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Your search found 299 Results

  1. 1
    379388
    Peer Reviewed

    Monitoring and surveillance for multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy.

    Mei Z; Jefferds ME; Namaste S; Suchdev PS; Flores-Ayala RC

    Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Dec 22; 1-9.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation in pregnancy has been implemented in select countries and emerging evidence suggests that MMN supplementation in pregnancy may provide additional benefits compared to IFA alone. In 2015, WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the Micronutrient Initiative held a “Technical Consultation on MMN supplements in pregnancy: implementation considerations for successful incorporation into existing programmemes,” which included a call for indicators needed for monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance of MMN supplementation programs. Currently, global surveillance and monitoring data show that overall IFA supplementation programs suffer from low coverage and intake adherence, despite inclusion in national policies. Common barriers that limit the effectiveness of IFA-which also apply to MMN programs-include weak supply chains, low access to antenatal care services, low-quality behavior change interventions to support and motivate women, and weak or non-existent monitoring systems used for programme improvement. The causes of these barriers in a given country need careful review to resolve them. As countries heighten their focus on supplementation during pregnancy, or if they decide to initiate or transition into MMN supplementation, a priority is to identify key monitoring indicators to address these issues and support effective programs. National and global monitoring and surveillance data on IFA supplementation during pregnancy are primarily derived from cross-sectional surveys and, on a more routine basis, through health and logistics management information systems. Indicators for IFA supplementation exist; however, the new indicators for MMN supplementation need to be incorporated. We reviewed practice-based evidence, guided by the WHO/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention logic model for vitamin and mineral interventions in public health programs, and used existing manuals, published literature, country reports, and the opinion of experts, to identify monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance indicators for MMN supplementation programs. We also considered cross-cutting indicators that could be used across programme settings, as well as those specific to common delivery models, such as antenatal care services. We then described mechanisms for collecting these data, including integration within existing government monitoring systems, as well as other existing or proposed systems. Monitoring data needs at all stages of the programme lifecycle were considered, as well as the feasibility and cost of data collection. We also propose revisions to global-, national-, and subnational-surveillance indicators based on these reviews.
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  2. 2
    374598

    Making innovation and technology work for women: UN Women’s work in innovation and technology.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Sep. 22 p.

    This background paper highlights the key barriers that contribute towards creating and sustaining the gender gap in innovation and technology, including the limited market awarenss and investment in innovations that meet the needs of women; the gender-blind approach to innovation; the under-representation of women as innovators and entrepreneurs; and the perceived high risk, low reward profile of investing in innovations for women and girls. The paper also outlines the concrete action that UN Women and its partners are taking to address them.
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  3. 3
    374581

    HIV and young people who sell sex.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 44 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This technical brief is one in a series addressing four young key populations. It is intended for policy-makers, donors, service-planners, service-providers and community- led organizations. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide services, programmes and support for young people who sell sex. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young people who sell sex; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of young people.
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  4. 4
    374580

    HIV and young men who have sex with men.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 40 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This technical brief is one in a series addressing four young key populations. It is intended for policy-makers, donors, service-planners, service-providers and community-led organizations. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young MSM. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young MSM; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build to the strengths, competencies and capacities of young MSM.
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  5. 5
    388112
    Peer Reviewed

    Scaling up proven innovative cervical cancer screening strategies: Challenges and opportunities in implementation at the population level in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Holme F; Kapambwe S; Nessa A; Basu P; Murillo R; Jeronimo J

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:63-68.

    The problem of cervical cancer in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) is both urgent and important, and calls for governments to move beyond pilot testing to population-based screening approaches as quickly as possible. Experiences from Zambia, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, where scale-up of evidence-based screening strategies is taking place, may help other countries plan for large-scale implementation. These countries selected screening modalities recommended by the WHO that are within budgetary constraints, improve access for women, and reduce health system bottlenecks. In addition, some common elements such as political will and government investment have facilitated action in these diverse settings. There are several challenges for continued scale-up in these countries, including maintaining trained personnel, overcoming limited follow-up and treatment capacity, and implementing quality assurance measures. Countries considering scale-up should assess their readiness and conduct careful planning, taking into consideration potential obstacles. International organizations can catalyze action by helping governments overcome initial barriers to scale-up. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
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  6. 6
    376132
    Peer Reviewed

    Delivering HIV services in partnership: factors affecting collaborative working in a South African HIV programme.

    Jobson GA; Grobbelaar CJ; Mabitsi M; Railton J; Peters RP; McIntyre JA; Struthers HE

    Globalization and Health. 2017 Jan 13; 13(1):3.

