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Engaging young people for health and sustainable development. Strategic opportunities for the World Health Organization and partners.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 72 p. (WHO/CDS/TB/2018.22)This report builds on WHO’s long-standing work on young people’s health and rights, including the Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030), the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) guidance, and contribution to the new UN Youth Strategy. It was developed as part of the roadmap towards the development of a WHO strategy for engaging young people and young professionals. The world today has the largest generation of young people in history with 1.8 billion between the ages of 10 and 24 years. Many of them already are driving transformative change, and many more are poised to do so, but lack the opportunity and means. This cohort represents a powerhouse of human potential that could transform health and sustainable development. A priority is to ensure that no young person is left behind and all can realize their right to health equitably and without discrimination or hindrance. This force for change represents an unparalleled opportunity for the WHO and partners to transform the way they engage with young people, including to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report describes strategic opportunities to meaningfully engage young people in transforming health and sustainable development. This will mean providing opportunities for young people’s leadership and for their engagement with national, regional and global programmes.
Implementing comprehensive HIV and STI programmes with transgender people: practical guidance for collaborative interventions.
New York, New York, UNDP, 2016 Apr. 212 p.This publication provides guidance to programme designers, implementers, policymakers and decision-makers on how to meaningfully engage adolescents in the AIDS response and in broader health programming. It also demonstrates why adolescents and youth are critical in efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The publication additionally highlights what steps should be taken to implement programmes and policies that improve adolescent health outcomes (including for HIV) at the national, regional and global levels.
Youth leap into gender equality: UN Women’s youth and gender equality strategy: empowered young women and young men as partners in achieving gender equality.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Apr. 28 p.UN Women’s Youth and Gender Equality Strategy is a pivotal response for increased youth engagement to strengthen gender equality and womens empowerment. Young people across the world have asserted their presence and raised their voices to demand a greater role in shaping their societies’ future that have challenged the status quo. The global youth population—an unprecedented 1.8 billion—only adds to the urgency of the youth agenda. The youth upsurge represents a tremendous strategic opportunity to tap into the talents and skills of young people to advance global and national development goals. UN Women’s Youth and Gender Equality Strategy is grounded in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Platform for Action, the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the World Programme of Action for Youth, a host of resolutions and outcomes of the United Nations General Assembly on youth, gender equality and the empowerment of women, and the recently agreed, “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” document. Moreover, the global review and commemoration of Beijing+20 and the adoption of a dedicated, comprehensive, and transformative Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 on achieving Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment for all women and girls coincides with the 20th anniversary of the World Programme of Action for Youth. This is a critical moment for action. UN Women aims to reinvigorate its work on youth issues against this larger global and institutional backdrop, especially the adoption of SDG 5. UN Women recognizes that both young men and women today possess extraordinary potential to positively transform their communities. UN Women has put in place a multi-faceted strategy that takes into consideration not only traditional forms of advocacy and engagement, but also new technologies and approaches in engaging young men and young women. Key elements of UN Women’s strategy include reinvigorated partnerships with a wider spectrum of entities, resource mobilization, and active monitoring and evaluation.
Love, sexual rights and young people. Learning from our peer educators how to be a youth-centred organisation. Report of a participatory assessment of the IPPF Danida-funded A+ programme on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights.
[London, United Kingdom], IPPF, 2013 May.  p.The A+ program was implemented by IPPF’s Member Associations in 16 countries across sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central America. The goal was to increase access to sexual and reproductive health services and comprehensive sexuality education for young people, and to promote their sexual and reproductive health and rights. This report, guided by the unique insights of young people themselves, will contribute to shared learning on how best to implement a youth-centered approach across IPPF and beyond. Integral to the program ethos were cross-cutting issues of youth participation, gender equity and partnerships, with a focus on reaching the most marginalized young people.
