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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. , 28 p.This document constitutes a WHO Technical Working Group report on female genital mutilation (FGM). The first section offers an overview of the objectives of the Technical Working Group, the FGM process and geographical distribution of cases. Section 2 presents a background information on FGM and the proposed definition and classification of the Group. Section 3 discusses the physical and health consequences of the practice, both the short-term and the long-term complications. Section 4 examines the sexual, mental, and social consequences of FGM, while section 5 explores on suggested research framework for effective interventions. Section 6 outlines a framework for activities geared towards addressing this concern including breaking the silence, raising awareness, providing information, advocacy, enhancing personal views of women, involving policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and the community. It also discusses FGM in immigrant communities in western countries. The last section presents several recommendations for research, national policies and legislation, and training.