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  1. 1

    'Gender perspectives' emphasized - human rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2):[2] p..

    Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    What is different about women's organizations?

    Yasmin T

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 199-211.

    Women's organizations have problems handling leadership and the power that comes with it, like any other organization. However, this should not detract from the many positive features of Saptagram's management approach and organizational culture from the perspective of empowering both women staff and beneficiaries. The factors which make Saptagram one of the largest and most successful women's organizations in Bangladesh lie in its emphasis on addressing women's practical and strategic needs. But these factors need not be restricted only to Saptagram. Its management practices, the working conditions, investment in women both in terms of money and time are factors which can be incorporated into existing management practices because Saptagram has proved that it is possible to run a large and successful programme on principles which are not male-oriented. Saptagram's path has not been smooth nor straight for it had to fight battles on many fronts. But that is what it takes to work with women because one is constantly challenging the values which are repressive of and oppressive to women. While NGOs believe in change through development programmes, essentially most organizations fear to challenge the status quo where it concerns women. It is not possible to work for holistic development without involving women at every level of decision-making and leadership, without looking into women's practical and strategic needs and without believing in women. In the final analysis, it takes courage and commitment to work with women. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Making development organizations accountable: the organizational, political and cognitive contexts.

    Kardam N

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 44-60.

    Most of the development literature considers accountability either as a political or an organizational issue and few consider it as a cognitive issue. All three must be examined in order to acquire a broader understanding of accountability. Accountability has to do with the organizational characteristics (goals, procedures, staffing, incentive systems) of all agencies involved, as well as with the political context, that is, the political commitment of the stakeholders to a project, whether the options of 'exit' and 'voice' are available and whether democratic accountability exists. Finally, accountability cannot be discussed without understanding the 'discourse' underlying a particular policy area, in our case gender policy. How do different stakeholders define 'gender issues'? On what basis should resources be allocated to women? The perceived cause of gender constraints will also determine what solutions are proposed. To what extent is there agreement between different stakeholders on the nature of the issue and the proposed solutions? These are some of the questions we might ask as we explore gendered institutions. Therefore, I will begin by analysing the conditions that limit and promote accountability within these three major categories: the organizational context, the political context and the cognitive context. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    The implementation of UNICEF policies and strategies on children in need of special protection measures. Statement of the Non-Governmental Organization Committee on UNICEF to the UNICEF Executive Board at its annual session, 2-6 June 1997.

    Non-Governmental Organization Committee on UNICEF

    [Unpublished] 1997 Jun 4. 2 p. (E/ICEF/1997/NGO/1)

    This paper presents the statement of the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Committee of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) concerning the implementation of UNICEF policies and strategies on children in need of special protection measures. The four facts which emerged from a study on children in armed conflict that will influence NGO planning and programs are: 1) children in homes without strong family ties are more vulnerable against abduction and recruitment into armies; 2) children who were exposed to harassment or ill-treatment of their families often join armed groups; 3) girls are especially defenseless in armed conflict situations; and 4) several armed conflict children survivors suffer from post-traumatic stress disorders and are being helped by NGOs through a variety of programs. Since 1994, a multipronged approach has been adopted by the NGO Committee to address this issue including peace education and youth involvement in the process, dialogues with military representatives, and negotiations on raising minimum recruitment age to 18 years. Meanwhile, unregistered children are vulnerable to panoply of abuses including under-age recruitment to armed forces or opposition groups, trafficking, sale, prostitution, forced marriages, and forced labor. The NGO Committee has started to work on this issue in Southeast Asia in collaboration with regional partners and UNICEF. It is ready to protect vulnerable children and families wherever possible.
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  5. 5

    Youth and Reproductive Health in Countries in Transition: report of a European regional meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 23-25 June 1997.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; Denmark; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. vii, 70 p.

