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Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Health Policy Initiative, 2010 Sep.  p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-05-00040-00)The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a major funder of HIV programs worldwide, including programs that support orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Following on a desk review of OVC-related content in Global Fund HIV / AIDS grants, this study in Kenya sought to explore the country-level processes and issues that affect inclusion of OVC goals and strategies in Global Fund country proposals and grants. The study involved interviews with 23 OVC stakeholders, including representatives of government ministries, international agencies, the country coordinating mechanism, principal and sub-recipients, NGOs, faith-based organizations, and OVC network members.
Getting in line: Coordinating responses for children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.
Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 2010 Jun; 5(Suppl 1):92-100.Only one in every eight households containing orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in African countries received any support from an external source (UNICEF, 2008). This is a reflection of how governments, both rich and poor, have ignored obligations ratified in conventions to ensure the social protection of vulnerable children (United Nations, 1989). Consequently, a disproportionate proportion of the financial burden of care of vulnerable children is borne by affected families and communities. It is deplorable that vulnerable children are forced to rely on the charity of income poor relatives and community members (Wilkinson-Maposa et al., 2005; Foster, 2005b). This situation is likely to continue until governments adequately assume their responsibilities. In countries such as Botswana, governments have responded to the crisis of children and AIDS and consequently most households containing vulnerable children now receive external support (UNAIDS et al., 2006). The movement to establish national social protection schemes for vulnerable households is gaining momentum. If cash transfers become established nationally, they may alleviate suffering on a wide scale (JLICA, 2009). In that case, community groups and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are currently responsible for implementing responses to support children affected by HIV and AIDS will still be needed to administer psychosocial and other services that are complementary to those provided by these schemes. It is vital that governments develop a central role in coordinating civil society responses and ensure that resources for vulnerable children are used more effectively. But most African governments have limited capacity to coordinate responses and have only recently engaged in this area that involves a few well-resourced international organisations, many local NGOs and innumerable community initiatives. This article reviews the responses of different sectors responding to the impacts of HIV/AIDS on children, and discusses how these may be better funded, coordinated and monitored, utilizing the findings from a study of civil society OVC initiatives and evolving national responses.
The impacts of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and socioeconomic development on the living arrangements of older persons in sub-Saharan Africa: a country-level analysis.
American Journal of Community Psychology. 2009 Sep; 44(1-2):136-47.This study investigates whether socioeconomic development and the HIV/AIDS pandemic are associated with living arrangement patterns in older persons in 23 sub-Saharan African countries. Country-level aggregate data were taken from previous household surveys and information provided by the United Nations, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. Results showed that 13.5% of older persons (aged 60 years or over) were living with grandchildren but not adult children (i.e., skipped generation households). Countries higher in HIV/AIDS prevalence had more skipped generation households, and also more older persons living with spouse only and fewer older persons living with other relatives. Countries with higher socioeconomic development had fewer older persons living with children younger than 25 years old and more living with spouse only or with other relatives and unrelated persons. The pandemic and socioeconomic development combine to accelerate the breakdown of the extended family structure so that older persons are less and less likely to reside with, and to receive support from, their children.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2008; 84(Suppl 1):i1-i4.This introductory article refers to the journal supplement that assembles important new data relating to several assumptions used for the new HIV and AIDS estimates. The collection of methodological papers in the supplement, aim to provide easy access to the scientific basis underlying the latest HIV and AIDS estimates for 2007.
