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International Affairs. 2006 Mar; 82(2):269-284.This article attempts to lay out a set of broad theoretical questions, illustrated with material from two visits to sub-Saharan Africa, including interviews with government officials and international organization representatives in Botswana and Malawi, about 70 interviews with staff from AIDS NGOs across sub-Saharan Africa, and an initial effort at mapping the universe of organizations responding to Africa's AIDS pandemic. The article focuses on four issues: (1) the nature of the organizations responding to AIDS in Africa; (2) the relation of AIDS governance to existing patterns of African governance, including the possibilities of syncretism and, conversely, a stand-off between the organizational models created by AIDS NGOs and existing patterns of authority and cooperation in African societies; (3) the problems and possibilities of 'cultural match' between existing repertoires of 'collective action schemas' and those proffered by NGOs and international organizations;1 and (4) the slippery matter of the play of power, money and identity in a field of power with very unequal players. (excerpt)
Gender and child protection policies: Where do UNHCR's partners stand? A report by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Jul. 15 p.The purpose of this study is to gauge what kind of policies, tools and accountability mechanisms are in place at partner organizations with respect to gender equality and child/youth protection. The aim is to find out if and what specific policies exist and the level of partner interaction with UNHCR to implement AGDM through information sharing and training. This report is not meant to evaluate UNHCR partners' policies and tools. Rather, it is meant to make a contribution to UNHCR and partners' work by documenting progress and good practice as well as obstacles and challenges they face in mainstreaming. As pertinent, these survey findings are to be taken into consideration within the overall context of strengthening UNHCR's multi-year AGDM global rollout by enhancing its impact through the promotion of relevant policy and accountability mechanisms development with its key partners. (excerpt)
International Breastfeeding Journal. 2006 Dec 12; 1:26.This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry, 2) an integrative research review, and 3) personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults. (author's)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:80-87.The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010. (author's)
[Unpublished] .  p.What is the Partnership Fund for? The Partnership Fund is designed to target grant funds at specific activity areas that will complement and directly impact Partnership Project component activities through localization of implementation. For each grant award cycle, specific technical areas will be identified for the cycle's grant round announcement based upon Partnership Project programmatic priorities, funding sources, and recognized gaps in the HIV/AIDS activities and response. Who is eligible to apply? Organizations that are eligible to receive grants from the Partnership Fund include civic organizations such as NGO's, faith-based organizations, community-based organizations, cooperatives, producers associations, professional associations, research centers, and other organizations with activities relevant to Partnership Project objectives. Grants will not be awarded to state or government institutions. (excerpt)
Reproductive Health Matters. 2006 Nov; 14(28):179.The female condom has been on the market for over ten years but despite a clear need it has not yet been adopted for wider use. In 2005 only 14 million female condoms were distributed compared to 6-9 billion male condoms around the world. However, studies in many countries have shown that the female condom is well accepted among both women and men, and that there is demand for it. One of the problems in achieving its widespread distribution in national programmes has been its cost. In an effort to address the problem of cost, the Female Health Company has developed a second generation female condom, FC2. This new version of the female condom has similar physical characteristics to the original female condom but is made of synthetic nitrile utilising a manufacturing process which allows greater efficiencies, particularly at higher volumes. The new device has been shown in studies to be equivalent to the original female condom and has the potential for wider acceptability and utilisation since it is expected to be more affordable for individuals and programmes. (excerpt)
Epidemiology of antituberculosis drug resistance (the Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance): an updated analysis.
Lancet. 2006 Dec 16; 368(9553):2142-2154.The burden of tuberculosis is compounded by drug-resistant forms of the disease. This study aimed to analyse data on antituberculosis drug resistance gathered by the WHO and International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. Data on drug susceptibility testing for four antituberculosis drugs--isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin--were gathered in the third round of the Global Project (1999-2002) from surveys or ongoing surveillance in 79 countries or geographical settings. These data were combined with those from the first two rounds of the project and analyses were done. Countries that participated followed a standardised set of guidelines to ensure comparability both between and within countries. The median prevalence of resistance to any of the four antituberculosis drugs in new cases of tuberculosis identified in 76 countries or geographical settings was 10.2% (range 0.0-57.1). The median prevalence of multidrug resistance in new cases was 1.0% (range 0.0-14.2). Kazakhstan, Tomsk Oblast (Russia), Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), Estonia, Israel, the Chinese provinces Liaoning and Henan, Lithuania, and Latvia reported prevalence of multidrug resistance above 6.5%. Trend analysis showed a significant increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistance in new cases in Tomsk Oblast (p < 0.0001). Hong Kong (p = 0.01) and the USA (p = 0.0002) reported significant decreasing trends in multidrug resistance in new cases of tuberculosis. Multidrug resistance represents a serious challenge for tuberculosis control in countries of the former Soviet Union and in some provinces of China. Gaps in coverage of the Global Project are substantial, and baseline information is urgently required from several countries with high tuberculosis burden to develop appropriate control interventions. (author's)
Proposal for the 2006 UNGA resolution on the rights of the Child-- text on violence against children.
