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  1. 1

    Commission on the Status of Women remains a global rallying point.

    One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.

    Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    World Health Assembly appeals for more aid to health strategies of developing countries.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23:[5] p..

    The World Health Assembly at its thirty-ninth session (Geneva, 5-16 May) called for action to improve health strategies of developing countries and to combat drug abuse, tobacco use and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) eqidemic. Delegates representing most of the 166 member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) expressed support for the WHO "Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000' and appealed to developed countries and international organizations and agencies to assist developing countries with their national health strategies. The appeal, contained in a resolution adopted on 15 May, was made in view of the "widespread economic crisis which had resulted in a fall in living standards in many countries and provoked serious unemployment and formidable austerity policies', which in some countries resulted in substantial cuts in health care. The crisis, particularly in developing countries, had been aggravated by the persistent rise in the foreign debt and deterioration of the balances of trade', and endangered the possibility of reaching the goal of health for all by the year 2000. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    'Gender perspectives' emphasized - human rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2):[2] p..

    Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    U.N. women's meeting deadlocks on violence, NGOs debate MDGS and Fifth World Women's Conference.

    Kindervatter S

    Monday Developments. 2003 Apr 14; 21(7):7, 13.

    This idea that women determine their own fate simply terrifies some people," asserted Dr. Naris Sadik, special adviser to U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan and special envoy for HIV/AIDS in Asia, at the U.N. Commission on the Status of Women meeting in New York March 3-14. The statement, made during a panel discussion related to reproductive health, also is an apt description for this 47th session of the Commission on the Status of Women given its failure to adopt agreed conclusions for one of the two focus issues, women's human rights and elimination of all forms of violence including the trafficking of women and girls. This was the first collapse in negotiations since the CSW began the procedure of adopting "agreed conclusions" in 1996. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    For a meaningful women's conference in Beijing past promises must be kept.


    EARTHACTION. 1995 Jun-Sep; 4(6):[2] p.

    The actions the international community takes today will dictate whether the people of the world will continue to suffer poverty, hunger, disease, and armed strife as the population continues to grow. The UN has convened several high-level meetings in an attempt to address the problems which face humanity. At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, it was agreed that $17 billion/year must be spent in the year 2000 on family planning and reproductive health in the developing countries (a third from rich, industrial countries), but there has been little effort made to allocate resources. The 1995 World Summit for Social Development proposed that rich, industrial countries devote 20% of their development assistance to the provision of basic human needs. This would be matched by the developing countries. To date, only seven countries have agreed to this goal. In 1992, at the UN Conference on Environment and Development, most delegates from rich countries reaffirmed their commitment to devote 0.7% of their gross national product to help developing countries achieve environmentally sustainable development. Since then, development assistance has actually declined. The upcoming Fourth World Conference on Women will address the following areas of critical concern: 1) poverty, 2) access to quality education, 3) access to quality health care, 4) eliminating violence against women and girls, 5) protecting women from conflicts, 6) promoting women's economic self-reliance, 7) promoting equal participation in decision-making, 8) integrating gender equality into national policy and planning, 9) protecting human rights, 10) increasing women's participation and equity in the media, 11) promoting women's contribution to the management of natural resources and environmental protection, and 12) eliminating all discrimination and violations against girls. A parallel Nongovernmental Organization Forum will take place during the conference. While these UN conferences focus global public attention on critical issues, governments must keep the promises they make at these meetings in order to achieve the necessary changes.
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  6. 6

    Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Cooperating Agencies Working Group on Materials Development and Media Activities

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. [6], 75 p.

    The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
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  7. 7

    The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.

    Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
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  8. 8

    The Egyptian NGO platform document, submitted to the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo 5 to 13 September, 1994.

    National N.G.O. Committee

    [Unpublished] 1994. [2], 80 p.

    This document was prepared in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in order to present the consensus of 450 Egyptian nongovernmental organization (NGOs) on the following: 1) the 6 major issues proposed in the draft program of action for ICPD approval (population and sustainable development, population and the environment, enhancing women's role in society, reproductive health, family and health education, and population policies and migration); 2) Egypt's policy in regard to population and development; and 3) the role of Egyptian NGOs in the field of population and development and their vision of the future. In addition, the Egyptian NGO National Steering Committee used this opportunity to organize the NGOs in preparation for co-hosting and participating in the international NGO Forum to be held concurrently with the ICPD; to establish a network for communication, coordination, and consensus building among NGOs operating at the local, provincial, national, and international levels; and to create an organization of Egyptian NGOs which will exist beyond the ICPD. The document concludes with 8 recommendations to governments of developed countries; 5 to international organizations; 19 to the Egyptian government concerning sustainable development, 14 on the role of women in society, 7 on reproductive health and rights, 7 on family education, and 15 on population policies and immigration; and 8 to NGOs.
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  9. 9

    Female genital mutilation. Report of a WHO Technical Working Group, Geneva, 17-19 July 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [3], 28 p.