The Spectrum projection package: improvements in estimating mortality, ART needs, PMTCT impact and uncertainty bounds.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2008; 84(Suppl 1):i24-i30.The approach to national and global estimates of HIV/AIDS used by UNAIDS starts with estimates of adult HIV prevalence prepared from surveillance data using either the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) or the Workbook. Time trends of prevalence are transferred to Spectrum to estimate the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the number of people living with HIV, new infections, AIDS deaths, AIDS orphans, treatment needs and the impact of treatment on survival. The UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections regularly reviews new data and information needs and recommends updates to the methodology and assumptions used in Spectrum. The latest update to Spectrum was used in the 2007 round of global estimates. Several new features have been added to Spectrum in the past two years. The structure of the population was reorganised to track populations by HIV status and treatment status. Mortality estimates were improved by the adoption of new approaches to estimating non-AIDS mortality by single age, and the use of new information on survival with HIV in non-treated cohorts and on the survival of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). A more detailed treatment of mother-to-child transmission of HIV now provides more prophylaxis and infant feeding options. New procedures were implemented to estimate the uncertainty around each of the key outputs. The latest update to the Spectrum program is intended to incorporate the latest research findings and provide new outputs needed by national and international planners.
London, United Kingdom, ACF International Network, . 80 p. (Hunger Watch Publication)This report documents the findings of Local Voices, a six month qualitative research project that provided HIV orphans, vulnerable children and their carers with the opportunity to discuss and document the difficulties they face providing food, water and healthcare for their families. Through meetings, detailed interviews and discussions the project initiated and developed an ongoing dialogue with 20 families in four areas of the Kitwe district in the Copperbelt province of Zambia: Chimwemwe, Kwacha, Chipata and Zamtan. The discourse that developed over the course of the project has given Action Against Hunger (ACF-UK) and CINDI insight in two key areas. Firstly, the research has added a household perspective to existing ideas and analysis of food security in an HIV/AIDS context. Secondly, the project highlights the knowledge and learning that can be gained when people living with a positive HIV diagnosis are seen as 'experts' and their experiences are used to help identify and address the problems they face. Through the voices of the project's participants, the testimonies and images that are the core of this document explore the social and economic impact HIV/AIDS has on families affected by the disease. ACF-UK and CINDI pioneered this work because we believe HIV/AIDS can no longer be seen as just a medical issue. Within this report we demonstrate that HIV/AIDS has a direct impact on the economic and social well-being of both households and communities; and as such it must be tackled using an integrated approach where food, livelihoods and social protection are highlighted as solutions alongside access to medical care. This report opens with statistics that outline current rates of HIV/AIDS and poverty in Zambia, focusing specifically on the Copperbelt province and the Kitwe district. The testimonies that form the centrepiece of this report are introduced by a summary of the key social and economic issues that HIV orphans, vulnerable children and their carers face, together with a synopsis of government and community based organisation (CBO) responses. These topics have been selected as they cover the core issues that were raised during the Local Voices project. The document ends with a brief conclusion and the report recommendations.
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Research on Poverty Alleviation [REPOA], 2007. 26 p. (Special Paper 07.25)The intention of this paper is to highlight the key issues of children and vulnerability in Tanzania. The paper states that a national framework for social protection must be established to address these overwhelming facets of insecurity and vulnerability for children in Tanzania. The framework needs to reduce vulnerability, strengthen capabilities and must therefore put priority on improving the rural economy and rural conditions of life, and on improving health care and other services in rural areas to reduce the toll of ill-health on children and their caregivers. According to the paper pre-natal and obstetric care must be improved so that at birth babies and their mothers are provided health services which minimise their risk of death. Moreover, individuals who require special support may be identified through a combination of community and local government systems, with strengthened organised community groups to care for the most vulnerable. The paper further states that the level of support provided by several programmes to a relatively small number of children, for clothing, for example, is far in excess of the average expenditures by the majority of households on their children. The challenge is to provide support mechanisms which are not stigmatising, nor discriminatory, but which ensure that all children, no matter what their circumstances, benefit from and contribute to their own development and that of the nation to their fullest capacity. In conclusion the paper emphasises that the implications of this analysis suggest that investments are most critically needed to ensure that there is equitable access to quality health care, and that much more serious attention is needed towards the social attitudes towards children and young people and practices of caring for children, not only as infants, but also as older children.
