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Population Research and Policy Review. 2004 Feb; 23(1):25-54.Using population assistance data, this study divides donor trends for population assistance into five distinct epochs: until the mid-1960s, the population hysteria of the 1960s and 1970s, Bucharest Conference and beyond, the 1984 Mexico City conference, and the 1990s. A number of decisive events, as well as changing views of the population problem, characterise each period and have affected the sums of population assistance from donor nations. Taking a long-term view of global population assistance, the research shows that four factors account for most of the historical funding trends from primary donors: the association between population assistance and foreign aid, the role of alarmists and doomsayers in the public debate over population issues, individuals in a position of power within donor governments, and decennial international population conferences. (author's)
Population and Development Review. 2002 Dec; 28(4):707-733.We begin by briefly describing the shift in population policies. We then set out two theoretical frameworks expected to account for national reactions to the new policy: first, the spontaneous spread of new cultural items and the coalescence of a normative consensus about their value, and second, the directed diffusion of cultural items by powerful Western donors. We then describe our data and evaluate its quality. Subsequently, we analyze the responses of national elites in our five study countries to the Cairo agenda in terms of discourse and implementation. In our conclusion, we evaluate these responses in terms of the validity of the two theoretical frameworks. (excerpt)
CAIRO '94. 1995 Jan; 1(8):1-4.The series of UN conferences which have been held since 1990 has sought holistic approaches to such problems as lack of education, poverty, overconsumption, environmental degradation, population, ill health, human rights, and gender inequities. During the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, which focused on population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development, a 20-year Programme of Action was adopted by 180 nations. Rather than focusing on demographic targets, this Programme views population stabilization as crucial to sustainable development. The World Summit for Social Development focused on poverty, building social cohesion, and creating jobs; and the Fourth World Conference on Women sought equality, development, and peace and highlighted health care, education, poverty, women's participation in decision-making, violence, food security, environmental management, and communication. The 1996 UN Conference on Human Settlements will stress urbanization, health, and housing. Those who participated in these conferences want to see their work continued and realized and are concerned about whether the international community will fund the global action plans which were developed. The participation of nongovernmental organizations may prove to be vital in raising social awareness, developing national policy, ensuring action, and monitoring commitments. National NGO networks have been established in the US to keep these issues alive and before the public. At the international level, NGO networks are working together to coordinate NGO participation in world conferences.
In: Cairo and Beijing: defining the women and AIDS agenda, [compiled by] Family Health International [FHI]. AIDS Control and Prevention Project [AIDSCAP]. Arlington, Virginia, AIDSCAP, 1995. 7-8.Although the Program of Action developed by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development acknowledges the grave threat to women's health posed by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), there was insufficient discussion at the gathering of the steps that must be taken to curb the further spread of AIDS. Thus, the Caucus on Women and AIDS of the Nongovernmental Forum at the Conference developed the following recommendations: 1) reject the view of women as solely vectors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 2) create a compassionate community environment, including legal protection, conducive to the open discussion of AIDS by those most affected; 3) create partnerships between men and women around the prevention of AIDS; 4) give priority to the prevention of HIV transmission in the design and development of new contraceptive technologies; 5) ensure women's access to health care services that address AIDS, reproductive health, and family planning; 6) facilitate sociocultural changes that eliminate the stigmatization and fear surrounding AIDS and reduce the behaviors that place people at risk of infection; 7) make HIV/AIDS an integral part of all health and development programs; and 8) ensure that HIV/AIDS control strategies and programs are sensitive to their cultural context.
Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. , 75 p.The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.
Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
The Egyptian NGO platform document, submitted to the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo 5 to 13 September, 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. , 80 p.This document was prepared in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in order to present the consensus of 450 Egyptian nongovernmental organization (NGOs) on the following: 1) the 6 major issues proposed in the draft program of action for ICPD approval (population and sustainable development, population and the environment, enhancing women's role in society, reproductive health, family and health education, and population policies and migration); 2) Egypt's policy in regard to population and development; and 3) the role of Egyptian NGOs in the field of population and development and their vision of the future. In addition, the Egyptian NGO National Steering Committee used this opportunity to organize the NGOs in preparation for co-hosting and participating in the international NGO Forum to be held concurrently with the ICPD; to establish a network for communication, coordination, and consensus building among NGOs operating at the local, provincial, national, and international levels; and to create an organization of Egyptian NGOs which will exist beyond the ICPD. The document concludes with 8 recommendations to governments of developed countries; 5 to international organizations; 19 to the Egyptian government concerning sustainable development, 14 on the role of women in society, 7 on reproductive health and rights, 7 on family education, and 15 on population policies and immigration; and 8 to NGOs.