    This document constitutes a WHO Technical Working Group report on female genital mutilation (FGM). The first section offers an overview of the objectives of the Technical Working Group, the FGM process and geographical distribution of cases. Section 2 presents a background information on FGM and the proposed definition and classification of the Group. Section 3 discusses the physical and health consequences of the practice, both the short-term and the long-term complications. Section 4 examines the sexual, mental, and social consequences of FGM, while section 5 explores on suggested research framework for effective interventions. Section 6 outlines a framework for activities geared towards addressing this concern including breaking the silence, raising awareness, providing information, advocacy, enhancing personal views of women, involving policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and the community. It also discusses FGM in immigrant communities in western countries. The last section presents several recommendations for research, national policies and legislation, and training.
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  10. 10

    Women's initiatives and activities worldwide. NGO's at the 42nd Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women speaks out, optional protocol to CEDAW, and Womenwatch.

    Walker AS

    IWTC GLOBALNET. 1998 Mar 10; (105):2 p..

    The activities surrounding the 42nd Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women is discussed. It emphasized on the implementation of four areas of concern from the Beijing Platform for Action; namely, women's rights, violence against women, women and armed conflict, and the girl child. A protocol on violence against women is necessary because of the shortcomings that have to be strengthened by an international treaty. However, the discussion of the 'Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women' resulted in disagreement.
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  11. 11

    Further promotion and encouragement of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the question of the programme and methods of work of the commission. Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. Addendum [2]: Report on the mission of the Special Rapporteur to Brazil on the issue of domestic violence (15-26 July 1996).

    Coomaraswamy R

    [Unpublished] 1997 Jan 21 28 p. (E/CN.4/1997/47/Add.2)

    This document reprints the report of a July 1996 visit to Brazil of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women to conduct an in-depth study of the issue of domestic violence. The introduction notes that this report is a case study meant to complement a previous report on violence against women in the family and that the investigation was conducted at the invitation of the Brazilian government. The first part of the report presents three case histories of women victims of domestic violence. The second session sketches the nature of the problem, and the third section describes the existing international, regional, and national legislative framework dealing with domestic violence. Section 4 describes the role of the police in combating domestic violence and their importance as the first refuge sought by women victims as well as issues pertinent to the existence since 1985 of women's police stations. The fifth section reviews pertinent health policy and notes the shortage of shelters for battered women. Section 6 provides an overview of how the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government have responded to the problem, and the seventh section discusses actions taken by nongovernmental organizations and women's groups. The final section contains conclusions and specific recommendations for appropriate actions at the international, regional, national, and local levels.
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  12. 12

    Now is the time for all good women.

    Fraser A

    INSTRAW NEWS. 1998; (28):21-5.

    This article recommends national and international strategic actions to further the universal implementation of women's human rights. The article begins by tracing the development of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) from the work of female UN delegates who fought to couch the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in language that included women to the 1993 world conference on human rights when the little-known convention gained attention. The article then describes the CEDAW articles that provide an effective framework for implementation of women's human rights. After noting that the more than 160 ratifying countries must submit periodic reports on implementation to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the article points out that the International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) was founded in 1985 to promote CEDAW implementation. IWRAW activities include publishing a newsletter, submitting independent information to the UN, disseminating the results of the UN review, and encouraging nongovernmental organizations to publish their own "shadow" reports to balance government self-reports. The article then details the following additional actions to foster implementation: 1) assuring that ratifying countries meet reporting obligations, 2) educating the public about CEDAW and women's rights, 3) recruiting and promoting candidates for election to the UN Committee, and 4) researching and reclaiming women's history, especially the evolution of women's human rights.
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  13. 13

    Working towards a world free from violence against women: UNIFEM's contribution.

    Heyzer N

    GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT. 1998 Nov; 6(3):17-26.