Supporting and sustaining national responses to children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS: Experience from the RAAAP exercise in sub-Saharan Africa.
Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 2006 Aug; 1(2):170-179.The growing number of children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa presents an enormous socioeconomic and public policy challenge. Despite international commitments to increase resource allocation and scale up services and support for AIDS-affected children, families and communities, the national- and sub-national-level state responses have been inadequate. The rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) process for orphans and vulnerable children, conceived in late 2003, was intended as a multicountry incentive to identify and resource immediate actions that can be taken to scale in 16 heavily affected countries. This review of experiences to date with the RAAAP process highlights some key areas of learning, including: (a) fund mobilization has been slow and has reached approximately only one-third of what is required; (b) ownership and integration into development planning of the issue of orphans and vulnerable children at country level has been undermined by the perception that the response is an 'emergency' and externally (donor) driven exercise; (c) centralized planning has failed to appreciate the complexity of context and responses at the meso- and micro-levels within countries, entailing the need to support a comprehensive decentralization process of planning and implementation; (d) comprehensive multisectoral and interagency collaboration, involving civil society, is an important but overlooked element of the planning process; and (e) definitional variation between countries has led to large variations in budgets and coverage targets. While the RAAAP process has undoubtedly raised awareness at state level of the nature and extent of the 'orphan crisis' and raised vital resources, only full integration of the new planning process for orphans and vulnerable children within the range of macro and national development tools will allow the response to be sustainable in the longer term. (author's)
Sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on care, treatment and support for women living with HIV / AIDS and their children in resource-constrained settings.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006.  p.The sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV/AIDS is fundamental to their well-being and that of their partners and children. This publication addresses the specific sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV/AIDS and contains recommendations for counselling, antiretroviral therapy, care and other interventions. Improving women's sexual and reproductive health, treating HIV infections and preventing new ones are important factors in reducing poverty and promoting the social and economic development of communities and countries. Sexual and reproductive health services are uniquely positioned to address each of these factors. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2006 Nov. 88 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 18, No. 14(C))In 1990, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam became the first country in Asia, and the second country in the world, to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Since the early 1990s the government has taken positive steps to enact legislation and policies to protect the rights of children, especially those deemed vulnerable. But for street children in Hanoi-and likely other major cities as well-Vietnam is falling far short of its obligations under Vietnamese and international law, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Between 2003 and 2006, Human Rights Watch received credible reports of serious abuses of street children in Hanoi. Primarily poor children from the countryside who go to Hanoi to find work, street children are routinely and arbitrarily rounded up by police in periodic sweeps. They are sent to two compulsory state "rehabilitation" centers on the outskirts of town, Dong Dau and Ba Vi social protection centers, where they may be detained for periods ranging from two weeks to as much as six months. Social Protection Centers (Trung Tam Bao Tro Xa Hoi in Vietnamese), also known as Social Charity Establishments, Social Support Centers, Social Relief Centers, or Transit Centers, are closed institutions for beggars, homeless adults and children, sex workers, drug addicts, orphans, disabled and elderly people without family support, and street children. In theory, the centers are operated and administered by the Department of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs (DOLISA) together with local People's Committees. In fact, the Ministry of Public Security plays a significant role in their operation. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/247)The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a gathering force for nearly a quarter-century, and it continues to be a major global challenge. AIDS finds its victims in both rich and poor countries. There is no region of the world where HIV/AIDS is not a potentially serious threat to the population. Sub-Saharan Africa has so far borne the brunt of the AIDS devastation, and the region continues to experience high rates of infection. About 3 million people in the region were newly infected with the virus in 2004. Countries in Eastern Europe and Asia now have the fastest-growing rates of HIV infection in the world, and the populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. In some more developed countries, there are signs of a resurgence of risky sex between men. (excerpt)
Right to education during displacement: a resource for organizations working with refugees and internally displaced persons.