    A report of a European meeting is presented in this document. The youth and reproductive health meeting held in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 23-25, 1997, was one of the regional meetings organized by the UN Population Fund to enhance the active participation of young people in discussing issues and formulating reproductive and sexual health programs. 67 participants attended the meeting, representing the countries of central and eastern Europe, countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States; government and nongovernmental organizations from the aforementioned areas; and the national youth organization. This document is subdivided into 6 parts: 1) introduction; 2) opening session; 3) summary of presentation, which includes challenges to adolescent reproductive health; 4) key issues in reproductive and sexual health, which includes unprotected sexual relations and their consequences, sexual abuse, exploitation and violence against young women, lack of clear policies and programs, inadequate social support system, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of sound and relevant information services, lack of human and financial resources, and concluding observations; 5) strategies for action, which include the framework, and the proposed interventions; and 6) concluding remarks.
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  6. 6

    Further promotion and encouragement of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the question of the programme and methods of work of the commission. Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. Addendum [2]: Report on the mission of the Special Rapporteur to Brazil on the issue of domestic violence (15-26 July 1996).

    Coomaraswamy R

    [Unpublished] 1997 Jan 21 28 p. (E/CN.4/1997/47/Add.2)

    This document reprints the report of a July 1996 visit to Brazil of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women to conduct an in-depth study of the issue of domestic violence. The introduction notes that this report is a case study meant to complement a previous report on violence against women in the family and that the investigation was conducted at the invitation of the Brazilian government. The first part of the report presents three case histories of women victims of domestic violence. The second session sketches the nature of the problem, and the third section describes the existing international, regional, and national legislative framework dealing with domestic violence. Section 4 describes the role of the police in combating domestic violence and their importance as the first refuge sought by women victims as well as issues pertinent to the existence since 1985 of women's police stations. The fifth section reviews pertinent health policy and notes the shortage of shelters for battered women. Section 6 provides an overview of how the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government have responded to the problem, and the seventh section discusses actions taken by nongovernmental organizations and women's groups. The final section contains conclusions and specific recommendations for appropriate actions at the international, regional, national, and local levels.
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  7. 7

    NGO involvement in World Bank-financed social funds: lessons learned.

    Malena C

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environment Department, Social Policy and Resettlement Division, 1997 May. [5], 83 p. (Environment Department Papers Participation Series No. 052)

    This report reviews lessons learned by the World Bank (WB) about the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in WB-financed "social funds." Since 1986, the WB has channeled more than $1.3 billion to more than 30 social funds in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe to 1) mitigate the social costs of structural adjustment programs or respond to emergencies, 2) improve living conditions for impoverished people, and/or 3) promote decentralization of service delivery by building local capacity. Social funds may finance small-scale activities in the health, education, water, and sanitation sectors and/or meet basic needs, create social programs, set-up micro/credit programs to develop small enterprises, or develop infrastructure. After providing a general introduction, the report outlines the various roles that NGOs can have in implementation of social funds, the benefits and risks of such involvement, and the current extent of NGO involvement. The third section identifies the key issues and lessons learned, and section 4 reviews the principal criticisms and concerns of NGOs. Section 5 offers recommendations for improving NGO involvement in WB-financed social funds. Specific examples and case studies are highlighted throughout the report, and annexes summarize NGO involvement in selected social funds and provide a sample checklist, manual, gender action plan, implementation agreement, financing agreement, bidding document, and works contract.
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  8. 8

    [World population policy] La politica demografica mundial.

    Casas Torres JM

    In: La explosion demografica y la regulacion de la natalidad, edited by Jose Botella Llusia and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. Madrid, Spain, Editorial Sintesis, 1997. 71-82.

    This work expresses strong disapproval of the antinatalist policies of the UN system, the nongovernmental organizations with which it cooperates, and the developed countries which support them. World population has grown at an unprecedentedly rapid rate in the latter half of the 20th century, with the greatest growth occurring in the poorest regions. Projections of huge future populations in poor regions are the pretext for population policies which rich countries, acting through the UN system, impose on poor ones. The author suggests that the UN has accomplished much in maintaining peace and fostering international collaboration in data collection, but he sees the UN primarily as a political system controlled by a few wealthy countries, whose main demographic export is an implacable antinatalist policy. On the other side of the "war against population," allied with the Vatican, are "millions of persons of all races and creeds" who are faithful to pronatalist traditions but disorganized, dispersed, and unaware of the dangers to future generations. The author suggests that any difficulty caused by population growth can be conquered by the talent and effort of the affected population, which will enable it to find new ways of exploiting resources and utilizing space to support higher population densities.
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  9. 9

    Review of FAO's policy of cooperation with NGOs.


