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Third World Quarterly. 2011; 32(3):435-52.Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):35-41.This paper explores the actors who replaced the agreements about the global development agenda made in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 1994 and the 4th UN World Women's Conference in Beijing in 1995 with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It also surveys the processes which shape and affect the exercise of power, which can lead to radical changes.
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2008 Sep; 26(3):251-2.Add to my documents.
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52. Addendum 1: International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Feb 27. 435 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1)The present report contains a detailed review of international, regional and national developments and best practices for ways and means of combating violence against women over the period 1994-2003. The report is not fully comprehensive, some regions or countries may have been reported on in greater detail than others, reflecting the information that was available to the Special Rapporteur. In order to provide a systematic analysis of global developments, the Special Rapporteur requested information on efforts to eliminate violence against women, its causes and consequences, from Governments, specialized agencies, United Nations organs and bodies, and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and academics. The Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude to all who kindly provided information, which contributed significantly in the preparation of her report. (excerpt)
Journal of International Women's Studies. 2007 Nov; 9(1):212-233.This essay analyzes the contributions of three Young Women's Christian Association leaders who chaired the nongovernmental organization forum planning committees during the UN Decade for Women (1975-1985). It assesses the effectiveness of their leadership and addresses questions of distribution and uses of power within women's international NGOs and in relationship to the global feminist community. (author's)
Forced Migration Review. 2007 Dec; (29):72.The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to support the work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Dec 1; 370(9602):1821.One Sunday morning last year, an elderly Zambian woman, four grandchildren in tow, showed up at Elizabeth Mataka's door. "I'm looking for Mrs Mataka-people said she will help me. She's the one who helps grandmothers", the woman said. She had found exactly the right person. Mataka, herself a grandmother of three, heads the Zambia National AIDS Network (ZNAN) and helps coordinate funds fl owing in from donors. And earlier this year she was elevated to the highest levels of the global response to the pandemic. In April, 61-year-old Mataka was elected Vice Chair of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The next month, she got a surprise midnight call from New York with the news that she had been chosen to replace the outgoing United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Canadian diplomat Stephen Lewis. (excerpt)
So does it mean that we have the rights? Protecting the human rights of women and girls trafficked for forced prostitution in Kosovo.
London, England, Amnesty International, .  p.Trafficking of women for forced prostitution is an abuse of human rights, not least the right to physical and mental integrity. It violates the rights of women and girls to liberty and security of person, and may even violate their right to life. It exposes women and girls to a series of human rights abuses at the hands of traffickers, and of those who buy their services. It also renders them vulnerable to violations by governments which fail to protect the human rights of trafficked women. Amnesty International considers the trafficking of women for the purposes of forced prostitution to be a widespread and systematic violation of the human rights of women. Since the deployment in July 1999 of an international peacekeeping force (KFOR) and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) civilian administration, Kosovo has become a major destination country for women and girls trafficked into forced prostitution. Women are trafficked into Kosovo predominantly from Moldova, Bulgaria and Ukraine, the majority of them via Serbia. At the same time, increasing numbers of local women and girls are being internally trafficked, and trafficked out of Kosovo. (excerpt)
Human Rights Dialogue. 2003 Fall; (10):14-15.Historically, the popular understanding of torture has helped to maintain a gender-biased image of the torture victim: it is the male who pervades the political and public sphere and thus it is the male who is likely to be targeted by state violence and repression. Such an image, however, neglects women's experiences as victims and survivors of torture. Until recently, women's human rights organizations often did not pursue women's issues within the framework of the mainstream human rights treaties but instead concentrated on CEDAW. While this tendency is logical--CEDAW is an important and effective instrument for ensuring specifically women's rights--it is equally important to draw on the strengths of other human rights tools. (excerpt)
ARROWs for Change. 2004; 10(2):1-2.The 2004 global and regional roundtables reviewing and monitoring progress of the Cairo Programme of Action (POA) implementation concluded that this document remains a critical comprehensive UN document which outlines an agenda and framework linking human rights principles with population and development, poverty eradication, social justice, gender equality, women's empowerment, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and NGO participation. Ten years into the POA, progress in implementation in the Asia-Pacific region remains poor. ARROW's eight-country regional monitoring study revealed that one million women have died unnecessarily in childbirth, pregnancy and unsafe abortion since Cairo. Only China has attained the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. Nationally, the ICPD POA has not yet been clearly institutionalised in national development frameworks like women's development, health, population and in poverty. Although there has been significant progress in theregion in the area of violence against women and the creation of national machineries like ministries and commissions, women are still not able to exercise control over their reproductive and sexual lives due to the following barriers. (excerpt)
International Breastfeeding Journal. 2006 Dec 12; 1:26.This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry, 2) an integrative research review, and 3) personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults. (author's)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:80-87.The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010. (author's)
Proposal for the 2006 UNGA resolution on the rights of the Child-- text on violence against children.
