Your search found 32 Results
[Intrafamily violence from the perspective of international conferences: the role of the United Nations] La violencia intrafamiliar desde la perspectiva de las conferencias internacionales: el papel de las Naciones Unidas.
In: Memorias del Encuentro Continental sobre Violencia Intrafamiliar, [compiled by] United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]. Mexico City, Mexico, UNIFEM, 1996. 17-18.The interest and the efforts of the United Nations Organization with regard to the subject of violence and, in particular, intrafamiliar violence has been manifested on very different occasions. The United Nations' Decade for Women (1976-1985) significantly contributed to bring to light the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the issue was debated in 1985 in the Seventh United Nations Conference on Crime Prevention and Treatment of Delinquents. In 1985, the United Nations General Assembly invited the member States to act to prevent violence within the home and suggested measures by which the judicial system could deal with the problem in a just and humanitarian way. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug.  p.This paper provides a chronology on the issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) being tackled by the UN and its agencies since the early 1950s. In 1952, the UN Commission on Human Rights raised the issue of FGM for the first time. In 1980, the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women, in Copenhagen, appealed to African governments and Women's Organizations to seek solutions to the problem of female circumcision and infibulation. The WHO in 1982 made a formal statement of its position regarding FGM to the UN Human Rights Commission. In addition, it expressed unequivocal opposition to the medicalization of the practice in any setting, readiness to support national efforts aimed at eliminating the practice, and strongly advises health workers not to perform female circumcision under any conditions. Moreover, in 1995, the Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen refers to FGM, reinforcing the International Conference on Population and Development recommendations. The Platform of Action of the World Conference on Women in Beijing includes a section on the girl child and urged governments, international organizations and nongovernmental groups to develop policies and programs to eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child including FGM.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug.  p.The WHO is concerned with the traditional practice of female genital mutilation (FGM); therefore, it has carried out activities that combat this practice. Over the last 15 years, these activities have included: preparation of informational material by staff members and consultants, particularly on the health consequences and the epidemiology of FGM; support to incorporate this material into appropriate training courses for various categories of health workers; technical and financial support to national surveys; convening and collaborating in conferences and seminars on FGM; holding consultations to clarify and unify approaches; and disseminating information on FGM. All these efforts have culminated in the adoption, by the World Health Assembly 1994, of Resolution WHA 47.10, urging governments to take measures to eliminate traditional practices harmful to the health of women and children, particularly FGM.
Paris, France, NGO Standing Committee at UNESCO, .  p.This paper summarizes the contributions and the 15 propositions of the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Standing Committee at UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the Habitat II-City Summit. It also includes the international NGO seminar at UNESCO on "City Dweller, Citizen" held on March 1996. In accordance with its ethical mission, UNESCO has oriented its action for the Habitat II towards the themes of solidarity and of citizenship in the spirit of peace and of conservation of the environment. The Permanent Committee of NGOs accredited to UNESCO, elected by the Conference of the 585 NGOs having official relationships with UNESCO, is deeply involved in the programs and research undertaken by UNESCO.
New York, New York, WEDO, 1996 Jun 1. 17 p.This Advocacy Chart complements the Women's Caucus line-by-line Recommendations on Bracketed Text offered to all government and nongovernment delegates from the Women's Caucus. With over one-half of Habitat Agenda in bracket, the Women's Caucus is focusing its advocacy efforts on ensuring positive outcomes from a gender perspective on the outstanding issues be negotiated by delegates. This chart clusters the various brackets under the following headings: Gender Equality, Human Rights, Economics, Environment and Sustainable Human Settlements, Health, Peace, and Implementation and Finance. Previously agreed UN language, which supports their position of retaining or amending much of what is in brackets, is also presented. It is hoped that this chart will be useful in their efforts to ensure that all the hard-won achievements of the global women's movements at previous UN conferences be reaffirmed and promoted.