    Reform of the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was based on the recognition that the FAO should concentrate on roles and functions it can best perform and broaden links with other groups. This outreach effort was institutionalized by creation of the Unit for Cooperation with the Private Sector and NGOs (nongovernmental organizations). In 1996, this unit was charged with a thorough review of FAO's policy towards NGOs. The resulting report was widely distributed at a 1996 NGO Forum, and input has been sought from field office and technical department reviews of the status of their own cooperation with NGOs. These separate exercises are being combined to formulate a policy statement to be issued in 1998 for discussion with NGOs. The policy statement will propose cooperation in the areas of 1) field programs, 2) policy dialogue, 3) exchange of information and promoting public awareness, and 4) mobilization of resources.
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  10. 10

    The Committee on World Food Security: NGOs and the reporting process.


    The World Food Summit (WFS) charged the UN Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) Committee on World Food Security (CFS) with monitoring the implementation of the WFS's Plan of Action and target for reducing the number of undernourished people. In April 1997, the CFS held its first discussions about the monitoring procedures and heard reports from countries that had begun development of national action plans. In 1997-98, a provisional reporting system will allow governments, UN agencies, and other international organizations to report on actions taken to implement the commitments contained in the WFS Plan of Action. In June 1998, the CFS considered a standard reporting format for the future. During 1997, all of the FAO technical committees discussed WFS follow-up, and follow-up will be included on the agendas of 1998 FAO regional conferences. All reports submitted to the CFS will be widely disseminated. Part of the WFS process will include further monitoring of the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition commitments. The CFS also encouraged the continued involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and took measures to broaden NGO participation.
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  11. 11

    Developments since the Summit. The right to food.


    In 1997, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and relevant nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) worked to actualize Objective 7.4 of the World Food Summit Plan of Action that asks governments "to clarify the content of the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, as stated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other relevant international and regional instruments." The Objective also calls for a better definition of the rights related to food security. On May 29, 1997, the FAO Director-General and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) signed a Memorandum of Understanding that created a framework of cooperation on issues related to the right to food. NGOs have crafted a 15-article draft International Code of Conduct on the Human Right to Adequate Food that includes a precise definition of the content of the right to food and indicates the obligations of states and other organizations. The FAO and the office of the UNHCHR plan to mark the 50th anniversary of the UN Declaration of Human Rights with a public event recording their joint progress in clarifying and implementing the right to food.
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  12. 12

    Women: the ABC of food security.

    Arcellana NP


    While the 1996 World Food Summit Plan of Action was being approved, a companion NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum provided opportunities for rural women from 29 countries to relay their perspectives and recommendations. The Rural Women's Workshop was organized by four NGOs: Isis International-Manila, La Via Campesina, the People-Centred Development Forum, and the Women's Food and Agriculture Working Group. Isis International-Manila seeks to create spaces, facilitate processes, and disseminate information for rural women to voice concerns, network, and plan responses. The La Via Campesina network operates in Latin American and the Caribbean where it applies a strong gender perspective to all of its activities. Ultimate progress on the World Food Summit Plan of Action can be evaluated using the ABCs of food security: does the program or policy assure 1) access for women to the total means of production; 2) benefits for women; and 3) community-based resource management and sustainable agriculture.
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  13. 13

    Meeting the needs. Interview with Marisela Padron.

    FORUM. 1997 Jul; 13(1):3-4.

    The UNFPA sees International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)/WHR affiliates in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) as important allies in implementing the plans of action developed at the international conferences in Cairo and Beijing. Since the family planning associations (FPAs) in the region helped to prepare the two conferences, they have key roles in implementing the subsequent agreements, as well as following them up at the national level. The regional affiliates need to develop advocacy activities which enhance existing national follow-up activities, promoting their programs where they do not exist. UNFPA's funds in LAC support sexual and reproductive health, including family planning; population and development strategies; and advocacy. Of these, sexual and reproductive health receives more than 70% of the financial aid for the region. Within sexual and reproductive health, priority is given to projects which serve adolescent populations and women's sexual and reproductive health. Countries have been divided into 3 categories based upon 7 indicators which allow the measurement of the degree to which they have met the goals established in the International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action for the year 2015. The author discusses UNFPA's relationship with governments and nongovernmental organizations, and how the UNFPA and IPPF/WHR can work cooperatively.
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  14. 14

    NGOs and the United Nations: building sustainable partnerships.