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) in delivering health services in low and middle income countries (LMICs) depends on effective collaborative working at scales from the local to the international, and a single GHI is effectively constructed of multiple collaborations. Research is needed focusing on how collaboration functions in GHIs at the level of health service management. Here, collaboration between local implementing agencies and departments of health involves distinct power dynamics and tensions. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of a health partnership in South Africa, this article examines how organisational power dynamics affected the operation of the partnership across five dimensions of collaboration: governance, administration, organisational autonomy, mutuality, and norms of trust and reciprocity. RESULTS: Managing the tension between the power to provide resources held by the implementing agency and the local Departments' of Health power to access the populations in need of these resources proved critical to ensuring that the collaboration achieved its aims and shaped the way that each domain of collaboration functioned in the partnership. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that it is important for public health practitioners to critically examine the ways in which collaboration functions across the scales in which they work and to pay particular attention to how local power dynamics between partner organisations affect programme implementation.
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  7. 7
    376035

    [Poliomyelitis--Challenges for the Last Mile of the Eradication Programme] Poliomyelitis--Herausforderungen in der Endphase des globalen Eradikationsprogramms.

    Muller O; Jahn A; Razum O

    Gesundheitswesen). 2016 Apr; 78(4):227-9.

    The World Health Organisation initiated the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the year 1988. With the large-scale application of routine and mass vaccinations in children under the age of 5 years, polio disease has become restricted to only 3 endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria) by today. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, increasing numbers of secondary polio epidemics have been observed which were triggered through migration, political turmoil and weak health systems. In addition, there emerged serious technical (e. g., back-mutations of oral vaccine virus to wild virus) and socio-political (refusal of vaccinations in Muslim populations of Nigeria and Pakistan) problems with the vaccination in the remaining endemic countries. It thus appears questionable if the current eradiation initiative will reach its goal in the foreseeable future. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
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  8. 8
    373836
    Peer Reviewed

    Barriers, Facilitators and Priorities for Implementation of WHO Maternal and Perinatal Health Guidelines in Four Lower-Income Countries: A GREAT Network Research Activity.

    Vogel JP; Moore JE; Timmings C; Khan S; Khan DN; Defar A; Hadush A; Minwyelet Terefe M; Teshome L; Ba-Thike K; Than KK; Makuwani A; Mbaruku G; Mrisho M; Mugerwa KY; Puchalski Ritchie LM; Rashid S; Straus SE; Gulmezoglu AM

    PloS One. 2016 Nov 2; 11(11):e0160020.

    BACKGROUND: Health systems often fail to use evidence in clinical practice. In maternal and perinatal health, the majority of maternal, fetal and newborn mortality is preventable through implementing effective interventions. To meet this challenge, WHO's Department of Reproductive Health and Research partnered with the Knowledge Translation Program at St. Michael's Hospital (SMH), University of Toronto, Canada to establish a collaboration on knowledge translation (KT) in maternal and perinatal health, called the GREAT Network (Guideline-driven, Research priorities, Evidence synthesis, Application of evidence, and Transfer of knowledge). We applied a systematic approach incorporating evidence and theory to identifying barriers and facilitators to implementation of WHO maternal heath recommendations in four lower-income countries and to identifying implementation strategies to address these. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study in Myanmar, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia. In each country, stakeholder surveys, focus group discussions and prioritization exercises were used, involving multiple groups of health system stakeholders (including administrators, policymakers, NGOs, professional associations, frontline healthcare providers and researchers). RESULTS: Despite differences in guideline priorities and contexts, barriers identified across countries were often similar. Health system level factors, including health workforce shortages, and need for strengthened drug and equipment procurement, distribution and management systems, were consistently highlighted as limiting the capacity of providers to deliver high-quality care. Evidence-based health policies to support implementation, and improve the knowledge and skills of healthcare providers were also identified. Stakeholders identified a range of tailored strategies to address local barriers and leverage facilitators. CONCLUSION: This approach to identifying barriers, facilitators and potential strategies for improving implementation proved feasible in these four lower-income country settings. Further evaluation of the impact of implementing these strategies is needed.
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  9. 9
    372997

    Being a woman in Côte d'Ivoire: empowerment challenges.

    Kraidy AA; Noubissié EN; Sid’Ahmed TO

    Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, World Bank, 2013 Jun. 19 p.

