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Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], Family Planning Logistics Management [FPLM], 2000. x, 67 p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00028-00)This report documents the status of technical assistance provided by the USAID-funded Family Planning Logistics Management project to the Bangladesh Family Planning Program in developing a countrywide contraceptive logistics system. A study conducted in November 1999 to evaluate the impact of technical assistance on logistics management and contraceptive security is detailed. The report concludes with findings from the study, lessons learned, and recommendations to continue improvements in the system. (author's)
Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 2000 Aug; 36(4):799-809.Drinking of arsenic-contaminated tubewell water has become a serious health threat in Bangladesh. Arsenic contaminated tubewells are believed to be responsible for poisoning nearly two-thirds of this country's population. If proper actions are not taken immediately, many people in Bangladesh will die from arsenic poisoning in just a few years. Causes and consequences of arsenic poisoning, the extent of area affected by it, and local knowledge and beliefs about the arsenic problem - including solutions and international responses to the problem - are analyzed. Although no one knows precisely how the arsenic is released into the ground water, several contradictory theories exist to account for its release. Initial symptoms of the poisoning consist of a dryness and throat constriction, difficulty in swallowing, and acute epigastric pain. Long-term exposure leads to skin, lung, or bladder cancer. Both government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Bangladesh, foreign governments, and international agencies are now involved in mitigating the effects of the arsenic poisoning, as well as developing cost-effective remedial measures that are affordable by the rural people. (author's)
Chennai, India, Voluntary Health Services, AIDS Prevention and Control Project, . 43 p.In Tamil Nadu, India, there are no research studies undertaken to establish the prevalence of HIV among women in prostitution. However, the clinical data from various sources reveal that a significant proportion of them are infected with HIV. The situational assessment conducted by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) partners facilitated by AIDS and Prevention and Control (APAC) revealed various factors, which made women more prone to the infection. It was mainly due to the inconsistent usage of condoms; various myths and misconceptions; lower empowerment; lower social status and educational level. To this effect, the APAC project adopted the implementation of holistic, participatory gender specific and culture sensitive prevention programs among women in prostitution. It provides relevant information to risk population groups, promotion of quality condoms, enhancement of sexually transmitted disease and counseling services, and explorative research for increasing the effectiveness of the project. It is noted that APAC supports six NGOs in six towns in Tamil Nadu to implement the targeted intervention among women in prostitution.
The blurred line between aiding progress and sanctioning abuse: United States appropriations, the UNFPA and family planning in the P.R.C.
New York Law School Journal of Human Rights. 2000; 17(3):1063-1104.This note discusses the trend in People's Republic of China programs, international standards of human rights, legislative trends, and the United States budget for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 as they apply to family planning programs. Specifically, this discussion shows why Congress should condition funding of these programs based on assurances of compliance with human rights standards. Part I presents an overview of the P.R.C. programs. Part II reviews internationally accepted standards of human rights concerning reproduction and population control, as well as China's violations of these rights. Part III describes UNFPA funding of the P.R.C.'s programs, emphasizing their latest 4-year program. Part IV discusses the legislative trend since 1985 of limiting or halting funding to the programs, and the current state of the federal budget regarding these appropriations. Part V discusses the global gag rule and the necessity of its removal. Part VI considers recently proposed legislation regarding funding family planning. Finally, the conclusion proposes a possible solution to the family planning dilemma in the face of both the continuing need for assistance and the continued existence of human rights abuses. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Social Development Department, NGO and Civil Society Unit, 2000 Jun. v, 21 p.This paper presents an overview of the potential role of nongovernmental organizations and other civil society actors in meeting Ethiopia's immense development challenges as the country moves to institutionalize fundamental changes in governmental structure and economic orientation.
In: Environments and livelihoods: strategies for sustainability, by Koos Neefjes. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 2000. 221-8. (Development Guidelines)This appendix of the book, "Environments and Livelihoods: Strategies for Sustainability", presents sources of information on environment and development. It notes that with the Internet as an extremely useful source of information, UN agencies and some of the development banks have set up Web sites for specific country programs. Annotated listings of Web sites of multilateral organizations, organizations on research and information, and nongovernmental organizations on environment and development are enumerated in this paper. Most of the Web sites listed provide links to other sites. Lastly, Web sites of publishers who specialize in environment and other development issues are also provided in this appendix.