    BEYOND CAIRO. 1997 Dec; 3-4.

    The UN Department of Public Information (DPI) held its 50th annual nongovernmental organization (NGO) conference during September 10-12, 1997. Representatives of 637 NGOs from 61 countries participated in the conference centered around the theme of building partnerships. In 1947, UN member states were seen as the sole actors on the international stage, with NGOs being mainly mobilizers of public opinion. The relationship between NGOs and the UN, however, has since evolved such that close cooperation between the two has become the norm. NGOs and the UN now work mainly as partners. Participants at the UN DPI conference contemplated the challenges of sustaining and strengthening UN-NGO partnerships beyond the year 2000. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan proposed that NGOs consider holding a "People's Millennium Assembly" in 2000 as part of an effort to cement the partnership between NGO and the UN; UN General Assembly President Razali Ismail raised a range of relevant issues which he encouraged governments and NGOs to consider; and Ruth Cardoso, the First Lady of Brazil and President of the Council of Comunidade Solidaria, Brazil, briefed participants on the Brazilian NGO initiative launched in December 1996 to promote the role of NGOs throughout Brazil.
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  15. 15

    EC / UNFPA for reproductive health initiative in Asia.

    Goppel W

    ASIAN FORUM NEWSLETTER. 1997 Oct-Dec; 7.

    The European Commission (EC) has provided 25 million ECU to support reproductive health (RH) programs in Cambodia, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Laos, and Vietnam. The funds are being provided to support the joint EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia, a direct result of the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action. The initiative will enlist the collaboration of nonprofit organizations, associations, institutions, and foundations to address RH issues such as family planning and sexual health in the selected countries. Preparatory activities have commenced in each of the countries. Focus will be upon strengthening the ability of national nongovernmental organizations and community-based organizations to deliver sustainable RH services, improving access to quality services for unserved and vulnerable population groups, and gender issues and reproductive rights.
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  16. 16

    Meeting the needs: Chile. Working with the Red Cross.

    FORUM. 1997 Jul; 13(1):18.

    This article describes the evolution of family planning (FP) services in Chile since 1962 and under changing political regimes. APROFA was the first FP association in Chile and was organized in 1962 with small programs located in poor neighborhoods of Santiago. Researchers at the University of Chile Medical School had earlier publicized the huge impact of induced abortion on women's health. FP program affiliation with the medical school earned the program credibility. The President in 1964 included contraception within the National Health Service (SNS), even though it and induced abortion were still illegal. APROFA was unique in that it did not provide clinic service delivery, but did offer a wide range of information and education activities in support of the government's program of services. The military dictatorship of 1973 ended the SNS, but APROFA collaborated with the Red Cross in 38 centers in poor areas to provide FP services and slowly acquired skills in service delivery. By 1994, funding forced APROFA to close 5 centers. These centers were reopened after the 1994 Cairo and Beijing conferences, which concluded that FP should be provided within a broader context of sexual and reproductive health care. APROFA relied on new approaches to dealing with HIV and sexually transmitted diseases and drew men into clinic activities. By 1996, program managers in restored services reported 2253 new acceptors; 5727 couple-years of protection were provided against unwanted pregnancy. Participating clinics improved the quality of service delivery to clients. Even with declines in funding from UNFPA, the clinics are expected to recover costs through fees and by obtaining supplies from the Red Cross.
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  17. 17

    DOTS in action.

    Barends L

    AFRICA HEALTH. 1997 Nov; 20(1):19-20.

    About 80,000 cases of tuberculosis (TB) are reported annually in South Africa. However, control measures have failed to check the growing numbers of TB cases and the spread of HIV is bound to exacerbate the situation. The Western Cape has almost 3 times the national notification rate (663 vs. 225 per 100,000). With only 60-70% of patients in Western Cape found to adhere to treatment, the Community Health Association of South Africa (CHASA) recommended using the DOTS strategy to control TB. The DOTS method, however, burdens both health workers and those patients who have to travel long distances to reach a health center. Such inconvenience contributes to poor treatment compliance. Any strictly medical approach to TB eradication will fail. Medical interventions must instead be set within, and supported by, a strong social and political network. A change in attitude is needed in order to ensure the success of DOTS. The creation of the Western Cape TB Alliance (TBA), TB control-related research, DOTS implementation, and project objectives and achievements are described.
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  18. 18

    A growing role for NGOs.