A transformative stand-alone goal on achieving gender equality, women's rights and women's empowerment: Imperatives and key components. In the context of the post-2015 development framework and sustainable development goals.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2013 Jun.  p.UN Women has launched a new paper to contribute to the ongoing debate on the post-2015 development agenda. In the paper, UN Women lays out its vision for a transformative framework that addresses the structural impediments to gender equality and the achievement of women’s rights.
Social determinants of health: Outcome of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 2011). Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO]. 2012 Mar 22.  p. (A65/16)In 2009, the Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA62.14 on reducing health inequities through action on the social determinants of health. It requested the Director-General to provide support to Member States in measures that included convening a global event, with the assistance of Member States, before the Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly in order to discuss renewed plans for redressing the alarming trends of health inequities through actions on the social determinants of health. This report describes the process and outcome of the resulting event, the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011), and also summarizes progress on the implementation of resolution WHA62.14. (Excerpt)
Paris, France, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2012. 158 p.The education sector has a significant role to play in the response to HIV and AIDS. The sector can help to prevent the spread of HIV through education, and, in countries that are highly affected by HIV, by taking steps to protect itself from the effects of the epidemic. It can also make a significant contribution by supporting health improvement more generally and by helping to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people in particular.This framework is designed to help those working in the education sector at a national level to understand the need for a robust response to HIV and AIDS in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The document also highlights the education sector’s role in contributing to universal access to HIV and AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support.
Mobile technologies and empowerment: Enhancing human development through participation and innovation.
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2012.  p.Mobile technologies are opening new channels of communication between people and governments, potentially offering greater access to public information and basic services to all. No other technology has been in the hands of so many people in so many countries in such a short period of time. In fact, globally, more people now have access to a mobile device than to justice or legal services. Recent estimates indicate that ICTs could be accessible to everyone by 2015 and bring internationally agreed development targets ever closer to achievement. Indeed, we are witnessing a new wave of democratization of access to innovative ICT channels, propelled by state-of-the-art technologies and diminishing barriers to entry. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have set forth global commitments to foster human development across the world. One of the targets calls for making the benefits of ICTs available to all. If we subscribe to the latest figures on mobile usage and availability then we can argue that this particular target is achievable by 2015, if not before. But how does this relate to the other 17 MDG targets, if at all, and to all other Internationally Agreed Development Goals (IADGs)? The main objective of this primer is to provide UNDP programme staff and development partners and practitioners with a practical understanding of how mobile technologies can amplify development programming. By looking at basic concepts, current trends and real life examples, the primer intends to shed light on how development practitioners can harness the potential of mobile technologies to improve development outputs and outcomes at the country level.
Closing the gap: Policy into practice on social determinants of health. Discussion paper to inform proceedings at the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October, 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO}, 2011.  p.This discussion paper aims to inform proceedings at the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health about how countries can implement action on social determinants of health, including the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Evidence from countries that have made progress in addressing social determinants and reducing health inequities shows that action is required across all of five key building blocks, which have been selected as the five World conference themes: 1. Governance to tackle the root causes of health inequities: implementing action on social determinants of health; 2. Promoting participation: community leadership for action on social determinants; 3. The role of the health sector, including public health programmes, in reducing health inequities; 4. Global action on social determinants: aligning priorities and stakeholders; 5. Monitoring progress: measurement and analysis to inform policies and build accountability on social determinants. (Excerpt)