In: Salas Forum papers on population, development and environment, edited by Renato S. Velasco, Alexander R. Magno. Quezon City, Philippines, Rafael M. Salas Foundation, 1996. viii-xv.The seven topics that are outlined in the book Salas Forum Papers on Population Development and Environment are discussed. The book also profiles the late Mr. Rafael Salas as the Founding Executive Director of the Rafael M. Salas Foundation, a nongovernmental organization based in the Philippines and funded by the UN Population Fund. Mr. Salas was a man profoundly committed to uplifting the Filipino people from poverty. He embraced the ethos that the first responsibility of the political leader is to secure his people's destiny from the vagaries of constant change and the dire consequences of inappropriate policy action. In present days, this ethos is understood as sustainable development and calls for a moderation of the present needs so that people do not diminish the ability of future generations to meet their needs too. He also correlated population dynamics to achieving sustainable development, which is evident in the discussions during the seven sessions of the Salas Forum compiled in this book. The topics included 1) a presentation entitled, Population, Resources and the Philippine Future ; 2) discussion of the six policy papers on population and development dialogue; 3) demographic trends in the Philippines; 4) dynamics between population management, sustainable development and organized religion; 5) the national security aspect of population planning; 6) the gender aspect of social transformation; and 7) debates on population and environment.
In: Salas Forum papers on population, development and environment, edited by Renato S. Velasco, Alexander R. Magno. Quezon City, Philippines, Rafael M. Salas Foundation, 1996. vi-vii.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in the Philippines, led by Rafael Salas, has changed from a fledgling agency into one of the most dynamic and financially stable UN agencies. The vision and principles he laid during the inception of UNFPA has been and will remain valid for years to come. These include the respect for national sovereignty and for individual human rights, organizational flexibility, innovation and expediency. Following the death of Mr. Salas, the Rafael M. Salas Foundation was established in the Philippines, supported by the UNFPA. One of its programs is the annual Salas Forum, which serves as a fruitful arena where the multi-faceted concerns of development may be examined dispassionately and intelligently. As a nongovernmental endeavor, it opens an important channel where sober debate is conducted between and among the relevant actors in the formulation of population and development policies. The papers presented to the Forum and the deliberation helps to clarify problems and possible solutions to the often ambiguous and complex process of development.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. , 28 p.This document constitutes a WHO Technical Working Group report on female genital mutilation (FGM). The first section offers an overview of the objectives of the Technical Working Group, the FGM process and geographical distribution of cases. Section 2 presents a background information on FGM and the proposed definition and classification of the Group. Section 3 discusses the physical and health consequences of the practice, both the short-term and the long-term complications. Section 4 examines the sexual, mental, and social consequences of FGM, while section 5 explores on suggested research framework for effective interventions. Section 6 outlines a framework for activities geared towards addressing this concern including breaking the silence, raising awareness, providing information, advocacy, enhancing personal views of women, involving policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and the community. It also discusses FGM in immigrant communities in western countries. The last section presents several recommendations for research, national policies and legislation, and training.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1996 Feb. , v, 59 p. (Social Development Paper No. 12)This report defines types of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and identifies strategies for identifying participatory NGOs. It also discusses capacity building, the tension between service delivery and capacity building, the potential to increase the scale of activity among NGOs, project or process development, and linkages between NGOs and government. The World Bank now aims to foster more participatory community-based development among development-oriented NGOs trying to reduce poverty. Development-oriented NGOs tend to have the strongest grassroots links and the greatest experience reaching disadvantaged groups with innovative methods. The World Bank has historically ignored participatory processes. The challenge is to locate NGOs willing to collaborate and those that have sufficient capacity to meet goals; to support the participatory character of NGOs; and to help reduce friction in styles with the operations of the World Bank and governments. Highly participatory NGOs tend to work on a very small scale. Another challenge is to build the institutional capacity of NGO partners. The usual management training is unsuitable and insufficient for NGO needs. History, politics, and ideology define the differences in links between governments and NGOs. Partners may be constrained by government attitudes and regulations. The cases confirm the importance of a clear, shared understanding of partner NGO roles; a flexible, staged process of collaboration; opportunities for strong, relatively homogenous common interest-based groups; a supportive, nonintrusive state context; and a shared view and willingness to cooperate among major donors.
