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Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification: Supplement to consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016 Dec. 104 p.This supplement to the consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services released in 2015 includes new recommendations and additional guidance on HIV self-testing (HIV ST) and assisted HIV partner notification services (PNS) to the following groups: general populations; pregnant and postpartum women; couples and partners; adolescents (10–19 years) and young people (15–24 years); key populations; and vulnerable populations. The supplement will support countries, program managers, health workers, and other stakeholders in achieving the United Nations (UN) 90-90-90 global HIV targets -- and specifically the first target of diagnosing 90 percent of all people with HIV. The supplement aims to: Support the implementation and scale-up of ethical, effective, acceptable, and evidence-informed approaches to HIV ST and PNS; Support the routine offer of voluntary assisted HIV PNS as part of a public health approach to delivering HIV testing services (HTS); Provide guidance on how HIV ST and assisted HIV PNS could be integrated into both community- and facility-based HTS approaches and be tailored to specific population groups; Support the introduction of HIV ST as a formal HTS intervention using quality-assured, approved products; Position HIV ST and assisted HIV PNS as HTS approaches that will contribute to closing the testing gap and achieving the UN’s 90-90-90 and 2030 global goals.
Provisional remarks on Zika virus infection in pregnant women: Document for health care professionals.
Montevideo, Uruguay, PAHO, 2016 Jan 25.  p.The aim of this document is to provide health care professionals in charge of the care of pregnant women with updated information based on the best evidence available for the prevention of infection, timely diagnosis, suggested therapy and monitoring of pregnant women, and notification of cases to the competent health authorities. The information presented in this document was updated on January 22, 2016; it may be further altered if new evidence appears on the effects / consequences of Zika virus Infection in pregnant women and their children. New updates may also be found regularly at www.paho.org/viruszika. (Excerpt)
Criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases: the views of educated people living in Togo.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2013 Jun; 89(4):290-4.OBJECTIVE: To examine the views of educated people in Togo on the acceptability of criminal prosecution of a male partner for sexual transmission of infectious diseases (STIDs) to his female partner. METHODS: 199 adults living in Kara, Togo judged acceptability of criminal prosecution for STID in 45 scenarios composed of combinations of five factors: (a) severity of disease; (b) awareness and communication of one's serological status; (c) partners' marital status; (d) number of sexual partners the female partner has and (e) male partner's subsequent attitude (supportive or not). RESULTS: Acceptability was lower (a) when the male partner decided to take care of his female partner he had infected than when he decided to leave, (b) when both partners were informed but decided not to take precautions than when none of them was informed or when only the male partner was informed and (c) when the female partner has had several male sexual partners than when she has had only one. Two qualitatively different views were identified. For 66% of participants, when the male partner accepts to take care of his partner, he should not be sued, except when he did not disclose his serological status. For 34%, when both partners were informed, the male partner should not be sued, irrespective of other circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding criminal prosecution for STID, most people in the sample endorsed the position of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS that urges governments not to apply criminal law to cases where sexual partners disclosed their status or were not informed of it.
Lancet. 2007 Dec 1; 370(9602):1808-1809.Important questions about implementation of the new guidance by WHO and UNAIDS on provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling were raised by Daniel Tarantola and Sofia Gruskin. Their comments and those by other critics centre on individuals' rights to confidentiality, to refuse testing, and to not disclose their status if they fear negative consequences. We are concerned that a singular focus on the individual's rights of refusal overlooks the rights of the individual's sexual partners to protect themselves from HIV. Human rights and public health will be best served by an ethical framework which recognises that both persons in a sexual relationship or exchange have equal rights and responsibilities for their mutual pleasure and protection. Further, these individual rights are meaningless unless each partner respects the rights of the other. Protection of the human rights of both partners needs more commitment from health systems, and from societies, than simply ensuring informed consent and confidentiality. (excerpt)
Inconsistencies between tuberculosis reporting by the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization. Mexico, 1981-1998. Discrepancias entre los datos ofrecidos por la Secretaría de Salud y la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre tuberculosis en México, 1981-1998.
Salud Pública de México. 2003 Mar-Apr; 45(2):78-83.The objective was to describe the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality trends in Mexico, by comparing the data reported by the Ministry of Health (MH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) between 1981 and 1998. The number of cases notified in the past few years, their rates, and the trends of the disease in Mexico were analyzed. The incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was estimated for 1997 and 1998 with the annual tuberculosis infection risk (ATIR), to estimate the percentage of bacilliferous cases in 1997-1998. WHO reported more tuberculosis cases for Mexico than the MH. However, this difference has decreased throughout the years. The notification of smear-positive cases remained stable during 1993-1998. The estimated percentages of detection were 66% for 1997 and 26% for 1998 (based on ATIR of 0.5%). Tuberculosis mortality decreased gradually (6.7% per year) between 1990 and 1998, whereas the number of new cases increased, suggesting the persistence of disease transmission in the population. Inconsistencies between case notifications from national data and WHO were considerable, but decreased progressively during the study period. According to ATIR estimations, a considerable number of infectious tuberculosis cases are not detected. (author's)
AIDS BULLETIN. 1999 Jul; 8(2):4-5.AIDS notification is not believed by many to provide enough data concerning the epidemiology of AIDS. Cases were cited to show inconsistency in information gathered. Notifications with identifications will only reduce the level of reporting. It was further argued that the data gathered by the notification system would not be very useful for surveillance purposes. Since AIDS surveillance data reports are about risk factors for an infection acquired during the last 5-10 years, the results of current intervention programs will only impact AIDS case numbers in the next 5-10 years time. In addition, the notification figures derived from HIV testing would reflect more on the increasing number of tests done rather than in the number of HIV/AIDS cases. Meanwhile, surveillance conducted at selected sentinel sites is proposed as being the most viable method of determining the clinical features of AIDS and evaluating the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health care system. In contrast to AIDS notification, which seeks to gather data on every single case of AIDS in the country, this approach aims to provide high-quality, reliable data from a manageable number of sites.
Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Pan American Health Organization [PAHO], Caribbean Epidemiology Centre, 1992. 118 p.This revised, updated manual on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the Caribbean is intended as a guide for a systematic approach to STD management and as an easy reference for clinicians. Obstacles to STD control in the Caribbean include poor participation by clinicians and private medical laboratories in reporting of cases, lack of laboratory capabilities to confirm clinical diagnoses, poor management guidelines from health authorities, and a lack of mechanism for follow-up of patients who travel to another island. This manual includes chapters on history taking and examination, diagnosis, management algorithms and treatment recommendations, prevention and public health, and clinicians' responsibilities in terms of case reporting and confidentiality. Clinicians' responsibilities are defined as extending beyond the medical treatment of individual patients to include the proper management of sexual partners and attention to both ethical and public health concerns.