    Duce GE

    JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Dec; (282):3.

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are essential for the successful implementation of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. Without the active, productive involvement of the NGOs, consensus probably would not have been reached at the ICPD. NGOs have also been very influential in developing reproductive health (RH). NGOs should now collaborate with governments and civil society, universities, and experts, to better implement the program of action. The highly ambitious program requires the collaboration of all these parties. While NGOs are especially important because they can be innovative and flexible, governments have infrastructure and can act nationally. Collaboration between governments and NGOs is therefore very important for program success. It is very important that NGOs are perceived as collaborating with and not competing against governments for scarce resources. The South-South Initiative was created at the time of the ICPD by 10 governments which believed that they had something to offer with regard to RH and family planning. UNFPA has supported a few of the initiative's activities and has collaborated with the group's secretariat in Dhaka, Bangladesh. UNFPA is also supporting 4 RH training programs for South-South cooperation offered by Indonesia, Mexico, Thailand, and Tunisia.
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  19. 19

    Results on the ground.

    HDDFLASH. 1997 Nov; (19):2-3.

    An innovative program initiated by Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevolkerung with funding from the World Bank Special Grants program seeks to provide out-of-school youth in Ghana with reproductive health information and contraceptive services through a peer educator approach. The project is being implemented by an indigenous nongovernmental organization, Youth for Population Information and Communication (YPIC), that targets high-risk, disadvantaged 10-24 year olds. The project is based in Obuasi, an impoverished gold-mining town northwest of Accra. The chemicals used to extract gold are highly toxic, resulting in serious environmental degradation and health problems. HIV prevalence is high as a result of the commercial sex trade. Out-of-school youth, who are frequently illiterate, lack basic knowledge of the risk of HIV and unwanted pregnancies. To date, 10 peer educators have been trained. The peer approach has been successful in both removing barriers to open communication about sexuality and making condoms more widely available to at-risk youth. The project also helped establish a youth center to serve as a focal point for peer educators and contraceptive services. Overall, this program provides an excellent example of successful collaboration of international donors with local nongovernmental organizations.
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  20. 20

    UNICEF / Nepal highlights on safe-motherhood.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1997 Mar-Apr; 17(2):3-4.

    During the second day of the Family Planning Association of Nepal's (FPAN) 20th Central Council Meeting, and on behalf of UNICEF/Nepal, Indra Lal Singh stressed the importance and implication of the safe motherhood program relative to the family planning program. Singh also stressed the need to promote the two programs together with the aim of ensuring better results. UNICEF/Nepal looks forward to working with FPAN and preliminary talks to that end have already been held. Also at the meeting, a paper was presented upon safe motherhood, government health policy, and different levels of the health delivery system. 40% of pregnant women are not receiving the benefits of the safe motherhood program, indicative of the program's need for both government and nongovernmental organization priority. Other statistics aired during the meeting are that 44% of pregnant women receive only prenatal care services, 92% of deliveries are performed at home, 3% of women are attended by nurses or trained workers, 6% are attended by physicians, 33% of pregnant women receive 2 or more doses of tetanus toxoid, 29% of newly married nonpregnant women use contraception, 539 women out of 100,000 deliveries die due to unsafe motherhood, and 5000 women die each year due to pregnancy-related problems.
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  21. 21

    Steaming ahead in Guatemala.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Oct; (280):6.