ROSHNI. 1996 Jan-Jun; 1-3.This article summarizes the recommendations of the All India Women's Conference and the UN Information Center's Regional Seminar on Human Settlement which was held in 1996. The conference was attended by about 100 persons and 20 speakers. The main topics were megacities and infrastructure deficits; governance, poverty, and employment; and the role of women and nongovernmental organizations in human settlements. The article identifies 24 recommendations on community participation by women: the availability of drinking water and sanitation, access to schools and health care, provision of sanitary facilities, training programs for women in basic health care and hygiene, toilet facilities in slums and rural areas, housing provision for the poor, income generation programs for women, shelter to the homeless, available housing, equity in political representation and elections, sustainable development, rural development, resettlement of slum dwellers, improvements in quality of life, female ownership of housing, networking, and integrated approaches to the concept of habitat, among others. This regional conference followed up the Global Habitat II Conference. Provision of housing and shelters to millions worldwide will require creative programs, adequate financial support, and dedication to the ideals of Habitat II.
Sanitation in emergency situations. Proceedings of an international workshop, held in Oxford, December 1995.
Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1996. 51 p. (Oxfam Working Paper)This report presents summaries of plenaries, workshop papers, working group discussions, and a complete list of recommendations from the December 1995 International Inter-Agency Workshop on Sanitation in Emergency Situations. The 45 participants included delegates from nongovernmental organizations, UN organizations, the Red Cross, and independent sanitation workers. The aim was to discuss organizational and technical problems and to agree on operating principles, program implementation, and recommendations. The workshop papers focused on: principles for better sanitation, excreta disposal kits, first-phase excreta disposal, latrine construction, excreta disposal on difficult sites, emergency solid waste management/disposal, vector control, personal hygiene and water collection-storage, drainage and washing-bathing facilities, sanitation in enclosed centers, environmental impact, community participation, staff training, and evaluations. The discussions addressed topics on the principles for sanitation promotion in emergencies, first-phase excreta disposal, second phase and longer excreta disposal, off-site/on-site excreta disposal, flow charts for emergency excreta disposal for many specific conditions, refuse disposal, hygiene education, personal hygiene kits, vector control, hygiene facilities, environmental impact, sanitation in enclosed centers, and staff training. Priority should be given to sanitation techniques and guidelines for improving practices; initial assessments of emergency situations; and sanitation. Improvements are needed in information exchanges, community participation, and staff training. Five other recommendations are discussed.
HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):20.Zambian communities in 21 settlements have developed partnerships with District Councils and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with the aid of the Community Development Programme. A Training Programme for Community Participation in Settlements Improvement was implemented by the government from 1984 to 1994 with the support of the UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat). Although seed money for physical settlement improvements was not included, integrating training with the actual process of upgrading enabled the participating communities to make the improvements. The selected communities, with the support of District Council staff, produced project documents to solicit the support of NGOs. The partnerships consisted of three groups; 1) Resident Development Committees, which represented the communities; 2) NGOs; and 3) District Councils. The first group mobilized the communities in the identification of priority needs and in action planning. The second group supplied equipment and funds. The third group provided technical services and created a legal framework in the form of a memorandum of understanding, which was signed by all partners. Sustainability, maintenance, and management of services after the phasing out of NGO support were defined in the memorandum. Schools, clinics, storm-water drainage, and road improvements were some of the benefits obtained from this tripartite partnership.
EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 Jun 7; 5.The head of the UN Development Fund for Women's delegation at Habitat II, Achola Pala Okeyo, held a press conference to voice her concern that the women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) attending the conference were not receiving enough visibility. Issues raised at the press conference included the important role played by the NGOs in taking the Habitat agenda to the grassroots level, the promotion of cooperative ownership of houses and equal inheritance rights, and the lack of input sought from "everyday" women in planning and development efforts in their communities. Okeyo noted that the Habitat conference was the first organized attempt to bring women's NGOs together since the women's conference in Beijing and that women were disappointed at their lack of progress in attaining equal rights.
EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 10; 1, 7.Women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked hard to successfully advance women's concerns in Habitat II's Global Plan of Action because women must have safe, secure settlements in order to achieve social and economic advances. The NGOs considered it vital that the Plan of Action call for greater reinvestment of businesses in communities, reduction of the negative impact of structural adjustment programs, opportunities for women to receive small loans with flexible collateral, and prevention of the sexual and economic exploitation of women. The most important consideration for some advocates is how implementation of the Plan of Action will be funded. Women still have not achieved the right to equal inheritance, and the Plan of Action calls for an equal right to inheritance for women but not the right to inherit equal amounts as men. The women attending Habitat are also seeking recognition of the facts that women and men use cities differently and that the needs of women are often overlooked. Advocates believe it is vitally important to help women articulate what changes they desire.
