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  1. 1
    340314

    WHO Global Forum for Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers, 18-19 May 2016, Geneva, Switzerland. The future of nursing and midwifery workforce in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage. Forum statement.

    WHO Global Forum for Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers (2016: Geneva)

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016. [2] p.

    The goal of the World Health Organization and its Member States is to achieve the highest attainable levels of health for all people. A number of health development approaches have been directed toward this goal from primary health care in the 70’s through to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The commitment made by Member States to universal health coverage reinforces the need for strengthened nursing and midwifery contribution to achieve good health outcomes. Although many countries still have nursing and midwifery workforce shortages, we the Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers recognize that in addition to increasing our numbers, more must be done in order to realize these professions full potential. Consequently, we acknowledge the importance of ensuring the quality, acceptability, relevance and sustainability of our future nursing and midwifery workforce. Strengthening nursing and midwifery services in our respective countries is possible by using the latest evidence-based knowledge and relevant technologies to create policies and management systems that support practice and leadership which deliver quality services to individuals and communities within the distinctiveness of our health systems. In the context of this Forum and in support of the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 and the Global Strategic Directions for Strengthening Nursing and Midwifery 2016-2020, we commit ourselves to: a) Strengthening governance and accountability, b) Maximizing capacity and capability and realising the potential of the nursing and midwifery workforce and c) Mobilizing political will, commitment and investments for nursing and midwifery.
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  2. 2
    332935

    Human resources for health: a gender analysis.

    George A

    [Johannesburg, South Africa], University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2007 Jul. [58] p.

    In this paper I discuss gender issues manifested within health occupations and across them. In particular, I examine gender dynamics in medicine, nursing, community health workers and home carers. I also explore from a gender perspective issues concerning delegation, migration and violence, which cut across these categories of health workers. These occupational categories and themes reflect priorities identified by the terms of reference for this review paper and also the themes that emerged from the accessed literature. This paper is based on a desk review of literature accessed through the internet, search engines, correspondence with other experts and reviewing bibliographies of existing material. These efforts resulted in a list of 534 articles, chapters, books and reports. Although most of the literature reviewed was in English, some of it was also in Spanish and Portuguese. Material related to training and interpersonal patient-provider relations that highlights how occupational inequalities affect the availability and quality of health care is covered by other review papers commissioned by the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3
    340233

    Effect of WHO Newborn Care Training on neonatal mortality by education.

    Chomba E; McClure EM; Wright LL; Carlo WA; Chakraborty H

    Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2008 Sep-Oct; 8(5):300-304.

    Background.-Ninety-nine percent of the 4 million neonatal deaths per year occur in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course sets the minimum accepted standard for training midwives on aspects of infant care (neonatal resuscitation, breastfeeding, kangaroo care, small baby care, and thermoregulation), many of which are provided by the mother. Objective.-The aim of this study was to determine the association of ENC with all-cause 7-day (early) neonatal mortality among infants of less educated mothers compared with those of mothers with more education. Methods.-Protocol- and ENC-certified research nurses trained all 123 college-educated midwives from 18 low-risk, first-level urban community health centers (Zambia) in data collection (1 week) and ENC (1 week) as part of a controlled study to test the clinical impact of ENC implementation. The mothers were categorized into 2 groups, those who had completed 7 years of school education (primary education) and those with 8 or more years of education. Results.-ENC training is associated with decreases in early neonatal mortality; rates decreased from 11.2 per 1000 live births pre- ENC to 6.2 per 1000 following ENC implementation (P <.001). Prenatal care, birth weight, race, and gender did not differ between the groups. Mortality for infants of mothers with 7 years of education decreased from 12.4 to 6.0 per 1000 (P < .0001) but did not change significantly for those with 8 or more years of education (8.7 to 6.3 per 1000, P ¼.14). Conclusions.-ENC training decreases early neonatal mortality, and the impact is larger in infants of mothers without secondary education. The impact of ENC may be optimized by training health care workers who treat women with less formal education.
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  4. 4
    316667

    Health in Brazil and Latin America: The UN millennium goals and the role of nursing.

