended nationwide in phases until it covered the whole country by 1971. Serious under-registration of births and deaths however, has persisted. In order to improve registration coverage, the government submitted a proposal to UNFPA to support experimentation with ways to promote registration in some model areas. The original project document included 4 immediate objectives: the strengthening of the civil registration system in the model areas including the creation of a new organizational structure, the training of project personnel and the decentralization of registration activities; the improvement of methods and procedures of registration through experimentation; the collection of reliable vital statistics in the model areas; and, the establishment of a public awareness program on the need for civil registration to ensure the continuation and extension of the new system. Of the 4 objectives of the project, 2 have been achieved--the strengthening of civil registration in the model areas and the improvement of methods and procedures of registration. The major deficiency during the project period was the lack of required staff in the field. The primary feature which distinguishes the project is that traditional birth attendants and village elders become key persons at the village level and act as registration informants after receiving training. The strong points of the project are the high quality of technical assistance provided by the executing agency, the close collaboration among various government departments, and the choice of project strategy and model area. Recommendations have been made to correct the problems of a lack of key personnel at the head office and in the field, and the expansion of registration to new areas before consolidation was completed in the old areas.
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