COUNTDOWN TO ISTANBUL: HABITAT II. 1996 May; 1(7):18.In 1994, the Super Coalition on Women, Homes, and Community was formed from four worldwide networks so that women working on community development could be involved in Habitat II planning and could incorporate human settlement issues into the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and it attendant NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum. The Super Coalition paved the way for grassroots women to contribute ideas to the Preparatory Committee for Habitat II. When the women discovered that many of the gains achieved at the WCW were not reflected in the Habitat agenda, they drafted amendments that were later discussed by official bodies. The women also lobbied delegations and governmental groups on gender issues and found that many of their concerns were included in bracketed paragraphs for further consideration during Habitat II. Another success occurred when the Secretary-General of Habitat II appointed many women to the newly-created Huairou Commission, which will offer advice on gender issues and highlight women's concerns during Habitat II.
Super Coalition highlights women's perspective on housing: our practices take center stage in Istanbul.
GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):1, 9.The Women, Homes, and Community Super Coalition, a network of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) accepted responsibility for organizing the NGO Coalition program for Habitat II. The goals of the Super Coalition are to 1) highlight the role of women's leadership in the building of sustainable communities, 2) establish a consensus on common problems and priorities of grassroots women and other activists, and 3) discuss action strategies to address these problems and assert these priorities. The Super Coalition maintains that a socially responsible design of housing and communities will emerge when 1) women's household-based income is valued as an important form of economic activity, 2) grassroots people are empowered to participate in all negotiations affecting their lives and communities, 3) it is recognized that communities must be sustainable and culturally viable, and 4) mere shelters become homes offering safety and sustenance for children, the aged, and the ill.
GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):5, 9.GROOTS International (grassroots organizations operating together in sisterhood) played a major role in the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). GROOTS International coordinated the Grassroots Tent, one of the tents that promoted diversity. More than 1000 Grassroots Tent visitors signed up to be contacted by regional focal points in the grassroots network. In addition, a participant in a women's network that is a GROOTS partner gave a plenary speech on governance. By Day 3, the Grassroots Tent held a daily meeting of the Grassroots Caucus where over 40 women from eight regions outlined key women's concerns that coalesced into the Statement of the Women and Shelter Strategizing Group presented to the WCW. Meanwhile, a team of 15 official WCW delegates (including GROOTS representatives) acted as NGO liaisons and traveled back and forth between the WCW and the NGO Forum. GROOTS made a presentation to the WCW, and organized a panel on economic reform in the Grassroots Tent. The success of GROOTS partners was documented and presented in a report entitled "Restructuring Economic and Social Policy: Cross-Cultural Gender Insights from the Grassroots" given as part of a panel discussion on economic reform at the NGO Forum. Finally, a closing-day policy presentation and strategizing session with the UN Secretary-General for Habitat II led to the formation of the Huairou Commission designed to integrate grassroots organizations into preparations for Habitat II.
GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):1, 3.In February 1996, the Secretary-General of Habitat II announced formation of a "Huairou Commission" named for the village where nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) met during the NGO Forum of the Fourth World Conference on Women. In Huairou, a grassroots Super Coalition on Women, Homes, and Community (that included a diverse group of women from around the world) worked night and day to develop a Statement of the Women and Shelter Strategizing Group for presentation to the Secretary-General of Habitat II. The Huairou Commission is the only UN working commission this decade that includes community-based organizations, private sector leaders, local authorities, NGOs, development agency officials, and senior UN officials. The mandate of the Commission is to 1) highlight women's concerns in the development of sustainable human settlements, 2) ensure that the Habitat Agenda reflects women's central decision-making roles and responsibilities, 3) develop a program for women's organizational capacity-building, and 4) identify and publicize the best practices that have evolved from women's perspectives.