Geneva, Switzerland, NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2006 Oct 2. 4 p.The resolution should be used to ensure that States endorse the SG's Report and its recommendations (both the overarching and the setting-specific ones) and commit to its full implementation. The UNGA resolution needs to highlight and reinforce States' obligations to prohibit and condemn all forms of violence against children, including all corporal punishment, traditional practices and sexual violence. The resolution should establish the mandate of a Special Representative on Violence against Children for 4 years, to ensure systematic follow-up to the Study and to work with relevant UN agencies, special mechanisms, NGOs and civil society, children and others to prevent and eliminate violence against children. The resolution should call for voluntary contributions from governments to support the core costs of a small but functional secretariat. Voluntary contributions should ideally come from a wide range of countries, especially from those which have been involved throughout the Study process and hosted national and regional consultations and follow-up. North-South and East-West ownership needs to continue in order to ensure that VAC is recognized as a global problem and therefore addressed and tackled everywhere. Voluntary contributions can range in size. (excerpt)
Education Sector Global HIV and AIDS Readiness Survey, 2004: policy implications for education and development. An integration of perspectives from ministries of education and civil society organizations.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006. 64 p.This report documents the outcomes of the first international survey of education sector readiness to manage and mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS. Ministries of education (MoEs) in 71 countries and civil society organizations in 18 countries were interviewed, in person and electronically, in separate research processes. Both surveys were conducted in 2004 on behalf of the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education. The Global Readiness Survey (GRS) of 71 MoEs was conducted by the Mobile Task Team (MTT) on the Impact of HIV and AIDS on Education, and the Civil Society Survey (CSS) of 18 civil society country interactions was conducted by the Global Campaign for Education (GCE). It should be noted that the GRS research process involved the completion of the questionnaire by an internal committee of senior MoE officials convened for this purpose, independent of an external researcher. Thus the process generated what might be described as 'self-reported information' rather than data in a conventional sense; while this may have its limitations, it nevertheless provides an important insight into the internal perceptions and assumptions of the MoEs involved. (excerpt)
Journal of International Development. 2006; 18:715-727.In the last decade NGOs have been recognised as policy actors in general and in the HIV/AIDS field in particular within developing countries. While recognising the agency of these organisations by looking at multiple case studies, the literature has not focused on what is meant by this agency. Furthermore within the policy field the agency of NGOs is assumed and thus these organisations are incorporated as policy implementers in the HIV/AIDS field. This paper argues that there is a need to look at this assumption about agency and what it means for NGOs working in this field. The paper presents a brief theoretical discussion to understand agency within the larger socio-cultural institutionalisation processes and looks at the policy implications of this for NGOs involved in the HIV/AIDS field. (author's)
Interdependent. 2006 Summer; 4(2):23-26.Nam Phund, who is only 11, begins her work day at 3 am when the night's harvest of shrimp arrives, hours before dawn breaks over the Gulf of Thailand. That's when 13-year-old Fa goes to work, too. She doesn't know exactly how long she works, peeling shrimp for a seafood processing factory, but she says the day has come and gone and the sky is dark again when she goes home. Fa and Nam Phund can't tell time. They can't read. They are among the tens of thousands of migrant workers from Myanmar who have fled the political repression and economic meltdown of a country once known as Burma, and they are not entitled to an education in Thailand. Instead, they work beside their mothers, or alone, on their feet for 14 hours a day or more. The stories of migrant workers in Thailand would not be unfamiliar to Americans, because many of the factors that have brought poor Asians here, often in family groups, are similar to the conditions that propel Mexicans and others to cross the southern United States border. Prosperous Thailand is a magnet, drawing the poor and hopeless from neighboring Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar. The booming Thai seafood processing industry needs workers and will pay brokers--many of them no more than illegal traffickers--to find that labor. The reservoir is large. The migrants are willing to do the work Thais no longer want, in the fishing industry, in homes, agriculture and restaurants. Cambodians, in particular, are often turned into beggars on Bangkok streets, under the control of begging syndicates. (excerpt)
One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
Effect of an armed conflict on human resources and health systems in Cote d'Ivoire: Prevention of and care for people with HIV/AIDS.
AIDS Care. 2006 May; 18(4):356-365.In September 2002, an armed conflict erupted in Cote d'Ivoire which has since divided the country in the government-held south and the remaining territory controlled by the 'Forces Armees des Forces Nouvelles' (FAFN). There is concern that conflict-related population movements, breakdown of health systems and food insecurity could significantly increase the incidence of HIV infections and other sexually-transmitted infections, and hence jeopardize the country's ability to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Our objective was to assess and quantify the effect this conflict had on human resources and health systems that provide the backbone for prevention, treatment and care associated with HIV/AIDS. We obtained data through a questionnaire survey targeted at key informants in 24 urban settings in central, north and west Cote d'Ivoire and reviewed relevant Ministry of Health (MoH) records. We found significant reductions of health staff in the public and private sector along with a collapse of the health system and other public infrastructures, interruption of condom distribution and lack of antiretrovirals. On the other hand, there was a significant increase of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), some of which claim a partial involvement in the combat with HIV/AIDS. The analysis shows the need that these NGOs, in concert with regional and international organizations and United Nations agencies, carry forward HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, which ought to be continued through the post-conflict stage and then expanded to comprehensive preventive care, particularly antiretroviral treatment. (author's)