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  1. 1

    Adolescents, social support and help-seeking behaviour: An international literature review and programme consultation with recommendations for action.

    Barker G

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2007. 56 p. (WHO Discussion Papers on Adolescence)

    With this brief introduction and justification, this document presents: The findings from an international literature review on the topic of adolescents and help-seeking behaviour. The results of a programme consultation with 35 adolescent health programmes (including public health sector programmes, university-based adolescent health programmes and non-government organizations (NGO) working in adolescent health) from Latin America (10), the Western Pacific region (4), Asia (20), and the Middle East (1), and the results of six key informant interviews. These results are incorporated into the literature review where relevant. The complete report from this consultation of programmes is found in Appendix 1. Recommendations for action, including a brief outline for developing a set of guidelines for the rapid assessment of social supports to promote the help-seeking of adolescents. This document is part of a WHO project to identify and define evidence-based strategies for influencing adolescent help-seeking and identify research questions and activities to promote improved help-seeking behaviour by adolescents. To achieve this objective, the consultants, with WHO guidance: (1) carried out an international literature review of the topic; (2) sent 67 questionnaires and received 35 questionnaires back from adolescent health programmes on the topic of adolescents and help-seeking in the four regions; and (3) carried out key informant interviews with nine individuals (three in Latin America, three in the Pacific region and three in South Asia). The consultants also developed short case studies of illustrative approaches in promoting help-seeking behaviour. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Report of Workshop on Personality Enhancement and Self Awareness for Grass-Root Level Workers (16th, 17th and 18th July, 1992).

    Project SMITA Society

    [Unpublished] 1992. [2], 16 p.

    The Safe Motherhood Immunization and Timely Action (SMITA) Society is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) working in effective communication for sustained behavioral and attitudinal change for social welfare and development programs. The project Communication Support to Programs for Urban Poor supported by UNICEF/UBS entailed collaborating with other NGOs for developing communication strategies applicable to urban slums in support of integrated community development programs. Projects SMITA has helped strengthen the communication skills of grass root level workers (GRLWs) of the 19 NGOs whose program for integrated community development was supported by UNICEF/UBS. During the interaction with GRLWs the need to enhance their confidence and motivation was perceived in order to make them effective communicators. Basti workers also needed to understand themselves and other people, their personality, and the value system. Project SMITA as well as the NGO training center deemed it important to organize a workshop on personality enhancement and self awareness. GRLWs of 18 NGOs working in urban slum areas of Delhi for integrated community development under assistance from UNICEF/UBS participated in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop, held on 3 days in July 1992, were: a) to motivate and enhance the general confidence levels of the Basti workers; b) to help workers become aware of their attitudes towards themselves and towards others, c) to provide the workers with skills necessary for management of conflicts. The areas of focus were: a) understanding others and interpersonal relations; b) achievement motivation; c) self awareness for personal growth; d) feeling and behavior; e) team building; f) resolving conflicts and problem-solving skills; and g) self-disclosure and trust building. Feedback from the participants indicated that the workshop was successful, and regular sessions were suggested by some participants.
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  3. 3

    Guide to WHO documents concerning adolescent health and development to assist in the programming process, helping young people remain a force for change during the World AIDS Campaign and beyond.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 1999 Oct. 31 p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/99.2)

    This Guide to WHO documents concerning Adolescent Health and Development is the first version of an on-going bibliography as a contribution to expanding and sharing technical assistance in the programming process for adolescent health and development during the World AIDS Campaign. This practical tool kit will respond to the needs of numerous individuals involved in national or institutional planning. Regional Offices produced by the WHO Headquarters or most of the documents cited during the period 1990-99. The references are generally adolescent specific or relate to issues, which may particularly but not exclusively affect adolescents. Users of the guide are encouraged to provide feedback on these and other WHO documents related to public health and program planning which they have found useful in regard to adolescent health and development. Presented in four chapters which follow logical programming steps include 1) building political commitment; 2) assessing priorities for action; 3) maintaining implementation; and 4) monitoring and evaluation. Moreover, these chapters make a few suggestions for possible sub-steps in the programming process, as well as raise issues of varying importance and will differ from place to place in view of the level of program development.
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  4. 4

    Risk and Protective Factors affecting Adolescent Health and Development. Report of technical consultation, Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 March 1999.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development; UNICEF

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2000. 55 p. (Programming for Adolescent Health and Development: "What Should We Measure and How?" A joint WHO / UNICEF Initiative; WHO/FCH/CAH/00.20)

    This technical consultation was held as part of the 2-year measurement project which aims to develop tools, indicators and methodologies to determine the extent to which programming efforts are making a difference to the health and development of adolescents. Participants were program managers and researchers from the developing countries of Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda. The main objective of this meeting was to identify the most important risk and protective factors for adolescent behavior and to clarify their contribution to negative health outcomes. Overall, a number of factors were identified, the most significant of which included: connection to significant others through positive, stable, emotionally close relationships, regulation through the provision of structure around behavior; the facilitation of psychological autonomy by allowing the child/adolescent to have and to express thoughts and feelings; religious or ideological belief beyond self; adolescents' need for availability as well as the personal capacity to utilize opportunities and resources; and their individual characteristics which account for adolescent behavioral tendencies. It was noted that these five factors need to be further discussed, clarified and explored. The meeting concluded with a reminder of the broader context of this work in terms of the development of the UN Future Global Agenda for Children and Adolescents.
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  5. 5

