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Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2016 May.  p. (TR-16-128; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This document offers concrete guidance on how organizations can comprehensively and explicitly integrate gender in their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems. It describes how to make each component of a functioning M&E system gender-sensitive and provides guidance on how to assess an M&E system to ensure that gender is fully integrated throughout the system for appropriate collection, compilation, analysis, dissemination, and use of gender data for decision making. This document outlines why it is important to apply a gender lens to M&E processes and structures and contextualizes gender in an M&E system. It then walks you through how to think about gender and address it in each of the components of an M&E system. This guide includes examples of gender-specific assessment questions that can be integrated in an M&E system assessment and provides guidance on how to plan and conduct an M&E system assessment. This guidance document is intended for national health program and M&E managers, subnational health program staff with M&E responsibilities, M&E officers from different agencies or organizations, and development partners who provide M&E support to national and subnational M&E systems.
Sport in Society. 2015 Sep 14; 18(8):895-908.In 2006, UNESCO partnered with the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) claiming that women's tennis can help foster gender equality. This partnership was based on the notion that the empowerment of women and girls is integral to sustainable international development; yet, girls and women are positioned as both the barrier and solution to development. This document analysis uses the UNESCO–WTA project in Cameroon to critique the problematic nature of development assumptions and the approach of gender mainstreaming while contextualizing women's empowerment as a loaded term that often ignores social, political, and economic constraints. The implications of this analysis serve to reiterate calls for sport for development and peace initiatives to situate both sport and gender in their local contexts. It is also important to question the lack of accountability and transparency demonstrated by this particular corporate social responsibility partnership.
Development in Practice. 2012 Apr; 22(2):202-215.Empowerment has become a mainstream concept in international development but lacks clear definition, which can undermine development initiatives aimed at strengthening empowerment as a route to poverty reduction. In the present article, written narratives from 49 international development organisations identify how empowerment is defined and operationalised in community initiatives. Results show a conceptual framework of empowerment comprising six mechanisms that foster empowerment (knowledge; agency; opportunity; capacity-building; resources; and sustainability), five domains of empowerment (health; economic; political; resource; and spiritual), and three levels (individual; community; and organisational). A key finding is the interdependence between components, indicating important programmatic implications for development initiatives.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct.  p.These guidelines to UNAIDS’ preferred terminology have been developed for use by staff members, colleagues in the Programme’s 10 Cosponsoring organisations, and other partners working in the global response to HIV. Language shapes beliefs and may influence behaviours. Considered use of appropriate language has the power to strengthen the global response to the epidemic. UNAIDS is pleased to make these guidelines to preferred terminology freely available. It is a living, evolving document that is reviewed on a regular basis. Comments and suggestions for additions, deletions, or modifications should be sent to email@example.com.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2010 Jul; 110 Suppl:S17-9.Unsafe abortion is a recognized public health problem that contributes significantly to maternal mortality. At least 13% of maternal mortality is caused by unsafe abortion, mostly in poor and marginalized women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) launched an initiative in 2007 to prevent unsafe abortion and its consequences, building on its work on other major causes of maternal mortality. A Working Group was identified with collaborators from many international organizations and terms of reference provided direction from the FIGO Executive Board as to possible evidence-based interventions. A total of 54 member associations of FIGO, representing almost half its member societies, requested participation in the initiative, with 43 subsequently producing action plans that are country specific and involve the national government and multiple collaborators. Obstetrician/gynecologists have demonstrated the importance of the initiative by an unprecedented level of engagement in efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in country and by sharing experiences regionally. (c) 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2010 May; 18(35):119-28.The female condom has received surprisingly little serious attention since its introduction in 1984. Given the numbers of women with HIV globally, international support for women's reproductive and sexual health and rights and the empowerment of women, and, not least, due to the demand expressed by users, one would have expected the female condom to be widely accessible 16 years after it first appeared. This expectation has not materialised; instead, the female condom has been marginalised in the international response to HIV and AIDS. This paper asks why and analyses the views and actions of users, providers, national governments and international public policymakers, using an analytical framework specifically designed to evaluate access to new health technologies in poor countries. We argue that universal access to female condoms is not primarily hampered by obstacles on the users' side, as is often alleged, nor by unwilling governments in developing countries, but that acceptability of the female condom is problematic mainly at the international policy level. This view is based on an extensive review of the literature, interviews with representatives of UNAIDS, UNFPA and other organisations, and a series of observations made during the International AIDS Conference in Mexico in August 2008. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, 2008 Jan.  p. (Evaluation Working Papers Issue No. 12)This collection of articles by UNICEF brings together the vision and lessons learned from different stakeholders on the strategic role of monitoring and evaluation in evidence-based policymaking. These stakeholders are policymakers (as users of evidence) and researchers and evaluators (as suppliers of evidence). The use of strong evidence can achieve recognition of a policy issue, inform the design and choice of policy, forecast the future, monitor policy implementation, and evaluate policy impact.
