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Finnish Official Development Aid for sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research. 2010; 45:143-170.Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP), Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Väestoliitto) engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finland's total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009), mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Culture and Development Section, 2005. 83 p. (CLT/CPD/CAD-05/4B)Evaluating and effectively responding to the global challenge of the HIV epidemic requires an indepth understanding of the strong correlation between health and social, cultural and economic conditions, and how these shape behaviour at both individual and societal levels. While the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Armenia is comparatively low, the rate is growing rapidly. Current prevalence among officially registered cases is 0.02%. The actual rate of prevalence is estimated to be approximately ten times higher, with a greater prevalence among distinct key population groups. Among the factors driving the HIV epidemic in the country - which faces profound socio-economic, political and cultural changes - are: a particular negative and fearful attitude towards the disease; discrimination against people living with HIV; low level of HIV and AIDS awareness among the population; and an increase in injecting drug use and commercial sex work. In Armenia, HIV-positive people are primarily associated with three key populations that are socially marginalized: commercial sex workers (CSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and men who have sex with men (MSM). For many years an individual's positive HIV status has been equated with immoral behaviour. As a result, PLHIV face aggression. Moreover, it is taboo to openly discuss HIV and AIDS, resulting in the further isolation of PLHIV. Currently many programmes have been implemented in Armenia to surmount stigmatization. However, this process demands numerous long-term activities and commitments from the state. (excerpt)
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health Project [INFO], 2005 Oct 10.  p. (Global Health Technical Briefs)Have you ever needed to quickly mobilize in-country networks for program scale-up? Have you ever wished for a reliable way to disseminate tools and strategies to community stakeholders? Have you ever looked for ways to strengthen nongovernmental organization (NGO) country collaboration for greater impact? Alliances such as the CORE Group and the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) help donors and partners meet these challenges and reach more women and children in need. They do this by offering one-stop access to established networks whose reach and reputation in developing countries make them highly effective partners. The CORE Group, established in 1997, is a membership association of 40 international NGOs whose mission is to promote and improve the health and well-being of children and women in developing countries through collaborative NGO action and learning. Collectively, CORE Group members work in more than 140 countries. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003.  p. (E/750/2003)Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2001 is intended to be a tool for donor and developing country Governments, multilateral organizations and agencies, private foundations and NGOs to monitor progress in achieving the financial resource targets agreed to at the ICPD. Development cooperation officers and policy makers in developing countries can use the report to identify the domestically generated resources and complementary resources from donors needed to finance population and reproductive health programmes. (excerpt)
The new information technologies and women: essential reflections. [La nueva tecnología de la información y la mujer: reflexiones fundamentales]
Santiago, Chile, United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America [ECLAC], 2003 Jul. 56 p. (CEPAL - SERIE Mujer y Desarrollo No. 39)Although in Latin America and the Caribbean there is growing concern to take into account the issue of gender in public policies, this process is still embryonic and fragmented in the case of economic and technological policies. The Women and Development Unit of ECLAC is therefore implementing the project "Institutionalization of gender policies within ECLAC and sectoral ministries". The objective of this project is to strengthen technical policies, strategies, tools and capacities, both within ECLAC and in selected countries of the region, in order to encourage equity between men and women in the process and benefits of development, especially with regard to economic and labour policies. One of the activities of the project, organized by the Women and Development Unit together with the International Trade Division of ECLAC and the Centre for Women's Studies and Social Gender Relations of the University of São Paulo, was a meeting of experts on "Globalization, technological change and gender equity" in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, on 5 and 6 November 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the most relevant aspects of the opportunities and restrictions imposed by the processes of globalization and technological change, with the aim of proposing areas for research, as well as an agenda of public policies that would help to achieve equity. This document was presented as a background study for the discussion at the meeting of experts. It is clear from the text that the new technologies are taking us into a dizzy time of new exclusions, and that in addition to being a material reality they are also a discursive product with effects on institutions, public policies and individuals. The study reviews an extensive amount of theoretical literature, as well as most of the research concerning the inclusion and relationship of women in connection with the new information technologies and skills. This review identifies the major obstacle to reinforcing the potential positive impacts of the new technologies as the lack of information on how they, and especially computers, can help policies, and also individual women, to achieve their goals. It is also shown that we are dealing with two disconnected concepts: the information society and the information economy, and the gender perspective is presented as a means of linking them. As for the impact on social and gender equity, and the current digital divide, according to this document research is needed on more than access alone. There is patently a need for policies to regulate and democratize the new information and knowledge technologies, and it is important to analyze the collective imaginary that is being constructed around them and the different forms of subjectivity that the Internet is encouraging, within a perspective of the future and of changes in social relations. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. ix, 115 p. (Technical Report No. 23)This report contains the results of a 1994 UN Population Fund (UNFPA) mission to Bangladesh undertaken on behalf of the UN's Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs. After presenting an executive summary, the report opens with an introductory chapter which describes the UNFPA Global Initiative, Bangladesh's population and family planning (FP) policies, policy strategies, the structure of the national FP program, the delivery of FP services, and donor assistance. Chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements and reviews the longterm projection methodology as well as projects to meet government objectives for the year 2005. The third chapter deals with logistics management in terms of distribution channels and contraceptive supply systems. Chapter 4 discusses various aspects of contraceptive manufacturing including taxes and duties and quality assurance. The next chapter looks at the role of nine nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector (private practitioners, private corporations, and the social marketing company). This chapter also covers the sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention activities undertaken by NGOs and coordination and collaboration between NGOs and the government. Chapter 6 is concerned with the use of condoms for STD/HIV/AIDS prevention, and chapter 7 provides a financial analysis of the allocations and expenditures of the government program, the World Bank-assisted program, the UNFPA-assisted program, and the program supported by the US Agency for International Development. This chapter also considers financial aspects of program performance, contraceptive requirements, contraceptive consumption and costs, and sustainability.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. , 28 p.This document constitutes a WHO Technical Working Group report on female genital mutilation (FGM). The first section offers an overview of the objectives of the Technical Working Group, the FGM process and geographical distribution of cases. Section 2 presents a background information on FGM and the proposed definition and classification of the Group. Section 3 discusses the physical and health consequences of the practice, both the short-term and the long-term complications. Section 4 examines the sexual, mental, and social consequences of FGM, while section 5 explores on suggested research framework for effective interventions. Section 6 outlines a framework for activities geared towards addressing this concern including breaking the silence, raising awareness, providing information, advocacy, enhancing personal views of women, involving policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and the community. It also discusses FGM in immigrant communities in western countries. The last section presents several recommendations for research, national policies and legislation, and training.