AIDS ILLUSTRATED. 1996 Oct; 2(1):9.War and AIDS-related mortality in Uganda have created an estimated 1.2 million orphans in the country. Child welfare advocates and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have therefore been working together for the past 4 years under an umbrella organization to coordinate efforts for vulnerable children. The Uganda Community-Based Association for Child Welfare (UCOBAC), links people and organizations involved in child advocacy, facilitates relations between the government and NGOs, and helps to strengthen the capacity of NGOs to identify and implement projects. UCOBAC emphasizes community-based initiatives which allow children to remain in their own communities instead of being institutionalized. One example of such an approach is a vocational skills training program in Rakai district established to help young orphans trying to make it on their own. More than 300 youths had benefitted from the program as of December 1994 and plans are underway to expand the program to 10 more districts. UCOBAC is also training communities and NGOs to identify and implement viable projects, and helps child welfare organizations by serving as a network for sharing information. UCOBAC came into existence in October 1990 with 93 members, including 57 local NGOs, 17 international NGOs, and 19 individual members. The organization has since established local offices in 35 of Uganda's 39 districts. UNICEF has thus far provided about US$130,000 for UCOBAC activities and will continue to fund local NGO initiatives through UCOBAC. UCOBAC, however, is giving priority to becoming financially independent of UNICEF within a couple of years. Future projects include an inventory of NGO child welfare projects, a child welfare resource library, and networking workshops with NGOs and government policymakers.
Highlights from the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group on FGM Meeting, Cairo, Egypt, November, 1996.
[Unpublished] 1996. 13 p.In November 1996, more than 34 representatives from 20 organizations attended the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group meeting on female genital mutilation (FGM) in Cairo, Egypt. After opening remarks by the Chairperson of the Task Force on FGM in Egypt and the Egyptian Under Secretary of the Ministry of Health and Population, other discussions placed FGM in the larger context of women's human rights, reviewed the background of the Global Action Against FGM Project and the goals of the Inter-Agency Working Group, and provided an overview of the activities of RAINBO (Research, Action, and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women). A report was then given of a research workshop organized by RAINBO and the Egyptian Task Force on FGM immediately prior to the Working Group meeting. It was noted that data from the recent Demographic and Health Survey revealed an FGM prevalence rate of 97% in Egypt, and areas requiring more research were highlighted. Discussion following this presentation included mention of qualitative methods used in a recent study in Sierra Leone and recent research in the Sudan that led to recommended intervention strategies. During the second day of the Working Group meeting, participants provided a preview of the work of the Egyptian Task Force Against FGM; a description of RAINBO's effort to develop training of trainers reproductive health and FGM materials; and summaries of the work of nongovernmental organizations, private foundations, UN agencies, and bilateral donors. This meeting report ends with a list of participants.
A report of the NGO Advocacy Network for Women (KIDOG) on its participation in the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, HABITAT II NGO Forum, Istanbul, Turkey, May 30 - June 14, 1996.
Washington, D.C., Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1996. , 9,  p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-3078-C-00-5023-00)This report describes the participation of the Turkish NGO (nongovernmental organization) Advocacy Network for Women (KIDOG) in the UN's Habitat II NGO Forum, which took place May 30-June 14, 1996. KIDOG originated in the participation of 11 NGOs in a two-day advocacy workshop sponsored by The Futures Group International in Turkey in July 1995. In the fall of 1995, the 11 NGOs requested technical assistance in networking, advocacy, and strategic planning. In March 1996, eight additional groups joined KIDOG during another advocacy workshop. Using participatory techniques, KIDOG members decided that their participation in the NGO Forum would involve 1) provision of information about the status of women and reproductive health in Turkey and 2) seeking support for the Network agenda and an increase in Network membership. KIDOG's contributions to the NGO Forum included distributing KIDOG booklets and posters, developing a computer-based presentation on women and reproductive health, sponsoring an exhibit booth, hosting site visits, and conducting workshops on the following topics: 1) NGO initiatives in reproductive health, 2) domestic violence, 3) informal education for women, and 4) sustainable development. When KIDOG members evaluated their participation in the NGO Forum, they agreed that KIDOG's most important contribution was serving as a model for collaborative work, which is a new phenomenon in Turkey. KIDOG members plan to continue their organized advocacy activities.