    Mendes IA

    2004 Nov-Dec; 12(6):847.

    The Millennium Goals were defined by the United Nations Organization in 2000 and approved by consensus during the Millennium Summit, a meeting that joined 147 heads of State. These goals reflect increasing concerns about the sustainability of the planet and about the serious problems affecting humanity. Constituted by a set of eight goals to be reached by 2015, they refer to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, universal access to basic education, gender equality promotion, infant mortality reduction, maternal health improvement, fight against HIV/Aids and other illnesses, guarantee of environmental sustainability and the establishment of a global partnership for development. Sustainability and development are closely linked to health and imply joint actions by States and civil society in the attempt to minimize the influence of the huge gap that exists between countries and persons. Thus, health and particularly nursing professionals' actions are paramount and can lead to local actions with regional, national and international impacts. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    315687

    Medical organizations support condom use.

    Alford S

    Washington, D.C., Advocates for Youth, 2005. [2] p. (Issues at a Glance)

    Clinical considerations for the pediatrician: Help ensure that all adolescents have knowledge of and access to contraception, including barrier methods and emergency contraception supplies. Pediatricians should actively support and encourage the use of reliable contraception and condoms by adolescents who are sexually active or contemplating sexual activity. In the interest of public health, restrictions and barriers to condom availability should be removed. Schools are an appropriate site for the availability of condoms in a community program because they contain large adolescent populations. Health professionals have an obligation to provide the best possible care to respond to the needs of their adolescent patients. This care should, at a minimum, include comprehensive reproductive health services, such as sexuality education, counseling...[and] access to contraceptives. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    312890
    Peer Reviewed

    Time to deliver: Past due.

    Corless I

    Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 2007 Jan-Feb; 18(1):60-62.

    The XVI International AIDS Conference had its own essence that differentiated it from previous meetings. This meeting was characterized by the presence of well-known individuals from foundations, international organizations, the media, pharmaceutical companies, nongovernmental organizations, activists, HIV-positive persons, health care professionals, researchers, and others concerned with HIV/ AIDS. Absent as notable exceptions were politicians currently in office. Melinda Gates and the two Bills (Gates and Clinton) and United Nations envoy Stephen Lewis gave stirring speeches. The impact of HIV/AIDS on women was recognized, with more than 100 sessions devoted to women. And although the conference organizers are to be congratulated for so much that was right about the conference, there are some areas requiring further attention. In the conference summaries, one never saw addressed issues of primary concern to nurses. For example, symptom management is given short shrift. Truth in advertising requires that I mention that this is an area of my research. I am not saying that my research should have been mentioned. I am stating that none of the studies in this area seemed on the radar screen of those completing the summaries. This contributes to the invisibility of nursing. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    312298

    Strengthening the teaching of tuberculosis control in basic training programmes. A manual for instructors of nurses and other health-care workers.

    Engstrom K

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 95 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.367)

    Approximately one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and at risk of developing the disease. Every year, more than 8 million people develop active tuberculosis (TB) and approximately 1.9 million people die. More than 90% of global TB cases and deaths occur in the developing world, where 75% of cases are in the most economically productive age group (15--54 years). Once infected with M. tuberculosis, a person is infected for life. While only 1 in 10 of infected people with healthy immune systems will develop TB symptoms during their lifetimes, infected people with weakened immune systems, such as those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are at much greater risk of becoming ill with TB. At the same time, multidrug resistance, which is caused by poorly managed TB treatment, is a growing problem of serious concern in many countries throughout the world. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    306613
    Peer Reviewed

    The impact of tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian nursing workforce.

    Chanda D; Gosnell DJ

    Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 2006 Jan 31; 11(1):[21] p..

    In Zambia, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has greatly increased in the last 10 years. This article describes Zambia and highlights the country's use of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals as a framework to guide TB treatment programmes. An overview of TB in Zambia is provided. Data related to TB cases at the county's main referral hospital, the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), is discussed. Treatment policies and barriers are described. Zambian nurses have been greatly affected by the rise in the morbidity and mortality of nurses with TB. This article explains the impact of TB on the Zambian nursing workforce. Review of Zambian government programmes designed to address this health crisis and targeted interventions to reduce TB among nurses are offered. (author's)
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  9. 9
    296569

    In Africa, hope and difficulties; training nurses in Angola and teaching young men responsible parenthood in Seychelles.

    UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4):[3] p..

    Angola trained nurses to provide family planning services. Seychelles started a drive to educate young working people, particularly men, in responsible parenthood. Zimbabwe received a great quantity of contraceptives. All of this was accomplished in 1986 in sub-Saharan Africa with UNFPA help. Computer breakdowns slow work, but not all programmes worked equally well. Repeated computer breakdowns slowed down the Guinea census and the maternal and child health care project in Gabon was delayed by lack of equipment, staff and funds, according to UNFPA's latest annual report. Special projects for women in the region did not advance as rapidly as hoped. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    294350

    Adolescent health and development in nursing and midwifery education.