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Jan.  p.Girls Decide: Choices on Sex and Pregnancy explores innovative projects for girls and young women that offer great potential for making a difference on a large scale. These projects empower girls and young women, and affect all areas of their development, by implementing a positive approach towards their sexual and reproductive health and rights. When girls and young women understand that their sexual identities, feelings, emotions, sexual behaviour and aspirations are legitimate and respected, they are empowered. When they have access to the knowledge and the opportunities to make choices about relationships, sexuality and pregnancy, and when communities and societies give girls and young women the space and support they need to become confident, decision-making individuals, everyone benefits. It is time for policy- and decision-makers, educators, service providers and community leaders to re-think strategies for girls and young women: invest in, protect and promote policies, programmes, services and research that incorporate a positive approach to their choices around all aspects of sex, sexuality and pregnancy.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2011.  p.This report catalogues, in heart-wrenching detail, the array of dangers adolescents face: the injuries that kill 400,000 of them each year; early pregnancy and childbirth, a primary cause of death for teenage girls; the pressures that keep 70 million adolescents out of school; exploitation, violent conflict and the worst kind of abuse at the hands of adults. It also examines the dangers posed by emerging trends like climate change, whose intensifying effects in many developing countries already undermine so many adolescents' well-being, and by labour trends, which reveal a profound lack of employment opportunities for young people, especially those in poor countries. Adolescence is not only a time of vulnerability, it is also an age of opportunity. This is especially true when it comes to adolescent girls. We know that the more education a girl receives, the more likely she is to postpone marriage and motherhood -- and the more likely it is that her children will be healthier and better educated. By giving all young people the tools they need to improve their own lives, and by engaging them in efforts to improve their communities, we are investing in the strength of their societies. Through a wealth of concrete examples, The State of the World's Children 2011 makes clear that sustainable progress is possible. It also draws on recent research to show that we can achieve that progress more quickly and cost-effectively by focusing first on the poorest children in the hardest-to-reach places. Such a focus on equity will help all children, including adolescents. (Excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1998.  p.The assembled national youth ministers commit themselves to national youth policies and formulate guidelines in association with youth on the following topics: Participation, Development, Peace, Education, Employment, Health, and Drug & Substance Abuse.
Journal of Internal Medicine. 2008 Nov; 264(5):504-8.Had there been a strong African voice contributing to World Bank decisions, it is unlikely that deliberate sidelining of HIV by health sector reforms would have taken place. However, given Bank's architecture and processes, an adequate response to the crisis was a nonstarter; unlike mediocre responses to Africa's other health needs, it has been less easy for the IDC to duck its responsibility and place the blame on its so-called African partners. Nevertheless, the lack of an African voice distorts historical analyses of the crisis often reflecting a western perspective, emphasizing the lack of political will and African governments' failure to act, whilst underplaying the IDC's shortcomings. The notion itself that the epidemic is 25 years old rather than the more accurate 75 years old reflects this distortion. Most of the responsibility rests with the Bank's Board and top management. OED reports that it 'could find no evidence that other top management raised the issue with borrowers or pushed the issue to a higher level internally'. Where there was positive response by the bank at the country level, 'the initiative for AIDS strategies and lending came primarily from individual health staff in the regional and technical operational groupings of the Bank, but not in any coherent way from the Bank's HNP leadership or top-level management. The current initiative by the British House of Commons Committee for International Development to reform the World Bank effectively reverses the notion that the reform was all but impossible because it was a zero sum game. Today, however, its donor members may find the demonstrable unfairness and ineffectiveness less tolerable. It is unlikely that the next president of the Bank will be chosen solely by the United States. Reformers will now need to revise its constitutional rules, their balancing of stakeholder rights, their decision-making rules and practices and their staffing and expertise. The course of the HIV epidemic means that the status quo is no longer acceptable. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Mar. 4 p. (UNAIDS Policy Brief)Nearly 40 million people in the world are living with HIV. In countries such as Botswana, Swaziland, and Lesotho people living with HIV make up a quarter or more of the population. People living with HIV are entitled to the same human rights as everyone else, including the right to access appropriate services, gender equality, self-determination and participation in decisions affecting their quality of life, and freedom from discrimination. All national governments and leading development institutions have committed to meeting the eight Millennium Development Goals, which include halving extreme poverty, halting and beginning to reverse HIV and providing universal primary education by 2015. GIPA or the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV is critical to halting and reversing the epidemic; in many countries reversing the epidemic is also critical to reducing poverty. (excerpt)
[Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
Monitoring and evaluating actions implemented to confront AIDS in Brazil: civil society's participation.