    The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) has been at the forefront of the campaign to end violence against women. The Fund's premise is that there can be no sustainable communities or development without the attainment of peace and women's human rights. The UNIFEM Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate Violence Against Women was established in 1997, and, to date, has supported 59 projects in 49 countries related to the human rights abuse of women within families, war crimes against women, violations of women's bodily integrity (e.g., female genital mutilation), economic discrimination and exploitation, and political and legal discrimination. Program strategies include education, capacity building, violence prevention, the reversal of ingrained attitudes, and action-oriented research. In addition, regional awareness campaigns are conducted to introduce the issue of violence against women to the agendas of world governments. Finally, a learning component for the Fund analyzes the results of Fund initiatives and identifies ways of shaping more effective strategies for combating violence against women. Future areas of work include strengthening enforcement mechanisms in response to violence against women, upgrading the capacity to use international legal instruments, and facilitating information exchange.
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  14. 14

    Women's bodies, women's rights.

    Hassan F

    AL-AHRAM. 1994 Jun 9-15; [1] p.

    In January 1994, 215 women attending an international conference on reproductive health and justice held in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) raised concerns about coercive population policies and fertility control measures targeted at women in developing countries. Similar concerns were voiced in Egypt during a 2-day workshop also organized in preparation for the ICPD. While supporters of Egypt's National Program for Family Planning (NPFP) are content with progress, critics expressed concern over the quality of the services offered. Proponents point to the increased prevalence of contraception (from 10% to 50%) in Egypt since the NPFP was founded in the 1960s and credited the increase to the successful introduction of the IUD. Debate arose, however, over whether physicians who insert the device have a monopoly over contraceptive decision-making and are responsible for allowing widespread misconceptions about oral contraception to persist. Workshop participants also debated the NPFP licensing of Norplant implants and injectable contraceptives before these methods achieved international approval and claimed that these methods may not be appropriate in Egypt. One workshop presentation described women's reproductive rights during various stages of the life cycle, and many debates arose about female genital mutilation. Maternal morbidity and mortality were described as major violations of reproductive rights, and participants agreed that health and sex education are vital to improved health practices.
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  15. 15

    Women visible enough?

    Malik P

    EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 Jun 7; 5.

    The head of the UN Development Fund for Women's delegation at Habitat II, Achola Pala Okeyo, held a press conference to voice her concern that the women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) attending the conference were not receiving enough visibility. Issues raised at the press conference included the important role played by the NGOs in taking the Habitat agenda to the grassroots level, the promotion of cooperative ownership of houses and equal inheritance rights, and the lack of input sought from "everyday" women in planning and development efforts in their communities. Okeyo noted that the Habitat conference was the first organized attempt to bring women's NGOs together since the women's conference in Beijing and that women were disappointed at their lack of progress in attaining equal rights.
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  16. 16

    From Beijing to Istanbul: the Super Coalition on Women, Homes and Community.

    Abbot S


    In 1994, the Super Coalition on Women, Homes, and Community was formed from four worldwide networks so that women working on community development could be involved in Habitat II planning and could incorporate human settlement issues into the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and it attendant NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum. The Super Coalition paved the way for grassroots women to contribute ideas to the Preparatory Committee for Habitat II. When the women discovered that many of the gains achieved at the WCW were not reflected in the Habitat agenda, they drafted amendments that were later discussed by official bodies. The women also lobbied delegations and governmental groups on gender issues and found that many of their concerns were included in bracketed paragraphs for further consideration during Habitat II. Another success occurred when the Secretary-General of Habitat II appointed many women to the newly-created Huairou Commission, which will offer advice on gender issues and highlight women's concerns during Habitat II.
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  17. 17

    Super Coalition highlights women's perspective on housing: our practices take center stage in Istanbul.

    GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):1, 9.

    The Women, Homes, and Community Super Coalition, a network of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) accepted responsibility for organizing the NGO Coalition program for Habitat II. The goals of the Super Coalition are to 1) highlight the role of women's leadership in the building of sustainable communities, 2) establish a consensus on common problems and priorities of grassroots women and other activists, and 3) discuss action strategies to address these problems and assert these priorities. The Super Coalition maintains that a socially responsible design of housing and communities will emerge when 1) women's household-based income is valued as an important form of economic activity, 2) grassroots people are empowered to participate in all negotiations affecting their lives and communities, 3) it is recognized that communities must be sustainable and culturally viable, and 4) mere shelters become homes offering safety and sustenance for children, the aged, and the ill.
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  18. 18

    Next stop Istanbul -- but first, a few words on our accomplishments in China.

    GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):5, 9.