JAMA. Southeast Asia. 2000 Feb; 16(1 Suppl):65-8.In the Philippines, as in most countries with passive reporting systems, it is difficult to estimate the true magnitude of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem. There were over 50,000 cases of STDs reported in 1995 and a fluctuating trend is seen per year. However, this is primarily due to the erratic reporting to the central office. In contrast, studies reveal that there is an increasing incidence of STDs in the country. This reported increase, and STDs' strong interrelationship with HIV, prompted the Department of Health to declare STDs a public health priority. Several major activities are being undertaken. The government's responses include: strengthening program management; strengthening STD services; assisting specialized STD services; strengthening laboratory support; promoting prevention and health-seeking behavior through information, education, and communication; establishing condom programs; and monitoring STDs. For the nongovernmental organizations, efforts in responding to the STD epidemic are in the form of training and service delivery. Moreover, the international agencies are also assisting and collaborating with the Department of Health to control STDs. Despite such initiatives, there is still a need to have a concerted effort to face all of these challenges.
CHOICES. 2000 Sep; 16-7.In response to the outbreak of economic and social crisis in Indonesia, the international community invested in a program to bring about real change and grassroots empowerment. The Community Recovery Programme (CRP), a microcredit scheme supported by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) helped ease financial burdens and gave marginal players a voice in the Indonesian community. The CRP extends assistance to people caught in the economic crises and has done much to strengthen and encourage NGOs and other local groups in the country by contributing to the growth of civil society organizations. It aims to reform the government, strengthen institutions, foster dialogue, and reduce corruption. The support of UNDP is also aimed to reduce poverty through strengthening civil society and creating awareness of good governance principles.
Washington, D.C., NGO Networks for Health, White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood, 2000. x, 50 p.The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood is an international coalition of organizations formed to promote increased public awareness of the need to make pregnancy and childbirth safe for all women, in developing as well as developed countries. This field guide is intended to provide organizations in developing countries with guidance on how they can be active and involved in the Safe Motherhood Initiative and participate in the White Ribbon Alliance. It does not include technical information on how to design, implement, and evaluate safe motherhood program intervention. However, it does offer suggestions for bringing a wide range of people and organizations together to promote safe motherhood. Following an overview of safe motherhood and its key issues, this guide suggests specific ways in which organizations can carry out White Ribbon Alliance activities in their countries. Information on how to adapt the Safe Motherhood Fact Sheets to specific country contexts is also provided.
AFRICA'S POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN. 2000 Jun-Jul; 34.Participants at the Conference on NGO (nongovernmental organization) Partnership in November 1999 adopted the Nairobi Declaration on NGO Partnerships for Reproductive Health. Organized by the Center for African Family Studies, its objectives were to stimulate communication and collaboration among NGOs, the private sector, and governments to identify priority areas and to develop a framework for partnerships in implementing the International Conference on Population Development Plan of Action. Partnership, which works well when transparency exists at all levels and clear objectives are determined, was accepted as an important strategy to improve health services. Aside from adopting the Nairobi Declaration, a Task Force was also established to chart the way forward, including the modalities of the partnerships.
FPAN NEWSLETTER. 2000 May-Aug; 20(3-4):7-8.On World Population Day, the Ministry of Population and Environment awarded a cash prize of Rupees 50,000 and a certificate to the Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN) for its outstanding work and contribution in the field of population and reproductive health. On the same event, FPAN also inaugurated a photo exhibit on “Reproductive Health and Sex Education”. A variety of photographs were collected from prominent photographers and contestants and were displayed for 3 days for public viewing. The function was attended by representatives from various international nongovernmental organizations/governmental organizations and government officials. Moreover, Mr. Sunil Kumar Bhandari, past president of FPAN also received a certificate of appreciation for his dedicated work and contribution to the population program. It is emphasized that receiving two awards on the occasion of the World Population Day has been a great honor and recognition of FPANs work by the Government.
