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[Unpublished] 1992. 12,  p.Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been shown to play an essential and often unique role in HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and community support. However, the capacity of developing country NGOs to initiate, improve or expand HIV/AIDS activities depends on their access to appropriate financial, technical, and managerial resources. In response to the need for increased and improved support to developing country NGOs working on HIV/AIDS, a donor sub-group was formed that included agencies from Germany, the US, the European Union, WHO/GPA, and the Rockefeller Foundation. These donor sub-groups organized the NGO Support Programme to improve the access of indigenous NGOs to appropriate financial, technical, and managerial assistance. This document outlines the overall goals and objectives of the program, as well as the specific tasks for the start-up period. Among the start-up tasks are the development of appropriate and effective systems and guidelines for providing support to developing country NGOs.
[Unpublished] 1992 May 26. , 21 p. (PHL/GPA/012; RS/91/0732)The objectives of the condom promotion mission of the World Health Organization (WHO) were to develop a plan for condom supply, distribution, promotion, and evaluation; and to strengthen condom distribution systems along with social marketing of condoms. Manila, the Philippines, was the site of the mission from November 27 through December 12, 1991. Visits were made to social hygiene clinics in Manila and Quezon City from among 130 such clinics nationwide, nongovernmental organizations, social marketing programs, and commercial distributors. Outreach activities by NGOs in the Manila area were visited. Kabalikat, a Filipino nongovernmental organization, was collaborating with SOMARC in condom marketing campaigns. The promised quantity of condoms from WHO and USAID were expected to be sufficient from 1992. Discussions were held with personnel of the National AIDS Prevention and Control Service, the Family Planning Program and the Procurement and Logistics Service at the Department of Health. The identification of the high-risk population emphasized female and male workers in the sex trade, their clients, homosexuals and bisexuals, and overseas contract workers. There are approximately 47,000 registered commercial sex workers in the Philippines and a similar number who are unregistered. As of October 31, 1991, a total of 273 individuals were identified as HIV-positive, including 56 AIDS cases of whom 34 had died. Direct action to distribute condoms and information through the social hygiene clinic should be a cornerstone of the program, and the activities of NGOs should be strengthened to encompass the regular and consistent distribution of condoms to the high-risk groups who do not visit the clinics. In areas where no suitable NGO exists, the local task force should be motivated to establish one. The program should convene regular meetings with NGOs, social marketing organizations, and commercial distributors to coordinate condom distribution and promotion activities.
PROGRESS. REPORTS ON HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. 1992 Spring-Summer; 40-4.Private and bilateral donors currently place a great deal of emphasis on the potential importance of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in delivering services to dispossessed populations and nascent democracies around the world. This is particularly the case in Southern Africa. The expectation that NGOs can utilize resources more effectively than government may ultimately imperil the credibility of NGOs internationally. NGOs are expected to be: agents of development; community organizers and educators; institution builders; social service providers; humanitarian relief providers; political activists; human rights protectors; police watchdogs and advocates; organizational and financial managers; technical experts in agriculture and health; democracy promoters; innovators and testers of new ideas and technologies; fund raisers; employment creators; credit providers; and an alternative to governments. African NGOs must identify creative solutions that work; improve NGO capacity for research and evaluation, including definition of their own criteria for evaluation; test technologies and monitor results; and refine participatory and action research methods. 1) NGOs need to make decisions about whether they want to become mere service providers or whether they are going to make a long-term commitment to institution-building. 2) NGOs need to fend off attempts by donors to buy into agendas that are not their own. 3) Another major challenge is to reduce NGO dependency on donors and to increase their accountability to their own constituencies. 4) It must also be ensured that institutionalization does not lead to a lack of responsiveness within the NGO community. In Zimbabwe, workshops have been held to assist the NGO community in developing skills in coalition building around various issues to influence governments and donors, whether on women's issues, environmental issues, or cooperatives. If donors promote more effective development work both by encouraging linkages among these NGOs and by sharing information among the donors themselves, all development actors will learn from each other.
In: Mectizan (Ivermectin) and the Control of Onchocerciasis: Strengthening the Global Impact. A symposium sponsored by Merck and Co., Inc. marking the fifth anniversary of the donation of Mectizan for the treatment of onchocerciasis and held with the technical cooperation of the World Health Organization at the Hudson Theater in New York on September 23, 1992. Summary proceedings of the symposium. Rahway, New Jersey, Merck and Company, 1992. 59.In 1987 the availability of Mectizan and its potential for preventing onchocerciasis triggered a series of strategy discussions within the network of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with blindness prevention in developing countries. The nucleus of the NGO network had formed in 1975 with the creation of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) and meets annually to plan collaboration in developing countries. Since 1982, the IAPB expanded to include a group of organizations involved solely in the nonmedical aspects of blindness, the Partnership Committee. In 1986, a strong relationship was developed between the consortium and the World Health Organization Programme for the Prevention of Blindness (PBL). Since 1988 very real progress has been made in strengthening commitment to long-term treatment with Mectizan. The latest example is the sponsorship of a medical officer post in PBL to coordinate NGO activities related to distribution of the drug. In previous years, several initiatives were undertaken by IAPB and the European Partners for Blindness Prevention (EPBP), including EPBP's obtaining substantial funding from the European Community for treatment programs in 9 African countries. The IAPB network is supported by Sight Savers, which commissioned the first survey of the causes of blindness in West Africa in 1956; it worked with OCP in one of its first programs in northern Ghana; and it set up training for blind adults there. In 1990 Sight Savers appointed a coordinator for its programs for distributing Mectizan in communities in 6 African countries, where 560,000 treatments were targeted in 1992. The NGO members of IAPB have taken the first positive steps in the distribution of Mectizan. The ready availability of free Mectizan has created concern over the ability to expand commitment for blindness prevention and eye care to onchocerciasis treatment programs, however, treatment with Mectizan enhances the success of fund-raising from all sources.