    GROOTS International (grassroots organizations operating together in sisterhood) played a major role in the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). GROOTS International coordinated the Grassroots Tent, one of the tents that promoted diversity. More than 1000 Grassroots Tent visitors signed up to be contacted by regional focal points in the grassroots network. In addition, a participant in a women's network that is a GROOTS partner gave a plenary speech on governance. By Day 3, the Grassroots Tent held a daily meeting of the Grassroots Caucus where over 40 women from eight regions outlined key women's concerns that coalesced into the Statement of the Women and Shelter Strategizing Group presented to the WCW. Meanwhile, a team of 15 official WCW delegates (including GROOTS representatives) acted as NGO liaisons and traveled back and forth between the WCW and the NGO Forum. GROOTS made a presentation to the WCW, and organized a panel on economic reform in the Grassroots Tent. The success of GROOTS partners was documented and presented in a report entitled "Restructuring Economic and Social Policy: Cross-Cultural Gender Insights from the Grassroots" given as part of a panel discussion on economic reform at the NGO Forum. Finally, a closing-day policy presentation and strategizing session with the UN Secretary-General for Habitat II led to the formation of the Huairou Commission designed to integrate grassroots organizations into preparations for Habitat II.
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  19. 19

    A report of the NGO Advocacy Network for Women (KIDOG) on its participation in the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, HABITAT II NGO Forum, Istanbul, Turkey, May 30 - June 14, 1996.

    Futures Group International. POLICY Project

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1996. [2], 9, [12] p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-3078-C-00-5023-00)

    This report describes the participation of the Turkish NGO (nongovernmental organization) Advocacy Network for Women (KIDOG) in the UN's Habitat II NGO Forum, which took place May 30-June 14, 1996. KIDOG originated in the participation of 11 NGOs in a two-day advocacy workshop sponsored by The Futures Group International in Turkey in July 1995. In the fall of 1995, the 11 NGOs requested technical assistance in networking, advocacy, and strategic planning. In March 1996, eight additional groups joined KIDOG during another advocacy workshop. Using participatory techniques, KIDOG members decided that their participation in the NGO Forum would involve 1) provision of information about the status of women and reproductive health in Turkey and 2) seeking support for the Network agenda and an increase in Network membership. KIDOG's contributions to the NGO Forum included distributing KIDOG booklets and posters, developing a computer-based presentation on women and reproductive health, sponsoring an exhibit booth, hosting site visits, and conducting workshops on the following topics: 1) NGO initiatives in reproductive health, 2) domestic violence, 3) informal education for women, and 4) sustainable development. When KIDOG members evaluated their participation in the NGO Forum, they agreed that KIDOG's most important contribution was serving as a model for collaborative work, which is a new phenomenon in Turkey. KIDOG members plan to continue their organized advocacy activities.
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  20. 20

    Principles and practice: gender relations in Afghanistan.

    LINKS. 1997 Jun; 1-2.

    Under the Taliban, which took control of Kabul in Afghanistan in October 1996, Shari's law has been interpreted strictly; women cannot work outside the home, cannot be educated, and must wear the burkha. Professional and educated women have moved to Pakistan. According to United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 1995 figures, the literacy rate among women is 15%; among men it is 45%. This will only worsen if the education of girls is banned. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) report that interpretation of the law varies with district; girls under 10 years of age can attend school in some areas, and some Taliban commanders are more liberal than others. The 30,000 households headed by women will fall into poverty if the women cannot work and have no other means of support. Women's relationships outside the home will be determined entirely by men. Gender roles will change because men will now have to take over jobs women formerly performed outside the home: taking children to clinics, shopping, and collecting water. Women's support groups will collapse because visiting will be difficult and hospitality will be too expensive. International agencies have distributed food and provided work to women in their homes; men are used to communicate with the women. This has been done at risk. Oxfam UK/I, which cannot deliver quality humanitarian aid without working with both women and men, will attempt, through a witnessing and influencing strategy, to persuade the Taliban to become more moderate.
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  21. 21

    Arab leaders stress equality for women.

    DISPATCHES: NEWS FROM UNFPA. 1996 Nov; (11):2.