Journal of International Women's Studies. 2007 Nov; 9(1):212-233.This essay analyzes the contributions of three Young Women's Christian Association leaders who chaired the nongovernmental organization forum planning committees during the UN Decade for Women (1975-1985). It assesses the effectiveness of their leadership and addresses questions of distribution and uses of power within women's international NGOs and in relationship to the global feminist community. (author's)
London, England, Overseas Development Institute, 2005 Apr.  p. (Working Paper No. 244)The Research and Policy in Development (RAPID) programme at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) has been working since 1999 to promote development policy-making processes that are evidence-based and focused on the needs of the poor. One of the key dimensions of the RAPID programme at ODI is 'knowledge and learning systems in development agencies'. This study synthesises existing research on knowledge and learning in the development sector, and draws out eight key questions for examining related strategies and systems in development agencies. Together, these questions make up a comprehensive Knowledge Strategies Framework, which bears close resemblance to the framework used by the ODI to assess complex processes of change within the development and humanitarian sector. The dimensions of this new Knowledge Strategies Framework are mapped out as Organisational knowledge, Organisational links, Organisational contexts, and External factors. The study then presents the analysis of data collected on current knowledge and learning practices in 13 selected case study organisations1. This data was gathered via desk based reviews, interviews, consultations with agency staff and focus groups. The Knowledge Strategies Framework is used to analyse and synthesise these findings, to formulate the recommendations of the study, and to suggest key next steps. (excerpt)
Civil society involvement in rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) for orphans and vulnerable children. An independent review.
London, England, UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development, 2005 Jul. 63 p. (Orphans and Vulnerable Children)The Rapid Assessment, Analysis, and Action Planning (RAAAP) Initiative for orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) was launched by UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS, and WFP in November 2003. The first round of RAAAPs were carried out in 16 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2004. The purpose of the RAAAP is to undertake an analysis of the situation of OVC and the response in each country, and then, based on this analysis, to produce a national plan of action to scale up and improve the quality of the response to OVC. This plan is then ratified by the government and provides a unifying framework that brings together the activities of all the different stakeholders under a set of common objectives and strategies. This includes all interventions for OVC, including activities of national and local government, donors and civil society organisations (CSOs). The first round of the RAAAP process consisted of a desk study, additional data collection and analysis in country, and a stakeholder workshop to validate the findings and draw up the OVC National Plan of Action. The process was led and coordinated by a national steering group which consisted of the government ministry with responsibility for OVC, other relevant government ministries and departments, development partners including UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS and WFP and representatives of civil society organisations (CSO). The involvement of different stakeholders in the analysis and planning process is critical for ensuring their ownership of the resulting action plan. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2001 Jan. 204 p.UNAIDS has decided to create a Global Directory of Condom Social Marketing Projects and Organisations to provide information and data on social marketing for countries, institutions and organisations working in HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease programmes, especially in the area of condom programming. The information contained in the directory demonstrates the different ways in which social marketing complements and supports HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. The directory, which covers different models of condom social marketing programmes, specifically intends to: Show the contribution of social marketing in HIV/AIDS programmes; Stimulate new ideas and developments in social marketing for HIV prevention; Serve as an advocacy document to encourage policy makers and implementers to adopt the social marketing approach for condom programming in HIV/AIDS, when possible and for health promotion in general; Constitute a database of social marketing organisations and programmes that reflects activities in different countries regarding HIV/AIDS and social marketing; Provide important information on social marketing. The condom social marketing organisations, profiled in Section 4, were closely involved in providing the necessary information to create the Directory. (excerpt)