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:88-93.The United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS recommends that governments conduct periodic analysis of actions undertaken in confronting the HIV/ AIDS epidemic that involve civil society's participation. Specific instruments and mechanisms should be created towards this end. This paper examines some of the responses of the Brazilian government to this recommendation. Analysis contemplates the Declaration's proposals as to civil society's participation in monitoring and evaluating such actions and their adequacy with respect to Brazilian reality. The limitations and potentials of MONITORAIDS, the matrix of indicators created by Brazil's Programa Nacional de DST/AIDS [National Program for STD/AIDS] to monitor the epidemic are discussed. Results indicate that MONITORAIDS's complexity hampers its use by the conjunction of actors involved in the struggle against AIDS. The establishment of mechanisms that facilitate the appropriation of this system by all those committed to confronting the epidemic in Brazil is suggested. (author's)
New York, New York, IPPF, WHR, 2005 Jan.  p. (IPPF / WHR Spotlight on Youth)For more than a decade, the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) and its member associations in Latin America and the Caribbean have worked to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents and young people. Early on, it became clear that effectively reaching youth would require formulating and adopting a new model of youth-friendly service provision. Creating these services would involve sensitizing and training staff to young people's rights and needs; creating separate waiting rooms, spaces, or clinics where youth would feel comfortable; and developing educational materials that would be attractive to youth. In November 2002, IPPF/WHR held a workshop with medical providers and youth program coordinators from 11 associations in Latin America to improve their capacity to provide youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The workshop addressed: understanding how adolescent needs differ from adult needs; viewing SRH and services through the framework of youth rights; components of youth-friendly services and their implementation; communicating with youth about SRH; and review and distribution of tools for strengthening youth-friendly services. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Bureau of Strategic Planning, Section for Youth, 2004.  p. (BSP.2004/YTH/002)There are over 1 billion young people (aged 15-24) in the world today, which amounts to some 18% of the world's total population. Even though the term youth varies in its significance and age range from culture to culture, it may universally be defined as a transitional concept. That means youth is viewed as a very specific stage between childhood and adulthood, when people have to negotiate a complex interplay of both personal and socio-economic changes in order to manoeuvre the 'transition' from dependence to independence, take effective control of their own lives and assume social commitments. The global situation of young people today is characterised by striking paradoxes, i.e. extreme disparities in terms of economic, technological, social and cultural resources which vary enormously across regions, countries, localities and population groups. Almost 85% of young people live in developing countries, with approximately 60% in Asia alone. Despite mass urbanisation, the majority live in rural areas. Young men outnumber young women (525 million versus 500 million), while 57 million young men and 96 million young women are illiterate. In developing countries rapid changes in the social conditions of young people as a result of changing socio-economic and policy structures, and wider global change mean that they face a more precarious future than any preceding generation. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Bureau of Strategic Planning, Section for Youth, 2004.  p. (BSP.2004/YTH/001)UNESCO's involvement in the field of youth stems from the creation of the organization in 1946. After the Second World War, UNESCO (with only 20 Member States at that time) helped organize international volunteer youth work camps to aid in the reconstruction of Europe. Almost fifty years later in November 1996, 186 Member States at the 29th Session of the UNESCO General Conference reaffirmed and stressed their unanimous commitment to youth as a priority for the whole Organisation. The current policy, i.e. the promotion of 'youth' as a mainstreaming issue of the Organisation in all its activities, is guided by the World Action Programme for Youth to the year 2000 and beyond, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1995. It has also been inspired and informed by a number of recommendations, declarations and plans of actions of diverse regional and international youth meetings and forums held in recent years. (excerpt)
Implementing GIPA: how USAID missions and their implementing partners in five Asian countries are fostering greater involvement of people living with HIV / AIDS.