    As part of a series of Arab regional meetings on social affairs, an expert group meeting was held September 25-27, 1996. Participants included Jordan's Minister for Social Development, Abu Jamous, who emphasized a new role for women, one in which they could participate actively in society without restriction by tradition and culture. Recommendations included improving women's access to quality reproductive health care (including family planning), particularly in rural areas. Raising awareness among women and among communities concerning the positive outcome of reproductive health and decreased maternal mortality due to repeated childbearing was stressed. At the first meeting of this event, representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) discussed follow-up for the recommendations of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) and adopted a Plan of Action. Her Royal Highness Basma Bint Talal of Jordan, in her opening remarks, spoke about the vital role of NGOs "in women's development and their fight against discrimination, so that they will be equal to men and be able to serve their community based on the Islamic sharia and our Arab tradition". Atef Khalifa, director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Country Support Team for Arab States and Europe, reported that all delegations had "keen understanding and great awareness of reproductive health issues" and "fully endorsed programs and mechanisms related to reproductive health and rights". UNFPA representatives provided presentations during several panel discussions at this event.
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  22. 22

    Review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action. 1994 report.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. ix, 149 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/152)

    This UN review covers an appraisal of plans of action for the entire period of 1974-94, due to the expected new Plan of Action to be adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994 in Cairo. Plans of action were adopted at Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico city in 1984. Reviews of plan implementation were conducted in 1979, 1984, and 1989. This review covers the major topics of the Plan of Action and follows the structure of the Program of Action of the 1994 Conference. Chapters 1-9 and 15 focus on socioeconomic development and population, women, the family, population growth and demographic structure, human reproduction, mortality, population distribution, and internal and international migration. Chapters 10 and 11 focus on information, education, and communication, data collection and analyses, research, provision of services, management of program operation, creation of awareness, and evaluation of actions. Chapters 12-14 focus on government, the international community, nongovernmental organizations, scholars, the private sector, and the media. Each topic is presented with a discussion of the following issues: trends, salient issues, significance of issues, actions considered by the Plan of Action, government measures, measures taken by the international community, and an assessment of the implementation of the Plan of Action. The World Population Plan of Action presents principles and objectives that justify action on population issues, guide criteria, and determine the expected results of action. The Plan rejects any form of coercion. Couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children; have responsibility for taking into account the needs of their living and future children; and have responsibilities toward the community.
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  23. 23

    [World Conference on Women: mirror of inequalities (editorial)] Conferencia Mundial de la Mujer: espejo de desigualdades.


    The 1995 International Conference on Women, like other large UN Conferences of the decade, declared itself against all forms of discrimination and in favor of more equitable distribution of wealth and defense of human rights. Formally adopted accords of previous conferences became central themes of the Conference, held in Beijing. It is to be hoped that the social movements of the different countries will be helped by the internationally backed Plan of Action. The Spanish Federation for Family Planning supported the Conference because of its belief that women's lives and well being are intimately related to the defense of their sexual and reproductive rights and to access to the necessary health and family planning services. The Conference should be useful for Spanish women who still have unmet needs, but above all it is significant as an act of solidarity with Third World women who suffer the most severe gender inequities. Rates of maternal mortality and adolescent pregnancy vary tremendously in developed and developing countries, and there are still countries where fewer than 10% of pregnant women receive prenatal care or professional attendance at delivery. Great and continuing efforts will be needed before the rights and conditions guaranteed in the various conferences become reality.
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  24. 24

    Women of the world.

    Fortuin J

    NETWORKER. 1995 Dec; (15):14-6.

    Response to the Fourth World Conference on Women (Women's Conference) will vary according to expectations. Time limitations posed a constraint on the proceedings, although a positive outcome was never in doubt. Major accomplishments include the designation of systematic rape during armed conflict as a war crime, the recognition of parental rights and responsibilities, and the helpful debates on the effects of macroeconomic issues on women. Little attention was paid, however, to the structural causes of poverty or to environmental issues. Because of the initiative of Australia, states announced specific Commitments for Action. The Women's Conference will ultimately change women's lives by reaffirming that women's rights are human rights. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were given the opportunity to learn about UN negotiations and lobbying techniques and strategies. While there was no real power sharing with NGOs, and some felt excluded from the proceedings, the UN is now reviewing NGO access to its procedures, and NGOs are beginning to set their own agendas, take action, and encourage governments to follow suit.
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  25. 25

    Inayatullah takes Vision 2000 forward. IPPF.

    Inayatullah A

    JOICFP NEWS. 1996 Jun; (264):6-7.

    Dr. Attiya Inayatullah is the newly appointed president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). She expresses her hopes that Japan people through its national and local government institutions and the Diet will continue to support IPPF objectives. Inayatullah commends the positive and consistent role played by the Japanese parliamentarians and recognizes the excellent work of the Municipal Coordinating Committee for Overseas Bicycle Assistance. Japan is of particular importance to the IPPF because it is actively helping the global process of democratization. Inayatullah discusses the IPPF's commitment to women, women and HIV/AIDS, empowering women, and the role of nongovernmental organizations.
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