Geneva, Switzerland, NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2006 Oct 2. 4 p.The resolution should be used to ensure that States endorse the SG's Report and its recommendations (both the overarching and the setting-specific ones) and commit to its full implementation. The UNGA resolution needs to highlight and reinforce States' obligations to prohibit and condemn all forms of violence against children, including all corporal punishment, traditional practices and sexual violence. The resolution should establish the mandate of a Special Representative on Violence against Children for 4 years, to ensure systematic follow-up to the Study and to work with relevant UN agencies, special mechanisms, NGOs and civil society, children and others to prevent and eliminate violence against children. The resolution should call for voluntary contributions from governments to support the core costs of a small but functional secretariat. Voluntary contributions should ideally come from a wide range of countries, especially from those which have been involved throughout the Study process and hosted national and regional consultations and follow-up. North-South and East-West ownership needs to continue in order to ensure that VAC is recognized as a global problem and therefore addressed and tackled everywhere. Voluntary contributions can range in size. (excerpt)
Interdependent. 2006 Summer; 4(2):23-26.Nam Phund, who is only 11, begins her work day at 3 am when the night's harvest of shrimp arrives, hours before dawn breaks over the Gulf of Thailand. That's when 13-year-old Fa goes to work, too. She doesn't know exactly how long she works, peeling shrimp for a seafood processing factory, but she says the day has come and gone and the sky is dark again when she goes home. Fa and Nam Phund can't tell time. They can't read. They are among the tens of thousands of migrant workers from Myanmar who have fled the political repression and economic meltdown of a country once known as Burma, and they are not entitled to an education in Thailand. Instead, they work beside their mothers, or alone, on their feet for 14 hours a day or more. The stories of migrant workers in Thailand would not be unfamiliar to Americans, because many of the factors that have brought poor Asians here, often in family groups, are similar to the conditions that propel Mexicans and others to cross the southern United States border. Prosperous Thailand is a magnet, drawing the poor and hopeless from neighboring Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar. The booming Thai seafood processing industry needs workers and will pay brokers--many of them no more than illegal traffickers--to find that labor. The reservoir is large. The migrants are willing to do the work Thais no longer want, in the fishing industry, in homes, agriculture and restaurants. Cambodians, in particular, are often turned into beggars on Bangkok streets, under the control of begging syndicates. (excerpt)
One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
Effect of an armed conflict on human resources and health systems in Cote d'Ivoire: Prevention of and care for people with HIV/AIDS.
AIDS Care. 2006 May; 18(4):356-365.In September 2002, an armed conflict erupted in Cote d'Ivoire which has since divided the country in the government-held south and the remaining territory controlled by the 'Forces Armees des Forces Nouvelles' (FAFN). There is concern that conflict-related population movements, breakdown of health systems and food insecurity could significantly increase the incidence of HIV infections and other sexually-transmitted infections, and hence jeopardize the country's ability to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Our objective was to assess and quantify the effect this conflict had on human resources and health systems that provide the backbone for prevention, treatment and care associated with HIV/AIDS. We obtained data through a questionnaire survey targeted at key informants in 24 urban settings in central, north and west Cote d'Ivoire and reviewed relevant Ministry of Health (MoH) records. We found significant reductions of health staff in the public and private sector along with a collapse of the health system and other public infrastructures, interruption of condom distribution and lack of antiretrovirals. On the other hand, there was a significant increase of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), some of which claim a partial involvement in the combat with HIV/AIDS. The analysis shows the need that these NGOs, in concert with regional and international organizations and United Nations agencies, carry forward HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, which ought to be continued through the post-conflict stage and then expanded to comprehensive preventive care, particularly antiretroviral treatment. (author's)
Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 2003 Dec 31; 9(4): p..Different international legal agreements have been arrived at by nations to deal with the global problem of discrimination against women, the most important of which is the Convention on the Elmination of All Eorms of Discrimination against Women (the Women's Convention). This paper discusses the importance of the Optional Protocol to the Women's Convention for Asian women, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1999. It provides for an individual complaint procedure against violations of women's rights and allows the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) to conduct special investigations into violations of women's rights. Asian countries have been very slow to ratify the Protocol. Many Asian women are not aware of the potential gains and protection that could come from international human rights law for women. To benefit from the Optional Protocol, women's groups and NGOs in Asia would have to promote the idea of individual complaints against their own governments through education and publicity. Their support to individual women to pursue their cases at the international level is deemed indispensable. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2004. 55 p. (ED-2004/WS/16)The World Education Forum held in Dakar (April, 2000) reemphasized and reiterated the importance of inter-agency partnerships, collaboration and coordination in pursuance of the EFA goals. This facilitated the launching of a number of multi-partner initiatives that focused on specific EFA-related areas and problems requiring special attention as well as the reinforcing of existing ones. EFA flagship initiatives were considered to constitute, among others, one of the mechanisms that would contribute in enhancing and strengthening multi-agency partnership and coherence on EFA related goals. Three years after Dakar, the EFA flagships continue to expand in terms of number of initiatives launched as well as their scope and membership. At present, nine initiatives have been established, involving United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies and NGOs. (excerpt)