    Keeney GB; Cassata L; McElmurry BJ; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2004. [63] p. (WHO/ EIP/HRH/NUR/2004.1; WHO/ FCH/ CAH/04.4)

    One in five people in the world today are adolescents between 10 and 19 years of age, and 85% of adolescents live in developing countries. Throughout the world, adolescence is considered to be a time of relative health and, as a result, a wide range of adolescent health issues is being neglected. In response to this need, the World Health Organization (WHO) departments of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) and Human Resources for Health (HRH) embarked on an initiative to focus on adolescent health and development by strengthening the educational preparation of nurses and midwives. Nurses and midwives are in a unique position by virtue of their education, numbers, and diversity of practice arenas to contribute to promoting the highest attainable standard of health among adolescents. Preparing providers to meet adolescents' health needs is a challenge requiring planned educational experiences within the nursing and midwifery curriculum. Integrating adolescent health and development into pre-service nursing and midwifery curricula provides the background for identifying core competencies and for the integration of essential content into curricula. This background paper and accompanying tools provide the foundation for the work of a global partnership of WHO Collaborating Centres to achieve the aims of this vital initiative. (author's)
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  11. 11
    289740
    Peer Reviewed

    The migration of nurses: trends and policies.

    Buchan J; Sochalski J

    Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2005; 353.

    When the Bulletin of the World Health Organization dedicates an entire issue to health worker migration, it is a clear indication that the topic has global health significance. Buchan and Sochalski, recognized leading authorities on the subject of nurse migration, provide a descriptive overview of nurse migration patterns and core issues. They offer a detailed profile for 5 nursing workforce “destination” countries: Australia, Ireland, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States. By performing a comparative analysis, made possible by each country’s high-quality health system infrastructure and valid nursing workforce data, the authors have seized the opportunity to further examine this timely issue. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    278931

    Priorities in child health. Easily digestible information for health workers on managing the young child. Booklet 1: Introduction.

    Kibel M; Hendricks M; Hussey G; Swingler G; Zar H

    Pretoria, South Africa, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], EQUITY Project, [2000]. [35] p. (USAID Contract No. 674-0320-C-00-7010-00)

    This series of booklets is a course of self-based learning on the comprehensive management of the sick infant and young child. It is intended for use by first level health workers who, in South Africa, are generally nurses. The principles used are based on the World Health Organisation strategy “Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)”. For those who have not yet benefitted from full IMCI training, the booklets provide specific information on important elements of child health care that each nurse should know and use. As her knowledge and experience expands, she will increasingly approach each child in the comprehensive manner promoted in this series. The booklets are not intended as a substitute for existing training programmes, but rather as an adjunct to such learning. Short case studies are employed to illustrate problems to be discussed in each section. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    276517
    Peer Reviewed

    Human resources and health outcomes: cross-country econometric study.

    Anand S; Bämighausen T

    Lancet. 2004 Oct 30; 364:1603-1609.

    Only a few studies have investigated the link between human resources for health and health outcomes, and they arrive at different conclusions. We tested the strength and significance of density of human resources for health with improved methods and a new WHO dataset. We did cross-country multiple regression analyses with maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, and under-five mortality rate as dependent variables. Aggregate density of human resources for health was an independent variable in one set of regressions; doctor and nurse densities separately were used in another set. We controlled for the effects of income, female adult literacy, and absolute income poverty. Density of human resources for health is significant in accounting for maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, and under-five mortality rate (with elasticities ranging from –0.474 to –0.212, all p values = 0.0036). The elasticities of the three mortality rates with respect to doctor density ranged from –0.386 to –0.174 (all p values = 0.0029). Nurse density was not associated except in the maternal mortality rate regression without income poverty (p = 0.0443). In addition to other determinants, the density of human resources for health is important in accounting for the variation in rates of maternal mortality, infant mortality, and under-five mortality across countries. The effect of this density in reducing maternal mortality is greater than in reducing child mortality, possibly because qualified medical personnel can better address the illnesses that put mothers at risk. Investment in human resources for health must be considered as part of a strategy to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of improving maternal health and reducing child mortality. (author's)
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  14. 14
    183476

    Hasta la vista, paradise.

    Deyal T

    Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.

    More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
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  15. 15
    181099

    Evaluating the fight against malaria.

    Health Watch. 2003 Spring; 6(2):5-6.