In: Mectizan (Ivermectin) and the Control of Onchocerciasis: Strengthening the Global Impact. A symposium sponsored by Merck and Co., Inc. marking the fifth anniversary of the donation of Mectizan for the treatment of onchocerciasis and held with the technical cooperation of the World Health Organization at the Hudson Theater in New York on September 23, 1992. Summary proceedings of the symposium. Rahway, New Jersey, Merck and Company, 1992. 57.Christoffel-Blindenmission (CBM) is an interdenominational Christian service organization for blind and disabled persons in many of the world's poorest developing countries. It supports more than 300 eye care programs in approximately 70 countries at an annual cost of US $15-16 million. Funded by many individual donors, fund raising activities are conducted in Europe, North America, and Australia. CBM operates through 8 regional offices: 3 in Asia, 3 in Africa, and 2 in Latin America. Program development and evaluation are the responsibility of regional representatives, each of whom uses the services of a medical consultant. CBM's program support is usually long term, based on a recipient's annual budget application and evaluation. Since 1988, CBM has been distributing 200,000 tablets of Mectizan each year to voluntary hospitals in 14 African countries to treat patients with onchocerciasis. CBM also supports community-based treatment programs in Ecuador and Zaire, and, in collaboration with OCP, in Sierra Leone. Plans for 1993 include establishing a program for 600,000 people in the Central African Republic (CAR) in collaboration with the CAR Ministry of Health and the River Blindness Foundation. As an organization, CBM identifies 5 specific barriers to be overcome in developing and sustaining programs of treatment with Mectizan: 1) Poor communication systems in the endemic areas, which require development of an appropriate infrastructure. 2) Lack of health knowledge, which requires a community awareness action. 3) Limited availability of financial resources in the worst-affected countries, requiring a mobilization of funds for long-term commitment. 4) Inadequately-trained personnel, requiring staff training as an integral part of all programs. 5) Affected communities have so many health problems that integration of distribution of Mectizan with already existing or developing primary health care activities is becoming increasingly important.
In: Mectizan (Ivermectin) and the Control of Onchocerciasis: Strengthening the Global Impact. A symposium sponsored by Merck and Co., Inc. marking the fifth anniversary of the donation of Mectizan for the treatment of onchocerciasis and held with the technical cooperation of the World Health Organization at the Hudson Theater in New York on September 23, 1992. Summary proceedings of the symposium. Rahway, New Jersey, Merck and Company, 1992. 61.Helen Keller International (HKI), founded in 1915, is the oldest US organization dedicated to blindness prevention in the developing nations. HKI's early work in xerophthalmia was followed by extensive programs in the provision of primary eye care and cataract services. More recently, the organization has become involved in onchocerciasis control programs. Their philosophy is to provide the kind of technical assistance that builds sustainable infrastructure within a national health program. They prefer to work in countries that have priorities in blindness prevention programs; and where those do not exist, they strive to develop them in cooperation with local authorities. In Burkina Faso and Niger, HKI is working with the local governments to implement surveillance systems that can detect reappearance of onchocerciasis in previously infected areas. In Mexico, HKI will be working with the existing onchocerciasis control program to develop an information system that can improve the efficiency of distributing Mectizan. In Cameroon, HKI is coordinating a program for distributing Mectizan in the Sanaga River Valley; and in Brazil, they are discussing a collaborative program of onchocerciasis control among Indians living on the Venezuela-Brazil border. In each country, they are trying to develop a cadre of persons at the national and local levels who can assume responsibility for programs of treatment with Mectizan as soon as possible. Previous experience with the distribution of vitamin A to control xerophthalmia taught that successful programs exist at the community level only when they involve the people themselves, as well as the health professionals. HKI believes that private, volunteer organizations are uniquely qualified to develop community-based interventions in cooperation with governments and multinational organizations. Such programs in the onchocerciasis-endemic areas will result in economic improvement, self-sufficiency, and improved health.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1992 Jul. , 180, 2 p. (Partnership for Safe Motherhood)Partnership for Safe Motherhood, coordinated by The World Bank's Population, Health and Nutrition Department, has prepared this Background Document for the Meeting of Partners for Safe Motherhood at The World Bank in March 1992. The Partnership for Safe Motherhood comprises an increasing number of partners from the international development community, governments, and nongovernmental organizations worldwide. They plan and implement programs to bring about safer motherhood. The activities include advocacy and information efforts, research projects, and local, national, regional, and international service delivery programs. The first part of this document examines these activities and the issues and questions brought to the fore during the first five years of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. In planning Safe Motherhood programs, one must consider health service priorities. Important elements of Safe Motherhood programs include family planning, abortion care, emergency delivery care, prenatal care, appropriate care during labor and childbirth for normal deliveries, and postpartum care. One must consider obstacles and possibilities when implementing Safe Motherhood programs. These factors, which differ from country to country, entail political commitment; legal context; community knowledge, attitudes, and practices; scope and quality of the existing health service delivery system; and costs. Four strategies for improving Safe Motherhood programs are communication efforts, improving the referral system at and between all levels of care, improving the skills of providers at all levels, and upgrading and equipping health facilities and providers. The first appendix has summary descriptions of some local and national Safe Motherhood programs in countries ranging from Bangladesh to Uganda. The second appendix provides brief descriptions of Safe Motherhood activities of some international agencies. The last appendix is an overview of regional and national conferences and workshops conducted during the last five years.