    In Africa, women are subjected to discriminatory practices that keep them in a vulnerable situation. Their limited access to land, in a continent where the majority of the population depends on agriculture, reduces their access to credit and their capacity to undertake sustainable economic activities to generate income. They hold only 18 percent of agricultural lands and are not better off in administrations. In Cote d'Ivoire, the woman remains marginalized, with a status that is increasingly weakened today by the socio-political situation. Data from the National Statistics Institute highlight their extreme poverty: 75 percent of rural women are living below the poverty line. And they are often deprived of basic social services. Some socio-cultural factors perpetuate traditions that are harmful to girls and women. This report is the culmination of the process initiated by the World Bank as part of the establishment of its program of strengthening the role of women in Ivorian society. It reports summary proposals from the various consultations held both nationally and regionally. Designed in a participatory and decentralized approach, these consultations have made it possible to gather factual and contextual data on the four (04) themes selected for the workshops, as well as proposals that, if translated into actions, would help develop an action plan. This is, and it must be stressed, a study that has the merit of giving the floor directly to hundreds of Ivorian women from all socio-professional categories to develop themselves a roadmap based on their own daily experiences.
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  10. 10
    372761

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Volume 1.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.

    The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
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  11. 11
    369283

    State of world population 2012. By choice, not by chance. Family planning, human rights and development.

    Greene M; Joshi S; Robles O

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2012 Nov 14. 140 p.

    All human beings – regardless of age, sex, race or income – are equal in dignity and rights. Yet 222 million women in developing countries are unable to exercise the human right to voluntary family planning. This flagship report analyzes data and trends to understand who is denied access and why. It examines challenges in expanding access to family planning. And it considers the social and economic impact of family planning as well as the costs and savings of making it available to everyone who needs it. The report asserts that governments, civil society, health providers and communities have the responsibility to protect the right to family planning for women across the spectrum, including those who are young or unmarried. Nevertheless, the report finds that financial resources for family planning have declined and contraceptive use has remained mostly steady. In 2010, donor countries fell $500 million short of their expected contribution to sexual and reproductive health services in developing countries. Contraceptive prevalence has increased globally by just 0.1 per cent per year over the last few years.
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  12. 12
    386698
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project: innovating to improve quality of care around the time of childbirth.

    Oladapo OT; Souza JP; Bohren MA; Tuncalp O; Vogel JP; Fawole B; Mugerwa K; Gulmezoglu AM

    Reproductive Health. 2015; 12:48.

    As most pregnancy-related deaths and morbidities are clustered around the time of childbirth, quality of care during this period is critical to the survival of pregnant women and their babies. Despite the wide acceptance of partograph as the central tool to optimize labour outcomes for over 40 years, its use has not successfully improved outcomes in many settings for several reasons. There are also increasing questions about the validity and applicability of its central feature - "the alert line" - to all women regardless of their labour characteristics. Apart from the known deficiencies in labour care, attempts to improve quality of care in low resource settings have also failed to address and integrate women's birth experience into quality improvement processes. It was against this background that the World Health Organization (WHO) embarked on the Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project to improve the quality of intrapartum care in low- and middle-income countries. The main goal of the BOLD project is to reduce intrapartum-related stillbirths, maternal and newborn mortalities and morbidities by addressing the critical barriers to the process of good quality intrapartum care and enhancing the connection between health systems and communities. The project seeks to achieve this goal by (1) developing an evidence-based, easy to use, labour monitoring-to-action decision-support tool (currently termed Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action - SELMA); and (2) by developing innovative service prototypes/tools, co-designed with users of health services (women, their families and communities) and health providers, to promote access to respectful, dignified and emotionally supportive care for pregnant women and their companions at the time of birth ("Passport to Safer Birth"). This two-pronged approach is expected to positively impact on important domains of quality of care relating to both provision and experience of care. In this paper, we briefly describe the rationale for innovative thinking in relation to improving quality of care around the time of childbirth and introduce WHO current plans to improve care through research, design and implementation of innovative tools and services in the post-2015 era.Please see related articles ' http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-015-0029-4 ' and ' http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-015-0028-5 '.
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  13. 13
    384345
    Peer Reviewed

    Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Olinyk S; Gibbs A; Campbell C

    African Journal of AIDS Research. 2014 Sep; 13(3):197-204.

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.
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  14. 14
    371186
    Peer Reviewed

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: foundation stone in ensuring exclusive breastfeeding.

    Shrivastava SR; Shrivastava PS; Ramasamy J

    South African Family Practice. 2014 Jul-Aug; 56(4):250-251.