    Overall, the first five years of Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM) were characterized largely as an infancy, with the hope that its next five years will mark a coming of age. Four major recommendations emerged from the review which revolve around a central theme--the need for MIM to more strongly identify with its niche of increasing the research capacity of African nations to combat the problem of malaria on the home front. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    182280

    Where there's a will there's a way. Nursing and midwifery champions in HIV / AIDS care in Southern Africa.

    Armstrong S

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2003. 65 p. (Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/03.19E)

    The report describes some of the many ‘champions’ of the profession—individuals who, with singular commitment and resourcefulness, are delivering good-quality care to people with HIV/AIDS, or who are otherwise helping families and communities to understand the epidemic, to come to terms with their own fears and prejudices, and to protect themselves from infection. However, this is not some kind of league of heroines and heroes of the epidemic. The champions featured here are just a few of the ordinary nurses and midwives who are simply doing their job well, under difficult circumstances. There are, without doubt, very many more of them. In describing the work of a few, the intention is to pay tribute to all who are doing a caring, committed job in the face of great odds, and to share as widely as possible the valuable lessons they have learned from experience. The report was commissioned by the SADC AIDS Network of Nurses and Midwives (SANNAM) in collaboration with UNAIDS. It involved original investigation in the field by a consultant who, over the course of one month, visited five countries in Southern Africa—namely, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia—to link up with the national nursing associations and speak to a wide range of people. In addition to nurses and midwives, these included some of the people they work with in communities, such as volunteer caregivers, members of youth groups, and PLWHA and their families, as well as people working within ministries of health, and relevant United Nations agencies and nongovernmental organiza-tions. Besides being aimed at nurses and midwives themselves, the report is addressed at all those with an interest in improving the quality of care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), especially those responsible for training, managing and supervising nursing and midwifery staff, and policy-makers within the health services. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    174457

    [Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health Project in Morocco. Phase V. Consultation report. Childhood illness in Morocco: practical representations and therapy] Projet de Planification Familiale et Sante Maternelle et Infantile au Maroc. Phase V. Rapport de consultation. Les maladies de l'enfant au Maroc: representations pratiques et recours therapeutiques.

    Radi S

    Rabat, Morocco, John Snow [JSI], 1999 Dec 3. 49 p. (USAID Contract No. 608-C-00-94-00006)

    Findings are presented from a field study conducted to explore the sociocultural context related to the possibility of implementing the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses approach in Morocco. The author reviews local terminology used to describe infant morbidity in Meknes and Agadir regions, routinely employed therapies, the relatively greater dependence upon biomedical therapeutic approaches, factors inducing child caregivers to seek biomedical practitioner assistance for therapy, and the functioning of the biomedical care system, with particular note of nurses' generally negative attitudes toward patients.
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  18. 18
    004814

    First report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Midwifery Training

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1955 Jul. 21 p. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 73)

    The sessions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Midwifery training are reviewed and include the following: types and functions of midwifery personnel; the fully trained midwife and the auxiliary midwife (general principles of training, selection of students, facilities for training, methods of teaching); the traditional birth attendant; and legislation. The Committee discussed the importance of understanding the customs, beliefs, and traditional practices of the people for whom midwifery services are to be provided. To be effective the local workers need to have a thorough knowledge of local customs and practices. The relationship of the health program to the social and economic developments of the area, and the extent to which changes in these broad programs will require ongoing review of administrative patterns and in turn continuing revision of training programs. The types of midwifery personnel (apart from physicians) who attend the mother in childbearing are classified into 3 groups: traditional birth attendant, auxiliary midwife, and fully trained midwife. The general principles underlying training programs are basically the same for nursing and midwifery personnel and are set out in the 1st and 2nd reports of the Expert Committee on Nursing. An educational program is needed which will prepare a competent technical worker and will also enable the student to develop into a good citizen who is capable of managing her own affairs and of making her maximum contribution to society. The attitudes, knowledge, and skills desired on the part of midwifery personnel are outlined. In the training of midwives, there is a need for teachers who are able to transmit knowledge, create a situation that facilitates learning, and to stimulate students to learn. Recognizing that the purpose of legislation in the midwifery field is the protection of the mother, the newborn, and the attendant, legislation should provide for: maintenance of adequate standards of training and examination, regulation and supervision of practice, and protection of the midwife's title and status. Extensive use of auxiliary midwives is necessary until enough fully-trained midwives become available.
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  19. 19
    272872

    Family planning and maternal and child health: proceedings of the seminar.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Pacific Region

    Tokyo, IPPF, Western Pacific Region, (1972).