    In cooperation with local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the JOICFP Integrated Project in Solola State, where it is implemented by the Family Welfare Association of Guatemala (APROFAM), has been refocused on reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) within the predominately Mayan communities of Panajachel, San Pedro la Laguna, and San Lucas Toliman. Emphasis has been placed on sensitivity to cultural and gender issues. Mayan professionals, including a Mayan doctor who provides 2 days of service to clinics on a rotational basis, are employed. A clinic has been added in San Pedro la Laguna and another in Panajachel; the latter serves as the project's headquarters. Training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and of community-based distribution agents (CBDs) has been increased in order to broaden project coverage. 31 CBDs have been recruited from project communities to counsel and to educate clients in the local language, to provide referrals, and to sell low-cost contraceptives. A Japanese public health nurse serves as a Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteer at the APROFAM clinic in Solola. Six TBAs have received follow-up training in natural and modern FP. The project's Mayan doctor works closely with these health personnel. 28 CBDs have been trained to provide Depo-Provera; acceptance of this method has increased by 42%. Contraceptive acceptance between January and June of this year is greater than the total for all of 1996. Two UN Population Fund (UNFPA) representatives, Dr. Sergio de Leon (program officer) and Dr. Ruben Gonzalez (national coordinator of the project to reduce maternal mortality), visited during a monitoring/technical support mission in July and August.
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  22. 22

    Zooming in on youth in Vietnam.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Sep; (279):3.

    JOICFP, under the "Training and Development, Production and Utilization of IEC Materials with Special Focus on Adolescents and Young Adults" project (RAS/96/P10) supported by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), is producing a still-image video concerning sexuality issues and reproductive health needs of Asian youth. The video will depict 1) an unmarried Vietnamese girl who has had a relationship with a young man and now faces the possibility of an unwanted pregnancy; 2) a Nepalese girl forced into an early marriage; and 3) a Philippine girl delivering her first child. Photos for the Vietnamese segment have been taken; the theme and storyline were developed in response to feedback from youth belonging to the Youth Union of Ho Chi Minh City. The video is being produced to inform decision makers and administrators of the realities faced by young people so that appropriate reproductive health policies and programs for youth can be created. Young people, ages 10-19, now account for one-fifth of the world's population.
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  23. 23

    Teenage pregnancy: no easy answers.

    NEWSOURCE. 1997 Summer; 1.

    While teen pregnancy and birth rates have risen in other parts of the country, rates in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine have declined in the past 5 years and are well below the national averages. New Hampshire and Vermont have the lowest teen birth rates in the country, while Maine has the highest rate of oral contraceptive use among sexually active teens nationwide. Education and family planning services are essential components of what is needed to eliminate teen pregnancy. The President of Planned Parenthood of Northern New England (PPNNE) understands that teens need a place in which they feel comfortable and can get honest information and answers. To that end, PPNNE provides teens, often without an appointment, with birth control, screening for infection with sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy testing, counseling, and education. PPNNE works both with families and individual teens, making sure to serve even at risk and hard to reach populations. A teenage pregnancy prevention project with King Street Youth Center in Burlington, VT, works with at risk teens for 5 years, helping them to complete high school, find and keep part-time jobs, and learn about their capabilities and strengths. Teens who complete the program and graduate from high school are guaranteed acceptance into a local college or university.
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  24. 24

    Addressing gender and health issues in NGO programmes.

    Ravindran TK

    In: Gender and women's health. Part 2. Linking gender and women's health conceptually, [compiled by] Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women [ARROW]. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ARROW, 1997. 9-12. (Information Package No. 2)

    Grassroots, gender-sensitive health interventions should begin from women's self-assessment of needs, build on women's knowledge and skills, seek to redress gender-based discrimination or dependency, and contribute to women's ability to organize. Before donor agencies raise gender issues in health with local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the donor agencies should determine 1) if the NGO is gender-aware and committed to gender and development work, 2) if the NGO decision-makers support gender work, 3) if gender issues are the responsibility of a lead person or a team and whether men are involved, and 4) if the NGO supports women's empowerment in its own office. NGO partners may face practical and ideological constraints in introducing gender issues, and ideological resistance may be hardest to overcome. The following questions can be used to assess the gender sensitivity of health projects: 1) what are women's gender-specific health needs in the program area, 2) do girls receive differential treatment in the project area, 3) how does the project affect existing time constraints faced by women, 4) has the project identified the informal methods used by women, 5) does the project recognize that women are not a homogenous group, 6) does the project address barriers women face in assessing facilities and services, 7) what is the quality of care provided, 8) will the project increase women's decision-making involvement, 9) will the project increase women's ability to organize, 10) will the project improve women's access to and control over services and infrastructural facilities, and 11) what impact will the project have on gender relations.
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  25. 25

    Promoting the female condom.

    Cornman H

    AIDSLINK. 1997 May-Jun; (45):13.

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia.
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