    Globally, breastfeeding has been acknowledged as one of the most effective ways of ensuring the adequate health, development and survival of a child. In 1991, in order to ensure the right start for every infant and to extend the desired support to the postnatal mothers to execute successful breastfeeding, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) implemented the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). Irrespective of the multiple advantages of baby-friendly hospitals, none of the evaluation studies have identified completely adherent facilities to the 10 steps. To ensure successful implementation and long-term sustainability of the BFHI in different healthcare facilities, different measures have been proposed. To conclude, despite the availability of a definitive evidence of BFHI having a successful impact on different breastfeeding outcomes, only a comprehensive and multisectoral approach can enable every mother and family to give every child the best start in life.
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  15. 15
    336019
    Peer Reviewed

    Barriers to implementing WHO's exclusive breastfeeding policy for women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: an exploration of ideas, interests and institutions.

    Eamer GG; Randall GE

    International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2013 Jul-Sep; 28(3):257-68.

    The vertical transmission of HIV occurs when an HIV-positive woman passes the virus to her baby during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. The World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding 2010 recommends exclusive breastfeeding for HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings. Although evidence shows that following this strategy will dramatically reduce vertical transmission of HIV, full implementation of the WHO Guidelines has been severely limited in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper provides an analysis of the role of ideas, interests and institutions in establishing barriers to the effective implementation of these guidelines by reviewing efforts to implement prevention of vertical transmission programs in various sub-Saharan countries. Findings suggest that WHO Guidelines on preventing vertical transmission of HIV through exclusive breastfeeding in resource-limited settings are not being translated into action by governments and front-line workers because of a variety of structural and ideological barriers. Identifying and understanding the role played by ideas, interests and institutions is essential to overcoming barriers to guideline implementation. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  16. 16
    335518

    Adolescent pregnancy: a review of the evidence.

    Loaiza E; Liang M

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2013. [60] p.

    This report presents an update on pregnancies among adolescents. The report covers trends during the last 10 years and variations across geographic, cultural and economic settings, as well as interventions available to minimize pregnancy among adolescents. The report lists evidence for these programmatic approaches, and challenges that nations will have to deal with in the next 20 years given current population momentum.
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  17. 17
    335021

    Report of the Director General of the World Health Organization. Implementation of General Assembly resolution 66/289 on consolidating gains and accelerating efforts to control and eliminate malaria in developing countries, particularly in Africa, by 2015.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Director-General

    [New York, New York], United Nations, General Assembly, 2013 Apr 5. [19] p. (A/67/825)

    The present report is submitted in response to General Assembly resolution 66/289. It provides a review of progress in the implementation of that resolution, focusing on the adoption and scaling-up of interventions recommended by the World Health Organization in 99 countries with ongoing malaria transmission and key challenges impeding progress, including a shortfall in financing for malaria control globally. It provides an assessment of progress towards the 2015 global malaria targets, including Millennium Development Goal 6, targets set through the African Union and the World Health Assembly and goals set through the Global Malaria Action Plan of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. It elaborates on the challenges limiting the full achievement of the targets and provides recommendations to ensure that progress is accelerated up to and beyond 2015.
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  18. 18
    335019

    UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children: Commissioners' report.

    United Nations. Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children

    New York, New York, United Nations Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children, 2012 Sep. [25] p.

    The United Nations Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children presents a new plan and set of recommendations to improve the supply and access of life-saving health supplies.
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  19. 19
    334799

    Keys to youth-friendly services: Adopting a sex positive approach.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Mar. [8] p.

    Sexuality is a fundamental aspect of human life that refers to gender roles and identities, sexual orientation, intimacy and pleasure. Open, free expression of sexuality is central to every individual's well-being. Accepting these realities is the starting point for adopting a sex-positive approach to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.
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  20. 20
    334568

    Making health services adolescent friendly: Developing national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. [56] p.

    This guidebook sets out the public health rationale for making it easier for adolescents to obtain the health services that they need to protect and improve their health and well-being, including sexual and reproductive health services. It defines ‘adolescent-friendly health services’ from the perspective of quality, and provides step-by-step guidance on developing quality standards for health service provision to adolescents. Drawing upon international experience, it is also tailored to national epidemiological, social, cultural and economic realities, and provides guidance on identifying what actions need to be taken to assess whether appropriate standards have been achieved.
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  21. 21
    334433

    Comprehensive sexuality education: The challenges and opportunities of scaling-up.

    DeJong J

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2014. [92] p.

    This report builds on a program of work on sexuality education for young people initiated in 2008 by UNESCO. It is also informed by several other past and ongoing initiatives related to scaling up sexuality education, as well as drawing on case studies presented at the Bogota international consultation on sexuality education, convened by UNFPA in 2010. The report emphasizes the challenges for scaling-up in terms of integrating comprehensive sexuality education into the formal curricula of schools. It aims to provide conceptual and practical guidance on definitions and strategies of scaling-up; illustrate good practice and pathways for successful scale-up in light of diverse contextual parameters; and provide some principles of scaling up sexuality education that are of relevance internationally.
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  22. 22
    356642
    Peer Reviewed

    The reach and limits of the US President's Emergency Plan for Aids Relief (PEPFAR) funding of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in Nigeria.