In: Listening to those working with communities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to achieve the UN goals for water and sanitation, [compiled by] Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council [WSSCC]. Geneva, Switzerland, WSSCC, 2004. 3-16.The basics of public health – water, sanitation, and hygiene – are now back on the international agenda. But why have decades of effort and billions of dollars of investment in water and sanitation programmes yielded so little progress? What has been learnt? What are the new approaches that work? Why are they not yet gaining traction? And what can be done to turn the tide of failure and achieve the Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation? This introduction draws together some of the most commonly held and strongly felt views of the many contributors to this publication who have helped to pioneer the new ways forward. (excerpt)
Fish, feminists and the FAO: translating 'gender' through different institutions in the development process.
In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 61-74.Over the last fifteen years or so, feminist analyses have apparently influenced both thinking and practice in international development agencies. The language of gender and development has been widely adopted. For example, awareness of the differences between practical and strategic gender needs is evident in the policy documentation of many multilateral and bilateral donors. However, the tendency of projects for women to 'misbehave' noted by Buvinic in 1985 is now replicated by the tendency of 'gender planning' to slip subtly and imperceptibly into the much older 'projects for women'. A relational approach to gender is replaced by a focus on women, while male gender identities lie unexamined in the background. The problem of institutionalizing gender analysis, making it more than a nagging concern on the margins, is as acute as ever: 'despite the energy and resources allocated to this work for more than a decade, Women in Development (WID) still most frequently remains an "addon" to mainstream policy and practice.' The commitment to gender analysis only rarely becomes gender-sensitive practice. More frequently it is translated into 'targeting women' and gradually exchanged for the practical exigencies of project reality. This chapter traces the process, through a case study of one donor - the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) - and one of its projects in sub-Saharan Africa. The project is not specifically for women, nor does it focus mainly on gender issues. It aims to promote small-scale fish farming as a diversification and supplement to rural livelihoods. However, gender issues gained a high profile in the stated aims of the project. I examine how these are articulated and mean different things to different people in the policy process, from headquarters in Rome to local-level bureaucracies and the farmers in contact with the project. (excerpt)
In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 167-182.Using a feminist lens to inspect current PVO (private voluntary organization) family planning programs, we first define the feminist perspective as it applies to such programs and then compare that feminist vision with the reality found in the field. This paper examines the political dynamics of working for a feminist agenda within the community of population PVOs. The following case study illustrates these dynamics and leads to a discussion of both the obstacles to the realization of a feminist vision and the political strategies and attitudes that help implement this vision. Together, we draw on seventeen years of work with a variety of PVOs involved in family planning and reproductive health. (excerpt)
Santiago, Chile, EarthAction, 2003.  p.In terms of absolute numbers, India has the largest child labour population in the world. It also probably has the greatest number of Civil Society Organisations that are doing first rate work at freeing children from child labour, getting them into schools and meeting their basic needs. The following list includes many outstanding organisations that work on child labour and related issues that Earth Action's Director met with during her visit to India in January 2003. (author's)