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  20. 20
    272760

    Nurses' manual, excerpted from PPACA clinic staff procedural manual.

    Planned Parenthood Association of Chicago

    Chicago, Illinois, Planned Parenthood Association of Chicago, 1966. 16 p.

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  21. 21
    610138

    The use and training of auxiliary personnel in medicine, nursing, midwifery and sanitation: ninth report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Professional and Technical Education of Medical and Auxiliary Personnel

    Geneva, WHO, 1961. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 212) 26 p.

    From September 19-23, 1960 the Expert Committee on Professional and Technical Education of Medical and Auxiliary Personnel met in Geneva to discuss the training and utilization of auxiliary personnel in medicine, nursing, midwifery and sanitation. For the purpose of the record and to avoid misunderstanding, the following definitions were adopted: 1) a professional worker is a health worker trained to the generally accepted level for that discipline in a particular country; and 2) an auxiliary worker is a technical worker in a particular field with less than full professional qualifications. The Committee focused on the need for auxiliaries in relation to public health programs, the use of auxiliaries, the training of auxiliaries, the training of teachers of auxiliaries, orientation of professional groups in the use of auxiliaries, supervision and follow-up of auxiliaries at work after training, and international cooperation. The Committee determined that of particular importance is assistance provided directly in the form of: 1) substantial information as to the ways in which auxiliary training is organized to meet the varying situations in different countries; 2) advice and assistance in establishing training institutions; 3) assignment of teachers; and 4) provision of fellowships for the strengthening of teaching schools and services.
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  22. 22
    724425

    Fortieth report and accounts, 1971-1972.

    Family Planning Association [FPA]

    London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.

    Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
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  23. 23
    158289

    Consultation on Nursing and HIV Infection, Geneva, 7-9 March 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1988. 4 p. (WHO/GPA/INF/88.1)

    On March 7-9, 1988, the Global Programme on AIDS and the Nursing Unit of the Division of Health Manpower Development jointly organized a technical consultation meeting on nursing and HIV infection in Geneva. There were 17 participants from 14 countries included nursing officers, midwives and the church council. The meeting endorsed the WHO/International Council of Nurses (ICN) Guidelines for nursing management of HIV infection, and the AIDS basic nursing education modules. The following recommendations were made during the consultation: the participants should stress the urgent need for strengthening the leadership role of nurses in caring for HIV-infected people; the participants, in conformity with WHO's Global Programme on AIDS, urge the ICN and the International Confederation of Midwives to take their part in the implementation of the guidelines and to encourage the integration of the modules into the curricula of nursing schools; and lastly the participants request the involvement of the WHO to recognize the importance of nursing in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.
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  24. 24
    156412

    WHO board addresses health of women, children.

    NATION'S HEALTH. 2001 Apr; 15.

    One topic discussed at the annual January session of the WHO's executive board was the general health and well-being of young children and mothers. The 32 members met in Geneva for a week to develop policy standards in various issues, including promoting a global strategy for infant and child feeding and nutrition, strengthening nursing and midwifery and making pregnancy safer. The board members adopted a resolution aimed at improving the nutrition of women of reproductive age and supporting breastfeeding. They also stressed the importance of increasing nursing and midwifery work. Other significant issues discussed included epidemic alert and response measures, health services performance assessment, HIV/AIDS, mental health, the Roll Back Malaria program, polio eradication, tobacco control, and schistosomiasis.
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  25. 25
    155340
    Peer Reviewed

    Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of Health for All, locally.

    Littlewood J; Yousuf S

    Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2000 Sep; 32(3):675-81.

    This paper describes the application of primary health care principles in the Islamic Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It arose from a doctoral supervisory experience on a joint program for women students, operating between a British and Saudi Arabian University. The research looked at nutritional advice given by diploma-level nurses to pregnant women attending primary health care centers in Saudi Arabia. The supervisor supported research that drew on internationally recognized trends in nursing research (the reflexive learner) while attending to local requirements and conventions of the culture. The student was encouraged explicitly to site the research within the framework of Islamic teaching and Saudi culture. The Qur'an was used as an overarching framework within which the tenets of primary health care were explored. This was seen to be crucial in addressing WHO and the International Council of Nurses' views on contextualizing nursing for the greatest benefit of the population. This was of particular relevance in Saudi Arabia where research carried out in the community by women is novel, and as yet there are no nurse theorists from within Saudi culture. (author's)
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