    Ezegbe C; Stephenson N

    African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2012 Mar; 16(1):23-34.

    WHO advocates the use of comprehensive 4-pronged strategy for PMTCT of HIV. It includes HIV prevention, preventing unintended pregnancies in HIV positive women and follows up treatment and support as well as therapeutic interventions around delivery. This study examines PEPFAR's funding of Nigerian PMTCT, via an analysis of the funded activities of 396 agencies PEPFAR funds to do PMTCT. PEPFAR Sub-partners selected for this study were included because they were funded to do therapeutic intervention around delivery, but significant gaps were identified regarding the other 3 prongs advocated by WHO. Up to 70% were not funded to do any primary prevention. PEPFAR's own reporting does not allow assessment of Sub-partner involvement in preventing unintended pregnancies. Regarding follow up treatment and care, some Sub-partners were not funded at all. PEPFAR is not supporting a comprehensive approach to PMTCT in the way it funds PMTCT in Nigeria.
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  23. 23
    334036

    World Health Organization's 2010 recommendations for HIV treatment: Natiional guideline revision challenges and lessons learned.

    Rossi V; Ojikutu B; Hirschhorn L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources [AIDSTAR-One], 2012 Feb. [26] p. (Technical Brief; USAID Contract No. GHH-I-00–07–00059–00)

    In 2010, the World Health Organization released revised recommendations for adult and adolescent HIV treatment. This technical brief provides HIV policy makers and program managers with a point of reference as they adapt and implement revised national HIV treatment guidelines. Approaches that worked well, challenges and lessons learned from Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South-East Asia are highlighted. Links to key resources for countries revising guidelines and implementing revisions are also provided.
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  24. 24
    352117

    Essential medicines for reproductive health: developing evidence based interagency list.

    Logez S; Jayasekar S; Moller H; Ahmed K; Patel MU

    Southern Med Review. 2011 Dec; 4(2):15-21.

    Objectives: Although poor reproductive health constitutes a significant proportion of the disease burden in developing countries, essential medicines for reproductive health are often not available to the population. The objective was to analyze the guiding principles for developing national Essential Medicines Lists (EML). The second objective was to compare the reproductive health medicines included on these EMLs to the 2002 WHO/UNFPA list of essential drugs and commodities for reproductive health. Another objective was to compare the medicines included in existing international lists of medicines for reproductive health. Methods: The authors calculated the average number of medicines per clinical groups included in 112 national EMLs and compared these average numbers with the number of medicines per clinical group included on the WHO/UNFPA List. Additionally, they compared the content of the lists of medicines for reproductive health developed by various international agencies. Results: In 2003, the review of the 112 EMLs highlighted that medicines for reproductive health were not consistently included. The review of the international lists identified inconsistencies in their recommendations. The reviews' outcomes became the catalyst for collaboration among international agencies in the development of the first harmonized Interagency List of Essential Medicines for Reproductive Health. Additionally, WHO, UNFPA and PATH published guidelines to support the inclusion of essential medicines for reproductive health in national medicine policies and EMLs. The Interagency List became a key advocacy tool for countries to review their EMLs. In 2009, a UNFPA/WHO assessment on access to reproductive health medicines in six countries demonstrated that the major challenge was that the Interagency List had not been updated recently and was inconsistently used. Conclusion: The addition of cost-effective medicines for reproductive health to EMLs can result in enhanced equity in access to and cost containment of these medicines, and improve quality of care. Action is required to ensure their inclusion in national budget lines, supply chains, policies and programmatic guidance.
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  25. 25
    351991
    Peer Reviewed

    Challenges of cancer control in developing countries: current status and future perspective.

    Sharma V; Kerr SH; Kawar Z; Kerr DJ

    Future Oncology. 2011 Oct; 7(10):1213-1222.

    Cancer is a global problem accounting for almost 13% of all deaths worldwide. This equates to over 7 million people a year, more than is caused by HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria combined. Now is the time to strengthen the health systems of developing countries to deal with cancer, to avoid a future crisis similar to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In this article we discuss the current state of cancer in the developing world, how we need to advocate for a change in cancer control policy with the governments of developing nations/transnational governmental bodies (e.g., the UN and WHO etc) and how we think cancer care could be improved in developing countries. We feel the only way to overcome the growing burden of cancer in the developing world is working in partnership with, nongovernmental organizations, international nongovernmental organizations, transnational governmental bodies and governmental bodies.
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