Partnership with civil society. A review of progress since the International Conference on Population and Development.
[Unpublished] 1999. Prepared for the NGO Forum on ICPD Plus 5, The Hague, Netherlands, February 6-7, 1999  i.A technical report reviews the progress made by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in partnership with civil society, including nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), in achieving the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Program of Action. The analysis is based on an examination of several documents and reports of consultations, technical meetings and round tables in 1997-98 in various thematic areas in the context of the ICPD+5 review. Chapter II charts the progress of UNFPA support for and collaboration with civil society/NGOs at international, regional and national levels since the ICPD. Chapter III examines the report of the Dhaka Round Table, the Inquiry responses, and other ICPD+5 review reports. Chapter IV presents the actions proposed by civil society and NGOs. Chapter V presents conclusions and includes suggestions for mechanisms that would enhance and sustain collaboration, cooperation, coordination, and partnership among international organizations. Furthermore, the lessons from success stories of women's empowerment in implementing the Program of Action need to be transferred to other countries.
The Bank's relations with NGOs: issues and directions (incorporating "Cooperation between the World Bank and NGOs: FY97 Progress Report").
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1998 Aug 11. , 17, 19,  p. (Social Development Paper No. 28)This report gives an overview of World Bank (WB) and nongovernmental organization (NGO) relations, offers some lessons learned, and identifies emerging issues. This report also incorporates the views of the Executive Directors which were made at the Board Seminar on WB-NGO relations held in March 1998. WB-NGO partnerships have had successful "project" outcomes. There are concerns about WB-NGO involvement in government policy issues. The discussion focuses on five specific issues: 1) confidence in the criteria for selection of appropriate NGOs for collaboration, with clear knowledge of the local NGO context, and with consideration of government prerogatives; 2) the WB must clarify the role of NGOs in commenting on draft policies; 3) improve disclosure of information; 4) disseminate the WB's views on the funding of NGO activities; and 5) the WB should understand more clearly the role of civil society in development and the relationship of NGOs to other civil groups. The WB must continue to build community support for development programs and policies. NGOs face constraints, such as: limited financial and managerial expertise and institutional capacity; gaps between stated goals and actual operations; limited sustainability; a lack of inter-organizational coordination; and limited economic or development expertise. WB-NGO partnerships have enhanced the capacity to target and involve poor, vulnerable groups in projects and to achieve gender equity. The WB must balance government knowledge and consent with openness to a range of stakeholders and then make independent, professional, and well-informed judgments.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1996 Feb. , v, 59 p. (Social Development Paper No. 12)This report defines types of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and identifies strategies for identifying participatory NGOs. It also discusses capacity building, the tension between service delivery and capacity building, the potential to increase the scale of activity among NGOs, project or process development, and linkages between NGOs and government. The World Bank now aims to foster more participatory community-based development among development-oriented NGOs trying to reduce poverty. Development-oriented NGOs tend to have the strongest grassroots links and the greatest experience reaching disadvantaged groups with innovative methods. The World Bank has historically ignored participatory processes. The challenge is to locate NGOs willing to collaborate and those that have sufficient capacity to meet goals; to support the participatory character of NGOs; and to help reduce friction in styles with the operations of the World Bank and governments. Highly participatory NGOs tend to work on a very small scale. Another challenge is to build the institutional capacity of NGO partners. The usual management training is unsuitable and insufficient for NGO needs. History, politics, and ideology define the differences in links between governments and NGOs. Partners may be constrained by government attitudes and regulations. The cases confirm the importance of a clear, shared understanding of partner NGO roles; a flexible, staged process of collaboration; opportunities for strong, relatively homogenous common interest-based groups; a supportive, nonintrusive state context; and a shared view and willingness to cooperate among major donors.