New York, New York, Women' s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006.  p.This resource is the first in a series of tools that identifies everyone's right to education, with a focus on refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons (IDP). This version is designed for use by local, regional and international organizations, United Nations (UN) agencies, government agencies and education personnel working with displaced communities. Is it mean to serve as: an awareness raising tool to encourage humanitarian assistance agencies to implement education programs - and donors to found them; training and capacity-building resource for practitioners and others working with displaced populations on international rights around education; and a call to action for organizations and individuals to promote access and completion of quality education for all persons affected by emergencies. (excerpt)
Findings Infobriefs. 2007 May; (136): p.The specific objectives of this project - financed through an IDA credit of $28.7 million (2002-05) - were to : (i) provide resources that would enable the government to implement a balanced, diversified multi-sector response, engaging all relevant government sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and grassroots initiatives; (ii) to expand contributions made by the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) engage civil society in the fight against AIDS; and (iii) finance eligible activities conducted by civil society organizations, including NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), trade and professional associations, associations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), districts, and line ministries to ensure a rapid multisector scaling-up of HIV prevention and care activities in all regions and at all administrative levels. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., United States Department of State, Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, 2005 Jun. 184 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PC-AAB-508)This June FY 2005 Operational Plan serves as an update of the February 2005 Operational Plan. The FY 2005 Operational Plan follows "The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief -- U.S. Five-Year Global HIV/AIDS Strategy" and sets out a course to have an immediate impact on people and strengthen the capacity of governments and NGOs to expand programs quickly over the next several years. By the end of FY 2005 the Emergency Plan will provide direct and indirect care and support for approximately 3,500,000 individuals, and will facilitate access to antiretroviral therapy for at least 550,000 individuals. Section III of this document provides information on each country's contribution to the total number of individuals to be receiving care and support and antiretroviral therapy by the end of FY 2005. The country-specific target tables also provide the FY 2008 care and treatment targets for each country. The FY 2008 targets were set at the beginning of the Emergency Plan. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 care/support targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of ten million individuals receiving care and support by the end of year five. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 treatment targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of two million people on treatment at the end of year five. (excerpt)
Orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV / AIDS in Brazil: where do we stand and where are we heading?
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:23-30.This study aimed at identifying human rights' status and situation, as expressed in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, non-orphans and orphans affected by AIDS, based on local and international literature review. The main study findings did not allow to accurately estimating those children and adolescents living with HIV and non-orphans affected by HIV/AIDS but data was available on those living with AIDS and orphans. The limitations and possibilities of these estimates obtained from surveillance systems, mathematical models and surveys are discussed. Though studies in literature are still quite scarce, there is indication of compromise of several rights such as health, education, housing, nutrition, nondiscrimination, and physical and mental integrity. Brazil still needs to advance to meet further needs of those orphaned and vulnerable children. Its response so far has been limited to providing health care to those children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission and financing the implementation and maintenance of support homes (shelters according to Child and Adolescent Bill of Rights) for those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS, either orphans or not. These actions are not enough to ensure a supportive environment for children and adolescents orphaned, infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. It is proposed ways for Brazil to develop and improve databases to respond to these challenges. (author's)
Peddro. 2001 Dec; 106.The World Health Organization has developed a prevention kit to help educators to inform young people about AIDS risks and the abuse of psychoactive substances. This kit produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) was developed over a period of several years. The first version was brought out in 1995 and submitted for the approval of more than 700 professionals, including social workers and people working for associations in various countries. The WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence is now proposing a fully developed pedagogical tool designed to ensure that it can be widely distributed and easily understood by educators all over the world, whatever experience they may or may not have acquired in this field. Although the contents of the course are fairly general, there is also a handbook explaining how to adapt the way in which information is presented, depending on the specificities of the local context. (excerpt)
From camp to community: Liberia study on exploitation of children. Discussion paper on children's vulnerability to exploitation and abuse during the delivery of assistance in Liberia based on field studies carried out by Save the Children UK in Liberia.