Washington, D.C., Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 2004 Jan.  p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00006-00)On behalf of the Asia/Near East Bureau (ANE) of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the POLICY Project undertook an assessment of how the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) Principle is being implemented in the ANE region. Five USAID Missions and 12 implementing agencies (IAs) in the region participated in the assessment, which was undertaken in May and June 2003 in Cambodia, India, Nepal, Philippines, and Viet Nam. The purpose of the assessment was to ascertain how Missions, IAs, and NGOs are incorporating GIPA principles into their organizations and into the programmatic work they support and implement. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 23 respondents from Missions, IAs, and NGOs. The assessment found a high level of awareness of GIPA and a commitment by most organizations to foster and promote GIPA principles, within their organizations and in the work they carry out. Ninety-one percent of respondents from the three types of organizations believe that their organizations’ planning, programs, and policymaking activities are or would be enhanced by GIPA. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2002 Jun.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/02.36E; PN-ACP-803)South Africa has begun to explore how best to involve people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplace responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A pilot programme, the GIPA Workplace Model, has been developed over the past four years with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Its aim was to place trained fieldworkers, living openly with HIV/AIDS, in selected partner organizations in different sectors so that they could set up, review or enrich workplace policies and programmes. For partner organizations, the GIPA Workplace Model has added value by: adding credibility to its HIV/AIDS programmes by giving a face to HIV and personalizing it; creating a supportive environment for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and others to speak about HIV/AIDS and issues related to it. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2004.  p. (Economic and Social Council Official Records, 2004. Supplement No. 7; E/2004/27-E/CN.6/2004/14; E/2004/27; E/CN.6/2004/14)Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Optional Protocols thereto on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the further actions and initiatives to implement the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, adopted by the General Assembly at its twenty-third special session, accepted humanitarian rules as set out in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and other instruments of human rights and international law, Recalling that Afghanistan is a party to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Optional Protocols thereto, the Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Reaffirming that all States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2002 Oct. 8 p. (Women’s Rights and Economic Change No. 5; Facts and Issues)Originally established in 1944, the Bank is the world’s largest supplier of development capital and know-how, having provided more than US $17 billion in loans to its client countries in 2001. It is headquartered in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., and it has 100 country offices, in total employing approximately 10,000 staff. At its core, the World Bank is engaged in three activities: lending, development research and economic analysis, and technical assistance. It provides funding from public sources for development programs in areas such as health, education and environmental protection, focusing on national legal, political and economic structures. The Bank promotes reforms designed to create long-term economic growth and stability, lending to governments and using the profits generated from the loans to finance its operations. It has recently promised to allocate more of its future financing to the poorest countries in grants (not loans) for social programs. (excerpt)
Kathmandu, Nepal, UNICEF, Regional Office for South Asia, .  p.The UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia (ROSA) and the Save the Children South and Central Asia Region jointly organised the first South Asia Regional Forum for Young People on HIV/AIDS in Kathmandu from 15-18 December 2002. The major purpose of the Forum was to help the young people prepare themselves for their participation at the Regional High Level Conference on accelerating the momentum in the fight against HIV/AIDS in South Asia from 3 to 4 February 2003 in Kathmandu. This Conference will provide a platform for the children and young people to present their concerns and their request to be equal partners in the fight against HIV/AIDS to National Leaders, Senior Policy Makers, Parliamentarians, Faith-based Leaders, People Living with AIDS, Civil Society Organisations, NGOs and Multilateral Partners. (excerpt)
Getting representation right for women in development: accountability, consent and the articulation of women's interests.
In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 31-43.Consent, as a basis of political authority, remains a forcefully compelling principle because it recognizes so many of the human qualities - autonomy, dignity, responsibility - which we collectively value. But to revere the concept of consent means that we must respect the unpalatable decisions made by others and respect, in turn, means than we cannot ultimately challenge the autonomy of the decision-makers. Thus the more we respect consent, the less capable we are of investigating the context of choice; and the less satisfied we are with the context of choice, the less respect we have for the principle of consent in practice. To break this circle we must be willing to probe and to query the choices and decisions of 'autonomous' agents; for consent itself is not only a moral construct but, more tangibly, a potently political device for ensuring obedience. Instruments of such palpable power must always be carefully and consistently scrutinized, and we must be brave enough to say whether consent has been won at too high a price. (excerpt)