DISPATCHES: NEWS FROM UNFPA. 1996 Nov; (11):2.As part of a series of Arab regional meetings on social affairs, an expert group meeting was held September 25-27, 1996. Participants included Jordan's Minister for Social Development, Abu Jamous, who emphasized a new role for women, one in which they could participate actively in society without restriction by tradition and culture. Recommendations included improving women's access to quality reproductive health care (including family planning), particularly in rural areas. Raising awareness among women and among communities concerning the positive outcome of reproductive health and decreased maternal mortality due to repeated childbearing was stressed. At the first meeting of this event, representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) discussed follow-up for the recommendations of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) and adopted a Plan of Action. Her Royal Highness Basma Bint Talal of Jordan, in her opening remarks, spoke about the vital role of NGOs "in women's development and their fight against discrimination, so that they will be equal to men and be able to serve their community based on the Islamic sharia and our Arab tradition". Atef Khalifa, director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Country Support Team for Arab States and Europe, reported that all delegations had "keen understanding and great awareness of reproductive health issues" and "fully endorsed programs and mechanisms related to reproductive health and rights". UNFPA representatives provided presentations during several panel discussions at this event.
[Bangkok, Thailand], ESCAP, 1996. v, 209 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 141; ST\ESCAP\1688)This report addresses aging in Asia. The current population of Asia numbers over 300 million people over the age of 60 years. China has over 114 million elderly and Japan has 25.1 million, the largest proportion of total population. The first chapter provides a demographic analysis of aging in Asia. Aging is a result of fertility decline and increased life expectancy. These changes affect the structure and relations of families. Family structure is also changing due to changes in socioeconomic conditions and changes in acceptance of alternative family patterns. Most of the world's elderly will live in developing countries. The pace of aging will be faster than in Europe and North America. Chapter 2 analyzes the quality of life of the elderly in Asia and the impact of technology, modernization, and cultural and traditional values. Chapter 3 focuses on the issues of education, training, and employment of the elderly and official policies that should integrate elderly people into the mainstream economy. The elderly could play a much stronger role in volunteerism. There is a need for policies that would reinforce the continuation of values which support family responsibility for the care of the elderly. Chapter 4 discusses present and future patterns of care for the elderly. Country differences in types of caregivers depend upon the extent of informal systems, the size of the problem of care, public perception of the role of the state, the welfare ideology of government decision makers, the weight of the voting elderly electorate, the strength of the economy, the market for private care agencies and other groups, and international trends in care. Chapter 5 discusses the priority of aging issues in national agendas, chapter 6 focuses on elderly women, chapter 7 describes nongovernmental programs for the elderly, and chapter 8 discusses the future prospects for dealing with the rapid growth of the elderly population in Asia.
Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1996. viii, 166 p.This document is a pocket edition of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Part 1 of the booklet contains the text of the Programme of Action. Chapter 1 contains the Preamble, and chapter 2 describes the principles upon which the Programme of Action is based. For each of the major headings in the remaining 14 chapters, the basis of action, objectives, and specific actions are presented. Chapter 3 covers the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. Chapter 4 deals with gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The fifth chapter looks at the roles, rights, composition, and structure of the family, and chapter 6 is concerned with population growth and structure. Chapter 7 discusses issues related to reproductive rights and reproductive health, while chapter 8 concentrates on health, morbidity, and mortality. The ninth chapter is devoted to population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration, and chapter 10 focuses on international migration. The relationship of population, development, and education is considered in chapter 11, and research issues are included in chapter 12. Chapters 13-15 relay what is needed in the areas of national action, international cooperation, and partnerships with the nongovernmental sector, respectively, and the final chapter reviews the necessary national, regional, and international follow-up activities. Part 2 of the booklet reproduces the oral and written statements and reservations about the Programme of Action submitted by various countries.
WORLD HEALTH. 1996 Jul-Aug; 49(4):27.Teaching children and adolescents how to become responsible citizens should be at the heart of schools' educational mission. Students must be made aware of the major problems, especially the health problems, they will face during the course of their lives. Health education involves conveying knowledge and influencing or changing attitudes and behavior in the context of daily life. It also means making young people responsible for their own health. Since young people's health directly affects their training, school attendance, and academic achievement, comprehensive health programs must be developed in the school setting. Such programs are among the most cost-effective investments a nation can make to improve its health. The yield can be measured in long-term economic and social development and the well-being of the whole population. Education International is an organization of teachers and other educational workers created in 1993 with affiliates in 140 countries. The organization is currently developing many promising partnerships. Education International particularly values its partnership with the World Health Organization.