Monrovia, Liberia, Save the Children UK, 2006. 20 p.The people of Liberia have experienced ongoing suffering over the past two decades as a result of war and displacement. Children have been drawn into this in many ways, such as recruitment into armed forces, separation from their families, witnessing atrocities, rape and torture. Thousands have been driven from their homes into exile into neighbouring countries or camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) within Liberia. This study focuses on children remaining in those camps and those who have recently been repatriated to their towns and villages of origin after the end of the war. Save the Children, along with many other non-governmental organisations, has been working alongside the Liberian government in the IDP camps. During the course of our work with children, Save the Children staff became aware that many children were agreeing to have sex with older men for money, food and other goods and favours. In order to document more closely the circumstances surrounding this issue, and to look at ways to improve Save the Children's delivery of assistance to better protect children against such exploitation, we instigated a study in four IDP camps and four communities with a high population of people returning from the camps. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., United States Department of State, Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs, 2006 Jun.  p.The Department of State is required by law to submit a Report each year to the U.S. Congress on foreign governments' efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons. This Report is the sixth annual TIP Report. It is intended to raise global awareness, to highlight the growing efforts of the international community to combat human trafficking, and to encourage foreign governments to take effective actions to counter all forms of trafficking in persons. The Report has increasingly focused the efforts of a growing community of nations on sharing information and partnering in new and important ways. A country that fails to make significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking in persons, per U.S. law, receives a "Tier 3" assessment in this Report. Such an assessment could trigger the withholding of nonhumanitarian, non-trade-related assistance from the United States to that country. In assessing foreign governments' efforts, the TIP Report highlights the "three P's"-- prosecution, protection, and prevention. But a victim-centered approach to trafficking requires us equally to address the "three R's"-- rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration. The U.S. law that guides these efforts, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, as amended, makes clear from the outset that the purpose of combating human trafficking is to ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers, to protect their victims, and to prevent trafficking from occurring. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
London, England, ECPAT UK, 2006. 55 p.The sexual abuse of children perpetrated by foreign nationals in tourism destinations, was first formally investigated in South East Asia in the late 1980s. One of the first organizations to expose 'child sex tourism' was the Bangkok based Ecumenical Coalition On Third World Tourism (ECTWT) which had been monitoring the impacts of tourism in Asia since 1982. ECTWT researchers investigated the growth in tourism related child prostitution in several Asian countries including Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Taiwan. While largely anecdotal, this early research found that child prostitution was reaching alarming levels and that while the highest level of demand for children in prostitution was from local men, it was increasingly also coming from foreign tourists. The research findings were the impetus for a number of Asian-based non-governmental organisations to launch the international Campaign to End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism (ECPAT) in 1990. The ECPAT international movement has grown to encompass national representatives in over 70 countries. ECPAT UK was one of the first European ECPAT partners and was established in 1994 as The Coalition Against Child Prostitution and Tourism to campaign for new laws to prosecute British nationals travelling abroad to abuse children. (excerpt)
Kathmandu, Nepal, Save the Children Sweden, 2006. 37 p.This is a child and youth friendly book that briefly tells girls and boys about the discussions, concerns and recommendations that came up during the 'Consultation of South Asia Children and Young People for the UN Study on Violence against Children' followed by a 'Regional Consultation for the UN Study on Violence against Children in South Asia'. South Asia includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The consultations were held as part of a larger process of preparing a report for the United Nations Secretary General's Study on Violence against Children. It has given adults and children an opportunity to work together to understand the issue and to find ways of stopping violence against children. (excerpt)