Ensuring the reproductive rights of refugees and internally displaced persons: legal and policy issues.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 2000 Dec; 26(4):167-73.More than 26 million refugees, asylum-seekers and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are registered worldwide with the UN agencies, while millions still remain uncounted. In addition, girls and women make up about 50% of refugee and internally displaced populations, although the gender composition of refugee groups varies between regions and countries. These women and girls were at high risk of rape, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe delivery, and sexually transmitted diseases. This article examines the international legal framework for the reproductive rights of refugees and IDPs, as well as some aspects of UN and nongovernmental organization policies relevant to refugees' reproductive health. Three interrelated fields of international law come to bear on a discussion of the reproductive rights of refugees and IDPs: general international human rights law; refugee and humanitarian laws. These laws protect the rights of women against violence and all forms of discrimination. While international law requires countries that have ratified the relevant treaties to provide refugees and IDPs with sexual and reproductive health services, in practice UN agencies and nongovernmental organizations usually have to help provide these services.
Lancet. 2000 Jul 8; 356(9224):144.This article reports the efforts of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative in controlling malaria deaths worldwide. It is shown that the RBM partnership meeting could substantially decrease malaria morbidity and mortality and may bring broader health benefits. Although RBM has been criticized for its narrow focus, Richard Allan of WHO believes that strengthening surveillance, vector control, diagnostic services, and treatment protocols will reinforce emergency health systems. The RBM strategy involves nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that work in emergencies with WHO and the RBM inter-agency technical support network. Overall, it is noted that agencies clearly identified the need for WHO to provide improved standardized advice and information, technical assistance on the ground, and training for field staff. Furthermore, expansions of technical support network and field courses for NGO staff are also key initiatives planned.
Development. 2000 Mar; 43(1):109-13.This article reports the innovative Internet project sponsored by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) called Voices of Youth (VOY). VOY has been linking young people in over 100 countries, offering children and youth the right to express their opinions. The Web site (www.unicef.org/voy) contains three main areas, specifically the meeting place, learning place, and teacher's place. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is used as the basis for both the content and learning approach of VOY. The Internet program encourages both youth-to-youth and youth-to-policy-maker dialogues. UNICEF country offices and nongovernmental agencies facilitate the live Internet chats on several issues including education, health, protection from violence, gender, and politics. Private schools with computer access have partnered with under-resourced public schools to enable them to participate in the program. Finally, the development of this innovative technology promotes the fundamental right of young people to express their views, which is essential to their human development.
Global partnership against AIDS in Africa. UN leads the way with governments, civil society and private sector.
AFRICA RECOVERY. 2000 Apr; 14(1):24-5.Almost 14 million people in sub-Saharan Africa have died from AIDS, with a staggering 23 million Africans infected (70% of the world s total). In an urgent response to this deepening crisis, the UN has launched the International Partnership Against AIDS in Africa. The partnership is bringing together the key stakeholders to mount an intensified and sustained attack on the disease and mobilize the human and material resources necessary. In view of such, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan opened a 2-day meeting of the International Partnership in New York that included representatives of many African and donor governments, African and European nongovernmental organizations, senior UN officials, and philanthropists. In this meeting, he discussed the vital role of private sectors in supporting African efforts by educating employees, underwriting community education and prevention programs and addressing the urgent need for affordable medicines and further research. Highlighted in the meeting was the Secure the Future program, which combines funding for community education and prevention with training for health care professionals and medical research.
JOICFP NEWS. 2000 Feb; (308):3.This article reports the activities undertaken by the Nepalese in order to sustain the JOICFP/Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN) project in the Panchkhal and Sunsari areas. With the end of UN Population Fund financial support to the project in 1999, Aiko Iijima, JOICFP Human Resource Division Director, visited Nepal to collaborate with project managers and community leaders in the project areas to help sustain the project activities. These activities covered 6 villages in Sunsari, which formed their own nongovernmental organizations and established a trust fund, while the remaining 5 villages are awaiting the approval of the Ministry of Health. Also through the JOICFP Voluntary Fund, 11 villages were provided with US$760, provided that each village raised a matching fund of at least 25%. Furthermore, FPAN proposed that 6 Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteers be dispatched to the project, and that a senior volunteer work with a Nepalese community health expert to support and supervise the volunteers. In addition, a Family Welfare Center was constructed in Sunsari, and the Village Health Committee of Haraicha, Morang District, organized a contest for the healthiest baby.