Investing in people - eliminating poverty - includes related articles on Preparatory Committee's progress report and social development - World Summit for Social Development.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Dec; 31(4): p..A fifth of the world's population live in absolute poverty, earning scarcely 2 per cent of the world's income. The ill-effects of this economic deprivation are often compounded by ethnic tensions and warfare, which can lead to the local displacement of people and large refugee movements. There are some 17 million refugees and 20 million displaced persons in the world today, deprived of home, health and education, their lives and livelihoods destroyed. These people add not to their nations' productivity but to their overall economic burdens. "In the worst of instances, the survival of an entire society or nation is threatened because the essentials of life are beyond the reach of its people", concluded participants in the 46th Annual DPI/NGO Conference. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2): p..Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.Population dynamics and reproductive health are central to development and must be an integral part of development planning and poverty reduction strategies. Promoting the goals of the United Nations Conferences, including those of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), is vital for laying the foundation to reduce poverty in many of the poorest countries. At the ICPD in 1994, the international community agreed that US $17 billion would be needed in 2000 and $18.5 billion in 2005 to finance programmes in the area of population dynamics, reproductive health, including family planning, maternal health and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as programmes that address the collection, analysis and dissemination of population data. Two thirds of the required amount would be mobilized by developing countries themselves and one third, $6.1 billion in 2005, was to come from the international community. (excerpt)
Report of a pre ICN workshop on Negotiating the Future of Nutrition, Johannesburg, South Africa, 18 September 2005.
Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Dec; 8(8):1229-1230.Good nutrition underpins good health. That reality has been shown in repeated studies and quantified most recently in the 2002 World Health Report of the World Health Organization (WHO). In that report, food and nutrition (their lack or over-consumption) accounted for considerable mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite the compelling evidence of need, global action remains inadequate. Nutrition and food policy still receives considerably less attention in health policy and funding arenas than do many other lesser contributors to human health. Part of the reason relates to the lack of a strong coordinated voice for the broad area that is inclusive of all committed to and able to influence policies and actions for populations. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..Initiated by the Huairou Commission, the local-to-local dialogues represent an innovative global strategy which is grounded in local action. It is a method by which organizations engage in an on-going dialogue with local authorities to forge sustainable development. The Huairou Commission publicized the project through its global networks, GROOTS International, HIC Women and Shelter, International Council of Women (ICW), Women and Peace, Women Environment and Development Organization (WEDO), International women and Cities Network. This was the means by which organizations interested in moving in this direction decided to combine their local efforts with this global initiative. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..Since 1997, the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA) has actively promoted gender equality through its international task force on Women in Local Government. The task force has been addressing the political and professional under representation of women in decision making positions, and has developed both gender mainstreaming, and positive action in local government policy development and service provision. The IULA policy paper and the Worldwide Declaration on Women in Local Government is a result of broad consultations with IULA’s inter governmental and UN partners. In the coming years the Global Programme should result in IULA becoming the worldwide source of key information regarding women in local decision making. The overall programme objective is to promote equal representation of women in local government decision-making and the mainstreaming of gender in local government policy-making and service-provision through awareness raising, training programmes for women officials and production of materials to support the advancement of women. (excerpt)
Harvard International Review. 2005 Winter; 26(4):32-35.Part of every well-intentional dollar you send to a war-torn, underdeveloped country is funding the sport utility vehicle of a recent college graduate and the rest is perpetuating an ethnic war that is at the source of the famine you want to help fight. Even though this is a blatant exaggeration, it is one that holds an essential truth. Although humanitarian aid brings much needed short-term relief in moments of crisis, it often does more harm than good because of its lack of realistic planning. Unfortunately, the business of aid is rarely criticized for its tragic shortcomings because of the widespread favorable public opinion it enjoys. Under the guise of charity and responsibility, humanitarian aid is often the only type of foreign intervention that public opinion easily endorses. However, the provision of humanitarian aid should not be viewed simply as a success and used to absolve the guilt of the affluent international community that provides it. On the contrary, the necessity for urgent humanitarian assistance indicates the failure to act early and prevent the tragic circumstances that often lead to crises. (excerpt)