SAfAIDS News. 2005 Sep; 11(3):11-12.The AIDS epidemic has become a genuine global emergency with rising numbers of new infections, increasing numbers of deaths and the impact of the epidemic increasingly being felt particularly by the rising numbers of children made orphans or vulnerable by AIDS. The scale of the emergency has resulted in an unprecedented response by African countries, civil society and the international community. Today, there are more resources for HIV prevention, care, support and treatment than ever before. This increase in resources is coupled with an increasing number of actors becoming involved in the AIDS response, often leading to unclear roles and leadership and dispersed authority that may undermine national plans and priorities. Furthermore, resources are often dissipated and scattered, transaction costs have increased, capacities are distracted and weakened while monitoring and evaluation remains fragmented. The result has been that a substantial amount of available resources are not being used effectively and not getting to the people that need them most. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Report of UNICEF-WHO consultation: Development of a Programming Guide for Scaling Up Treatment, Care and Support for HIV-Infected and Exposed Children in Resource-Constrained Settings, New York City, USA: January 11-13, 2006.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Jan 24. 22 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADG-534; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)While many countries in resource-limited settings have made considerable progress in scaling up access to HIV care and treatment for adults, the provision of services, especially antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children, is still in the early stages. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have agreed to develop appropriate programming guidance to assist countries in the scale up of pediatric HIV care and support. The consultation was convened jointly by UNICEF and WHO with the following goal and objectives. Goal-- The aim of this meeting is to review the draft UNICEF / WHO programming guidance and identify essential revisions and modifications and outline next steps. Specific Objectives -- 1. Review and agree on the essential package of services for treatment, care and support of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infants and children. This will include, but not be limited to: a. Routine HIV testing; b. Follow up of children exposed to HIV and ensuring early testing (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] for infants and for older children, rapid antibody) through child and family care programs; c. Delivery of long-term care of symptomatic children in health care settings, including provision of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and ART; d. Training to improve skill levels of health care providers and laboratory staff; e. Delivery of home-based care to both exposed and infected children; f. Provision of psychosocial support and counseling for HIV-infected children; g. Quality improvement activities. 2. Review the draft programming guidance to confirm its applicability, suitability, and relevance to the key intended audience. 3. To examine and endorse the identified key program elements of the draft programming guidance. (excerpt)
Civil society involvement in rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) for orphans and vulnerable children. An independent review.
London, England, UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development, 2005 Jul. 63 p. (Orphans and Vulnerable Children)The Rapid Assessment, Analysis, and Action Planning (RAAAP) Initiative for orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) was launched by UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS, and WFP in November 2003. The first round of RAAAPs were carried out in 16 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2004. The purpose of the RAAAP is to undertake an analysis of the situation of OVC and the response in each country, and then, based on this analysis, to produce a national plan of action to scale up and improve the quality of the response to OVC. This plan is then ratified by the government and provides a unifying framework that brings together the activities of all the different stakeholders under a set of common objectives and strategies. This includes all interventions for OVC, including activities of national and local government, donors and civil society organisations (CSOs). The first round of the RAAAP process consisted of a desk study, additional data collection and analysis in country, and a stakeholder workshop to validate the findings and draw up the OVC National Plan of Action. The process was led and coordinated by a national steering group which consisted of the government ministry with responsibility for OVC, other relevant government ministries and departments, development partners including UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS and WFP and representatives of civil society organisations (CSO). The involvement of different stakeholders in the analysis and planning process is critical for ensuring their ownership of the resulting action plan. (excerpt)
Windhoek, Namibia, Family Health International [FHI], 2002. 15 p.This workshop followed the November 25-29 Eastern and Southern Africa Workshop on Children Affected by HIV/AIDS. Approximately 50 people, representing 17 countries, attended the one-day workshop, which was convened by the UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office in Nairobi with the support and co-operation of USAID and Family Health International. The objectives of this workshop were to: Share knowledge, information and experience relating to alternative forms of care for children without family care (orphans and other vulnerable children in each country who are living in institutional care, on the street, child headed households etc.) with a major focus on how to strengthen and greatly increase better care for such children in Africa; Identify issues of common concern relating to alternative care, and discuss possible solutions; Enable delegates to incorporate this information into country-level action; and Consider possible next steps. (excerpt)