Hilversum, Netherlands, World Population Foundation, 1999. 33 p.The involvement of civil society in the attainment of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Program of Action has been clearly and increasingly visible. This has been exemplified in the participation of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the ICPD +5 review, which started at the national level, continued through consultations, and ended with the NGO Forum that took place in The Hague, Netherlands, February 6-7, 1999. This report highlights the discussions of this NGO Forum. Chapters present examples of good practices, obstacles that still need to be overcome, and the critical next steps that still have to be taken in order to make the ICPD commitment a reality. The report sets out what NGOs believe should be included in their own agenda, and those of others, for future action.
In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 317-9.Five years after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, the UN met again to review how nations were implementing the ICPD Program of Action in the field of population and development. This process included an International Forum held in The Hague in February 1999, followed by a preparatory committee of the Commission on Population and Development (PrepCom) in March 1999. The process to review the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action was to culminate in a special session of the UN General Assembly in June 1999. Anwarul K. Chowdhury, Bangladesh's Permanent Representative to the UN, who chaired the PrepCom, prepared a draft document, which will serve as a basis for negotiation during the special session. The draft calls on countries to achieve specific benchmarks that were not part of the ICPD Program of Action. These include targets for access to and choice of family planning and contraceptive methods; a decrease in maternal mortality; and a decrease in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The working document also stresses the needs of adolescents and proposes that 20% of reproductive health programs be allocated for adolescents.
[International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Follow-up to the Cairo and Ouagadougou programs of action] Conference Internationale sur la Population et le Developpement (CIPD). Suivi des programmes d'action du Caire et de Ouagadougou.
POP SAHEL. 1999 Dec; (28):33-4.Following the adoption of the program of action of the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, the population policy-related texts and goals of the member states of the Permanent Interstate Committee Against Drought in the Sahel (CILSS) were reviewed and revised in the context of new program priorities with the technical assistance of FNUAP, CERPOD, and Futures Group International’s Policy Project. The Ouagadougou program of action, which replaces the N’Djamena program of action, is a global framework for cooperation and action in the areas of population and sustainable development in the Sahel. It integrates all major concerns of the Cairo, Beijing, and Copenhagen programs of action. Follow-up, evaluation, and coordination of the Ouagadougou program of action’s implementation at the regional level were made CERPOD’s responsibility by the appropriate CILSS ministerial committee, while its implementation at the national level will fall upon the shoulders of individual member countries benefiting from CERPOD and Policy Project technical support. CERPOD’s experience with follow-up activities is described. The organization is also leading research studies relevant to priority concerns outlined in the Cairo and Ouagadougou programs of action. A midterm evaluation of all Cairo and Ouagadougou action programs will be conducted in the year 2002.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):6-7.Everyone has a role to play in realizing the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. The concerns of young people presented at the Youth Forum will hopefully be kept at the forefront of Cairo+5 deliberations. Innumerable women around the world in every country struggle daily to care for and education their children, to gain greater control over their lives, and to contribute to the progress being made in their communities and countries. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) and youth fora of the Cairo+5 proceedings demonstrate that the discussions about global challenges and their solutions are no longer being held and decided upon solely by government officials and policy-makers behind closed doors. Rather, NGOs have finally taken their proper place in the debate, to help ordinary citizens be heard on the critical issues which affect their lives. Efforts must also continue to be made to reach out to young people, as well as fathers, sons, and husbands.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):8.The client first, informed choice, and quality of care approach to reproductive health is being applied around the world, energized by individuals, communities, and organizations. There has been unprecedented support during the Cairo+5 global review process of the centrality of youth in the process, for by 2000, approximately 1 billion people aged 15-24 years will either be in or entering their reproductive years, the largest generation ever in this age cohort. These young people face considerable reproductive health risks and poor access to information and services. In addition, 25% of children are assaulted or abused, and 20% live in poverty. The Youth Forum recommendations will help to ensure that the reproductive health and social development needs of the world's youth are properly met. However, to fully implement the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, donor governments need to meet their funding commitments.
Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):93-5.Since the mid-1980s, Population Action International (PAI) has promoted awareness of the resources needed to expand access to family planning (FP) and related health services. These efforts led to specific donor commitments at the 1989 International Forum on Population in the 21st Century and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Today, cooperation among US-based nongovernmental organizations in this area remains strong in the face of a public disengaged from international development issues. In the US and elsewhere, political and economic obstacles are hindering achievement of the ICPD goals, but leading donor nations and some developing countries are incorporating the ICPD vision into the population programs. Thus, India has dropped its quota program, China is experimenting with voluntary approaches to FP, and some African countries are building reproductive health programs for youth and unmarried people. PAI is currently working to build awareness of the 5-year review of ICPD goal implementation and to foster renewed commitment. In the US, PAI heads one of the four task forces of the network of "US NGOs in Support of the Cairo Consensus." PAI is also part of the group advising the Secretariat of the NGO Forum scheduled for February 1999 and will lead the resources and advocacy issue area. PAI is conducting ongoing research into resource needs, continuing advocacy for resource allocation, and strengthening the NGO contribution to the development process.
Grupo de Informacion en Reproduccion Elegida (GIRE): finding the middle ground for women's reproductive rights.
Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):89-90.In Mexico, the nongovernmental Information Group on Reproductive Choice (GIRE) was established in 1992 to 1) disseminate current information on reproductive and sexual rights to professionals and society at large, 2) foster a balanced debate on reproductive and sexual rights, 3) monitor existing legislation on reproductive and sexual rights and develop mechanisms to enforce laws, and 4) decentralize the flow of information to Mexican states. While implementation of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) has been uneven in Mexico, the government appears to be committed to action. GIRE monitors governmental implementation of these goals, has advocated incorporation of the goals in national programs and policies, and has joined the National Forum of Women and Population Policy, a network of over 70 NGOs working actively to promote the ICPD accords.
Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):33-7.This article on the European response to the challenge of implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) opens by acknowledging that the European Commission (EC) is placing gender and reproductive health on its agenda but that progress has been slow. Next, the article introduces the advocacy groups that seek to promote an enhanced understanding of the population, development, reproductive health paradigm in the EC. The third section considers whether the "new" alliance called for by the ICPD between governments at all levels and nongovernmental organizations is working. One positive example given is the dialogue established between NGOs and the UK All Parliamentary Group on Population, Development, and Reproductive Health. It is noted, however, that more national-level agenda-setting and mobilization are needed to implement the ICPD goals. Next, the article reviews the "old" population/development tension and concerns about the continued existence of demographically-driven, coercive family planning programs and a dearth of development NGOs working with population NGOs. The article explores this problem in the next section and asserts that the population/development tension was not magically dissolved by the ICPD and that neither population nor development NGOs have all the answers but should share resources and engage in more dialogue. The article concludes that continued progress in implementing the ICPD goals will require a careful look at successful partnerships; finding ways to support an exchange of knowledge, views, and experiences; and fostering a working climate of openness.
JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Jan; (295):1.The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo and attended by 80 government delegations, opened the door to a new phase of cooperation between government organizations (GOs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). A strong partner at Cairo, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) had its Vision 2000 Strategic Plan incorporated into the ICPD Program of Action. Participants at the ICPD+5 conference, to be held in the Hague in 1999, will review what has happened since the original ICPD in 1994. IPPF, the largest NGO in reproductive health and family planning (RH/FP), will be a voice for NGOs and participate in monitoring at ICPD+5. IPPF has encouraged countries to establish national focal points on RH/FP and is now working through a monthly newsletter to keep family planning associations (FPAs), women's unions, and youth groups informed. IPPF is also participating in roundtables with UNFPA and other organizations, as well as with the UN Population Division. The recent and ongoing shift away from core funding to project-specific funding has weakened the structure of existing FPAs. Strengthening the implementation of Vision 2000 is discussed. Japan has consistently been an active partner, supporting IPPF and FPAs in many countries.
IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Oct; (5):1.Male awareness, involvement and responsibility are crucial for the well being and development of women. In most societies men still exercise a great deal of power, whether as policy makers in government or as decision makers within families. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 went further than any previous UN meeting in promoting gender quality and urging men's participation in making it a reality. Chapter 4 of the ICPD Programme of Action calls on governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to encourage and enable men to take responsibility for their sexual and reproductive behavior and for their social and family roles in order to ease the burden on women. It also urges increased efforts to involve men in family planning and responsible parenthood. (full text)
IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Aug; (3):1.The 20-year Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 both recognizes the vital role played by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in population and development, and calls for greater and more structured cooperation between these groups. Indeed the language on the role of NGOs and civil society was the strongest to have ever come out of a UN conference and reflects an extraordinary level of participation by NGOs in the conference and its 3-year preparatory process. NGOs will be fully involved in the 5-year review process of the ICPD participating in both the NGO Forum and International Forum in the Hague in February 1999, as well as providing input into the UN Commission on Population and Development in March 1999 and UN General Assembly Special Session in June 1999. (full text)
AL-AHRAM. 1994 Jun 9-15;  p.In January 1994, 215 women attending an international conference on reproductive health and justice held in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) raised concerns about coercive population policies and fertility control measures targeted at women in developing countries. Similar concerns were voiced in Egypt during a 2-day workshop also organized in preparation for the ICPD. While supporters of Egypt's National Program for Family Planning (NPFP) are content with progress, critics expressed concern over the quality of the services offered. Proponents point to the increased prevalence of contraception (from 10% to 50%) in Egypt since the NPFP was founded in the 1960s and credited the increase to the successful introduction of the IUD. Debate arose, however, over whether physicians who insert the device have a monopoly over contraceptive decision-making and are responsible for allowing widespread misconceptions about oral contraception to persist. Workshop participants also debated the NPFP licensing of Norplant implants and injectable contraceptives before these methods achieved international approval and claimed that these methods may not be appropriate in Egypt. One workshop presentation described women's reproductive rights during various stages of the life cycle, and many debates arose about female genital mutilation. Maternal morbidity and mortality were described as major violations of reproductive rights, and participants agreed that health and sex education are vital to improved health practices.
Washington, D.C., USAID, Center for Population, Health and Nutrition, .  p. (POP Briefs)To mark the fifth anniversary of its International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the UN has launched a worldwide review and evaluation process to determine the extent of progress towards reaching the 20-year goals enumerated in the ICPD Programme of Action. The review process, officially termed "ICPD+5," will allow the UN, government officials, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to identify continuing unmet need, constraints in reaching goals, and the changes needed in implementing strategies. The process will consist of 1) expert roundtable discussions held during 1998 on adolescent sexual and reproductive health, reproductive rights and implementation of reproductive health programs, partnerships with civil society in the implementation of the Programme of Action, population and macro-economic linkages, international migration and development, reproductive health services in crisis situations, and population and aging; 2) an international forum in February 1999, preceded by an NGO forum; and 3) a 3-day special session of the UN General Assembly in 1999. Participation of the US government will be coordinated by the State Department and the US Agency for International Development. UN participation is being coordinated by the UN Population Fund's Information and External Relations division, and participation by US NGOs is under the auspices of Planned Parenthood, The Centre for Development and Population Activities, Population Action International, The Population Council, and the Sustainability Communicators Network.
JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Dec; (282):3.Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are essential for the successful implementation of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. Without the active, productive involvement of the NGOs, consensus probably would not have been reached at the ICPD. NGOs have also been very influential in developing reproductive health (RH). NGOs should now collaborate with governments and civil society, universities, and experts, to better implement the program of action. The highly ambitious program requires the collaboration of all these parties. While NGOs are especially important because they can be innovative and flexible, governments have infrastructure and can act nationally. Collaboration between governments and NGOs is therefore very important for program success. It is very important that NGOs are perceived as collaborating with and not competing against governments for scarce resources. The South-South Initiative was created at the time of the ICPD by 10 governments which believed that they had something to offer with regard to RH and family planning. UNFPA has supported a few of the initiative's activities and has collaborated with the group's secretariat in Dhaka, Bangladesh. UNFPA is also supporting 4 RH training programs for South-South cooperation offered by Indonesia, Mexico, Thailand, and Tunisia.