    Programming for Adolescent Health and Development: "What Should We Measure and How?" A joint WHO / UNICEF Initiative. Report of second meeting, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 26-30 April 1999.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development; UNICEF

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2000. 80 p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/00.17)

    This report presents the highlights of the second technical consultation on "Programming for Adolescent Health and Development: What should we measure and How?" held during April 26-30, 1999, in Chiang Mai, Thailand. This 2-year project, initiated in May 1998, aims to strengthen programming for adolescent health and development in countries through improved measurement capacity. The implementing partners include program managers and researchers from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda, as well as a network of international technical resource persons. Overall, there was consensus among the participants on focusing on a set of measures for interventions, protective factors, clusters of problems, and positive development. These measurement action plans were country specific according to their relevance. It was agreed that the various country specific tools for measuring relationships should be synthesized to prepare a common tool with a core global component as well as context specific components for adaptation to different country realities. This second network meeting thus provided the operational basis for a greater focus on the measurement of protective factors within the reality of the programming context in these seven developing countries.
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  6. 6

    Measurement of Adolescent Development: Environmental, Contextual and Protective Factors. Report of technical consultation, Washington, 4-6 February 1999.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development; UNICEF; Pathfinder International. FOCUS on Young Adults

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2000. 35 p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/00.16)

    This technical consultation organized by the WHO and UN Children's Fund aimed to define development in measurable terms, clarify concepts and terminology, and identify underlying protective factors in the environmental context of adolescents. During the session, participants broke into small groups to discuss issues regarding adolescent development. These include: 1) relationships, principles for programming and measurement issues of youth health and development; 2) the assets and deficits of youth development programs; 3) antecedents of adolescent sexual risk-taking, pregnancy and child-bearing; 4) developing country-specific logic models; and 5) measurement of factors central to adolescent development. In closing, it was reiterated that the meeting had moved the measurement agenda ahead significantly by drawing attention to the importance of protective factors and antecedents. The use of the logic model approach also prepared to provide a useful tool for making much more explicit the program related measurements of implementation and intermediate outcomes. This meeting was the start of drafting logic models for the countries present and going back and then testing how understandable, feasible, and applicable they are in the local and national contexts.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Adolescent social development: a global perspective. Implications for health promotion across cultures.

    Friedman HL

    JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH. 1993 Dec; 14(8):588-94.

    One must understand both health and development in order to properly promote adolescent health. The health community is beginning to take a closer look at adolescent health, but still addresses adolescent development less commonly. The concepts and values of what constitutes desired and appropriate development from childhood to adulthood vary significantly between cultures. The author therefore identifies some of the challenges which arise from the different perspectives in which adolescence is viewed and proposes action to redress the oversights of health professionals in the field. Sections explore adolescent development, the changing social environment, differing patterns of social development in puberty and marriage, adolescent health, and current health practice in adolescent social development.
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  8. 8

    Child's right to special care.

    Sharma A; Gupta S

    ICCW NEWS BULLETIN. 1991 Jul-Dec; 39(3-4):12-5.

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status.
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  9. 9

    A cornucopia of care.

    Ahart C

    Emphasis. 1986 Winter; 22-4.

    The Adolescent Parent Program for Learning Essential Skills (APPLES), designed as a 4-part program to serve pregnant, parenting, and at-risk adolescents in McLean County, Illinois, is considered a model program because of the comprehensive manner in which it addresses the issue of adolescent pregnancy. Designed by Planned Parenthood of Mid Central Illinois (PPMCI) administrative and educational staff, APPLES develops and coordinates services to adolescent parents and provides expertise and strategies for educating at-risk adolescents. APPLES currently has the support and cooperation of 16 youth-serving agencies. 1 essential component of the APPLES program is the Home Visitor Program. Under a subcontract with the McLean County Health Department, each APPLES Home Visitors team is made up of a registered nurse and 1 social worker. The Home Visitors provide aggresive advocacy tailored to the young family's special needs, such as securing adequate housing, transportation, child care, or financial assistance. In addition, APPLES home visitors provide in-home, one-on-one education. Home Visitors assess the child's developmental progress and teach the parents what developmental skills to watch for. Antoher component of APPLES is "Time Out," a weekly peer support group that provides an opportunity for adolescent mothers to share the frustrations and triumphs of parenting. The groups are facilitated by trained volunteers, some of whom were teen mothers. Time Out is a short-term (3-4 months) empowerment/affirmation model that integrates information sharing, consciousness raising, education, and skills development. While mothers take time out for themselves, their children are cared for by trained child development volunteers who use creative play and individual assessment to develop a new activity each week for the mother and child to do at home. The Developmental Day Care component provides adolescent parents with alternatives and partial financing for child care to allow them to continue their education or job training. APPLES staff work with both care providers and young parents to locate day care facilities. ADAM is the support component for adolescent fathers. It works through the PPMCI education staff to promote awareness, education, and prevention for the at-risk adolescent population. ADAM encourages adolescent fathers to be informed of their rights as well as their responsibilities. It provides counseling and support for these young men. Brief educational/support group sessions for Grandparents Too Soon (GTS) were initiated to center on peer help in dealing with feelings, fears, and frustrations.
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  10. 10

    The women of rural Asia.

    Whyte RO; Whyte P

    Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)

    This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.
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