Critical areas, issues and topics in sexual and reproductive health indicator development. An annotated bibliography.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region [WHR], 2002 Oct. 60 p.The purpose of this document is to serve as a guide to available resources on indicators for monitoring and evaluating sexual and reproductive health and rights. In addition to more traditional sources of indicators, an effort has been made to incorporate innovative work carried out by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the local level. Furthermore, within the context of the post-ICPD approach to SRH, this annotated bibliography includes indicators specifically related to critical areas of SRH, as well as to those concerned with women’s empowerment and other issues related to general social and economic development that are relevant to SRH. Because there are fewer and less tangible measures for monitoring and evaluating progress in these latter areas, sources that are more conceptual in nature are included. This annotated bibliography is part of the RHAG Indicators Committee’s ongoing efforts to identify indicators and frameworks that address critical areas, issues, and topics in SRH at multiple levels of society and within a variety of contexts. Although it should not be considered an exhaustive source of information in this area, this document provides an assessment of state-of-the-art thinking on SRH measurement frameworks and indicators, which can be used as a basis for enhanced programming and monitoring and evaluation in the field. The next Section discusses the fundamentals of indicator development and the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods in formulating indicators. The following chapter, Section III, reviews the initiatives of major international organizations, both governmental and nongovernmental, as well as those of local NGOs in the area of SRH indicator development. Section IV presents sources of indicators and conceptual frameworks for measuring key SRH areas, including: (a) family planning; (b) safe motherhood; (c) abortion and post-abortion care; (d) RTIs and STDs; (e) HIV/AIDS; (f) youth SRH; (g) male involvement in SRH; and (h) sexuality. Section V examines sources of indicators and frameworks for issues related to women’s empowerment, including: (a) gender equity; (b) rights; (c) education; and (d) violence against women. In closing, Section VI considers additional topics of social and economic development related to reproductive health and rights, including: (a) social context/culture; (b) health sector reform; and (c) migration. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun 9.  p. (DPI/2214/F)This fact sheet presents five priorities for action, six key factors to achieve these goals, and recommends partnering to carry out the campaign.
Report of the Global Action against Female Genital Mutilation Project Second Annual Inter-Agency Working Group Meeting. Held at: AVSC International, New York, November 6 and 7, 1995.
[Unpublished] 1995. , 19,  p.In November 1995, the Inter-Agency Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Meeting provided a forum for international agencies to share information on relevant policies and programs and technical knowledge in research, intervention, and evaluation and to develop ethical approaches and strategies for FGM activities. Following a summary of the welcoming remarks, the report of the meeting reviews global FGM activities in 1994. For example, Ghana outlawed FGM. Meeting participants heard an update on FGM-related presentations and/or discussions at the Beijing Conference. Next on the agenda was an overview of the current and future programs of the meeting's host, the Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBO). It revolved around grants and technical capacity building, communications and information dissemination, and the immigrant outreach project. In-country FGM-related activities in Egypt and Ethiopia were discussed next. International activities' updates were provided by UN and bilateral organizations (UNICEF, WHO, USAID, UNFPA, Overseas Development Agency, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) as well as technical agencies, private foundations, research institutions (Japan's Network for Women and Health, the Wallace Global Fund, Harvard University, Family Health International), Program for Appropriate Technologies in Health, and the Ford Foundation. A presentation by the president of the National Committee Against the Practice of Excision in Burkina Faso focused on FGM activities in Burkina Faso and addressed the plans for a West African operational research network to coordinate research activities and help integrate programs of intervention. The West Africa focus continued with a presentation on proposed projects in Mali and Ghana. New and innovative projects highlighted next included a video project in Burkina Faso and Human Rights Community Training Projects in Kenya. The meeting concluded with a discussion of strategies for the future.
Programme of Action of The Conference. Draft programme of action of the International Conference on Population and Development.
