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  1. 1
    297795

    HIV and AIDS in Armenia: a socio-cultural approach.

    Papoyan A; Arakelyan A; Bakshinyan E

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Culture and Development Section, 2005. 83 p. (CLT/CPD/CAD-05/4B)

    Evaluating and effectively responding to the global challenge of the HIV epidemic requires an indepth understanding of the strong correlation between health and social, cultural and economic conditions, and how these shape behaviour at both individual and societal levels. While the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Armenia is comparatively low, the rate is growing rapidly. Current prevalence among officially registered cases is 0.02%. The actual rate of prevalence is estimated to be approximately ten times higher, with a greater prevalence among distinct key population groups. Among the factors driving the HIV epidemic in the country - which faces profound socio-economic, political and cultural changes - are: a particular negative and fearful attitude towards the disease; discrimination against people living with HIV; low level of HIV and AIDS awareness among the population; and an increase in injecting drug use and commercial sex work. In Armenia, HIV-positive people are primarily associated with three key populations that are socially marginalized: commercial sex workers (CSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and men who have sex with men (MSM). For many years an individual's positive HIV status has been equated with immoral behaviour. As a result, PLHIV face aggression. Moreover, it is taboo to openly discuss HIV and AIDS, resulting in the further isolation of PLHIV. Currently many programmes have been implemented in Armenia to surmount stigmatization. However, this process demands numerous long-term activities and commitments from the state. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    142281

    Female genital mutilation. Report of a WHO Technical Working Group, Geneva, 17-19 July 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [3], 28 p.

    This document constitutes a WHO Technical Working Group report on female genital mutilation (FGM). The first section offers an overview of the objectives of the Technical Working Group, the FGM process and geographical distribution of cases. Section 2 presents a background information on FGM and the proposed definition and classification of the Group. Section 3 discusses the physical and health consequences of the practice, both the short-term and the long-term complications. Section 4 examines the sexual, mental, and social consequences of FGM, while section 5 explores on suggested research framework for effective interventions. Section 6 outlines a framework for activities geared towards addressing this concern including breaking the silence, raising awareness, providing information, advocacy, enhancing personal views of women, involving policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and the community. It also discusses FGM in immigrant communities in western countries. The last section presents several recommendations for research, national policies and legislation, and training.
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