Experiences in policy development on breastfeeding and LAM: panel presentations. International policy.
In: Bellagio and beyond: breastfeeding and LAM in reproductive health. End of project conference of the Breastfeeding and MCH Division, Institute for Reproductive Health, a WHO Collaborating Center on Breastfeeding, May 13-16, 1997. Conference summary and papers, edited by Kristin A. Cooney, Sheerin R. Nahmias. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, Institute for Reproductive Health], 1997.  p.. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. DPE-3061-A-00-1029-00)The Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH) has been involved in policy change and development at all levels. On the international level, there have been the following major initiatives during the 1990s: the Innocenti Policy Makers Meeting, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and the Women's Conference in Beijing. IRH has also worked with the International Federation for Family Life Promotion, an organization whose policies and norms have international implications. Actions undertaken by the IRH to influence the development of policy at the Beijing Conference and as it would be contained in the ICPD's program of action are described. IRH efforts proved successful, with the final ICPD document including 12 references to breastfeeding rather than the one reference to child survival originally. Eight references were made to breastfeeding in the final Beijing document.
Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1996. viii, 166 p.This document is a pocket edition of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Part 1 of the booklet contains the text of the Programme of Action. Chapter 1 contains the Preamble, and chapter 2 describes the principles upon which the Programme of Action is based. For each of the major headings in the remaining 14 chapters, the basis of action, objectives, and specific actions are presented. Chapter 3 covers the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. Chapter 4 deals with gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The fifth chapter looks at the roles, rights, composition, and structure of the family, and chapter 6 is concerned with population growth and structure. Chapter 7 discusses issues related to reproductive rights and reproductive health, while chapter 8 concentrates on health, morbidity, and mortality. The ninth chapter is devoted to population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration, and chapter 10 focuses on international migration. The relationship of population, development, and education is considered in chapter 11, and research issues are included in chapter 12. Chapters 13-15 relay what is needed in the areas of national action, international cooperation, and partnerships with the nongovernmental sector, respectively, and the final chapter reviews the necessary national, regional, and international follow-up activities. Part 2 of the booklet reproduces the oral and written statements and reservations about the Programme of Action submitted by various countries.
In: Report on International Public Hearing on Crimes Against Women Related to Population Policies, Cairo, Egypt, September, 1994, organised by: UBINIG and Asian Women Human Rights Council [AWHRC]. Manila, Philippines, AWHRC, 1994. 36-7.The story is told of a government family planning worker who persuaded a Bangladeshi woman in 1988 to accept sterilization in exchange for coupons for rice and wheat and money to build a small house. The woman has since been rejected by her husband and in-laws, is often sick, has no strength to work, and never received her coupons for rice and wheat. This woman testified, along with many others, at the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum public hearing on crimes against women related to population policies. The jury consisted of women from the Asian Women's Human Rights Council and UBINIG, a Dhaka-based radical feminist group. Women are arguing that the administration of family planning programs violates their inner core. In particular, developing countries with large and growing populations are eager to comply with donors, and will implement aggressive family planning campaigns which fail to respect women's rights to choose.
In: Report on International Public Hearing on Crimes Against Women Related to Population Policies, Cairo, Egypt, September, 1994, organised by: UBINIG and Asian Women Human Rights Council [AWHRC]. Manila, Philippines, AWHRC, 1994. 33-4.The story is told of a government family planning worker who persuaded a Bangladeshi woman to accept sterilization in exchange for food, housing material, and US$4.50. A conference of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) was held parallel to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) during which participants argued that family planning programs have simply promoted unsafe contraceptive methods for women. The director of UBINIG, a Dhaka-based radical feminist group, argued at the meeting that aid agencies and governments allow women to suffer serious side effects in the name of stabilizing world population growth, while men are asked to do nothing to reduce fertility. Aid donors who support Bangladesh's family planning program counter that acceptance is voluntary and that it has sharply reduced birth rates, while many development agencies argue that contraceptives help millions of women by preventing them from bearing too many children. Many feminist NGOs nonetheless believe that women have little choice against government targets and incentive programs for health care workers. Several instances were cited at the NGO forum of what were described as unsafe contraception measures.