[Unpublished] 1994 May 13. 113 p. (A/CONF.171/L.1)The draft program of action is presented for the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. It was approved by the Preparatory Committee at its third session held in New York April 20-22, 1994. The preamble and principles are first presented. The basis for action, objectives, and actions are then presented on each of the following topics: interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth and sustainable development; gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; the family, its roles, composition and structure; reproductive rights and family planning; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration, population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; partnership with the nongovernmental sector; and a follow-up to the conference.
The use of economic and financial studies for the Expanded Programme on Immunization: third international meeting proceedings, June 13 - 15, 1990, Paris, France.
Paris, France, Centre International de l'Enfance, 1990. , 22 p.With the financial support of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centre International de l'Enfance (CIE), 23 meeting participants considered the extent to which financial studies of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) have been used, factors contributing to their use or nonuse, types of information which could come out of financial studies which are most important for EPI managers, and recommendations which should be made about developing and using such studies in the future. Participants included 7 nationals involved in EPI management from Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Haiti, Philippines, Sudan, and Turkey, as well as representatives from CIE, the Resources for Child Health (REACH) project, the world Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization, the Association pour la Promotion de la Medecine Preventive, l'Organisation de Coordination et de Cooperation pour la Lutte contre les Grandes Endemies, and INSERM. Participants were introduced and presentations made on experiences with cost and cost-effectiveness studies from the perspectives of national EPI management and technical assistance/donor agencies. Participants were then divided into 2 working groups, 1 French-speaking and 1 mixed language, to consider questions about economic and financial studies, and the relevance of these studies to EPI management. Conclusions were reported in plenary sessions. The meeting closed with remarks from James Cheyne of WHO, a summary and commentary from Walter Batchelor of REACH, group recommendations for the future of EPI studies, and a summary by Dr. Pierre Claquin of REACH on participants' evaluation of the meeting and suggestions for the next meeting. Dr. Lucien Houllemare of CIE closed by stating that EPI financial management issues are broader than EPI and pertain to more general program development problems.
HYGIE. 1991; 10(2):3-4.A strategic plan for objectives and operations of the International Union for Health Education (IUHE) in the 1990s is presented. The IUHE's principal aims are to strengthen the position of education as a major means of protecting and promoting health, to support members of the IUHE, and to advise other agencies. Core functions will include advocacy/information services/networking, conferences/seminars, liaison/consultancy/technical services, training, and research. The objectives of the IUHE are to promote and strengthen the scientific and technical development of health education, to enhance the skills and knowledge of people engaged in health education, to create a greater awareness of the global leadership role of the IUHE in protecting and promoting health, and to secure a stronger organizational and resource base. These objectives will be achieved by developing an disseminating annual policy papers on key global issues, developing new procedural guidelines for the IUHE's world and regional conferences, clarifying the roles of the headquarters and regional offices, and developing recruitment incentives to boost membership. The corporate identify of the IUHE will be revised, formal U.N. accreditation will be sought, and mutually beneficial relationships will be fostered with selected U.N. and non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the scientific and technical strengths of the IUHE will be boosted, a resources referral service developed, a fund raising office created, worker achievements recognized, and a bursary fund established.
Statement from the Second Regional Conference on AIDS in Africa, Kinshasa, Zaire, 24-27 October 1988.
[Unpublished] 1989.  p. (WHO/GPA/INF/89.7)The 2nd Regional Conference on AIDS in Africa was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Zaire. Representatives from AIDS programs and committees from 44 WHO African Region countries were in attendance, along with representative of multilateral and non-governmental organizations. Summaries of discussion from the conference's 8 working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include implementation and monitoring of national AIDS programs; defining and reaching target groups; counselling; involving the media in promoting AIDS prevention and control; knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP); surveillance for HIV infection in national AIDS programs; and condoms. Management, internal communication, decentralization, project integration, and cooperation were recognized as important in implementing AIDS programs, while the need for epidemiological assessment in defining target groups was pointed out. Counselling's importance and the need for confidentiality were stressed, followed by discussion of the need to educate and collaborate with the media. Data on KABP are seen as central to prevention and control programs, while sentinel serosurveillance is urged especially for pregnant women presenting for antenatal care, blood donors, and STD patients. The paper concludes with discussion of barriers to widespread condom use.
Women's health and safe motherhood: the role of the obstetrician and gynaecologist, a report of a pre-congress workshop organized by the joint WHO/FIGO Task Force, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-20 October 1988.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Family Health, Programme on Maternal and Child Health, 1989. ii, 22 p. (WHO/MCH/89.3)Objectives, conclusions, and recommendations are given from the pre-congress workshop jointly convened in 1988 for the 12th World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics by the WHO and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Objectives included: 1) Giving a definition for the role played by national OB/GYN societies as well as other professional associations in research, education, and training for women's health and safe motherhood. 2) Developing the means for collaboration between groups. 3) Appraising the collaboration between WHO and FIGO. Conclusions and recommendations included improving curricula for medical and graduate students, identifying important research issues, designing data forms to record pregnancy outcomes, designing screening and test risk-scoring systems, and evaluating educational campaigns, traditional birth attendant (TBA) training, improvements for providing prenatal care, the area of obstetric hemorrhage, and systems of communication and transportation in emergencies. It is important to have good working relations between women's organizations, midwives, and nurses and OB/GYN societies. A list of participants in the workshop is given.
[New York, New York], UNICEF, 1989 Winter. , 104,  p.The Compendium of International AIDS Programs and Policies, prepared by the Working Group on AIDS of the Non-Governmental Organizations Committee of UNICEF, is the 1st such comprehensive resource. The volume provides profiles on the activities of 104 international organizations that have developed programs in response to the AIDS crisis. For each organization, information is included on the contact person, country/region of operation, type of program, target population, channels of communication or service delivery, scope of activity, and materials produced. Also included in this compendium are the policy statements and resolutions on AIDS of major international private and public agencies. The compendium was prepared to serve 3 purposes: 1) serve as an information resource for individuals and organizations working internationally or at the grass-roots level, especially in high-incidence, resource-poor countries, to assist them to coordinate AIDS program efforts; 2) serve as a quick reference tool for the media to assist them in enhancing their coverage of the international aspects of AIDS; and 3) serve as a planning thesaurus to encourage the development of policy, particularly by organizations representing the nongovernmental sector, to meet the challenge of global AIDS. The compendium is free to journalists, development specialists, and public health workers in developing countries.
[Unpublished] 1988 Jan. 3 p.The London Declaration On AIDS Prevention, of the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention, contains 15 declarations. 1) Since AIDS is a global problem urgent action by all governments is needed to implement WHO's Global AIDS Strategy. 2) We shall do all we can to ensure that our governments undertake such urgent action. 3) All governments are recommended to form a high level committee coordinating all sectors involved in control of HIV infections. 4) Information and education is the single most important component of national AIDS programs at the present time. 5 Programs must be aimed at the general public and at specific groups, always respecting cultural values and human and spiritual values. 6) AIDS prevention programs must protect human rights and human dignity, avoiding discrimination or stigmatization. 7) The media are urged to fulfill their important social responsibility to provide factual and balanced information to the general public. 8) All sectors must cooperate to allow a supportive social environment for the effective implementation of AIDS prevention programs, and the humane care of affected people. 9) The importance of governments providing the human and financial resources necessary is essential to national health. 10) An appeal is made to all United Nations organizations, multilateral organizations and voluntary organizations to cooperate in the struggle against AIDS. 11) We appeal to those bodies to assist developing nations to set up their own programs in light of their particular needs. 12) Those involved with drug abuse must intensify their efforts, and thus impede the spread of infection. 13) WHO is called on to take several specific actions to coordinate and lead the international effort against AIDS. 14) 1988 shall be a Year of Communication and Cooperation about AIDS. 15 we are convinced that through these efforts we can and will slow the spread of HIV infection. (author's modified)