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  1. 1

    Restriction of access is displacement: a broader concept and policy.

    Cernea MM

    Forced Migration Review. 2005 May; (23):48-49.

    The conceptual apparatus in forced migration and population resettlement research is being continuously enriched. One important – but still relatively unknown – development was introduced recently into the resettlement policies of the World Bank, African Development Bank and Asian Development Bank. This new thinking is set out in the revised (January 2002) World Bank Operational Policy (OP) 4.12 on resettlement. This significantly defines the ‘restricting of access’ to indigenous and other people in parks and protected areas as ‘involuntary displacement’ even when physical displacement and relocation are not required. The justifying rationale is that restrictions impose impoverishment risks and these risks lead to severe deprivations. Significantly, this new definition has come from major international agencies themselves involved in instituting ‘restricted access’ regimes. As the definition has been adopted, the world’s major development agencies have moved towards policy consensus that restricted access is a form of displacement. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The right and access for all to housing and to the city. Contribution to Habitat II from French associations of international solidarity.

    Action Nord Sud; Acroterre; Association Internationale de Techniciens, Experts et Chercheurs; Association Femmes et Developpement; Amis de la Terre; Association de Recherche Cooperative Internationale; Bioforce Rhone-Alpes; Comite Catholique contre la Faim et pour le Developpement; Centre d'Etude du Developpement en Amerique Latine; Centre International de Droit Compare de l'Environnement

    Paris, France, Centre de Recherche et d'Information pour le Developpement, 1995 Nov. 8 p.

    This paper was prepared, discussed, and adopted by a working group representing most associations of international solidarity (AIS) working in France and in partnership with associations in Europe and countries of the South, on living conditions and urban development. AIS supports the principles of sustainability, equality, citizenship, and solidarity. They believe that translating these principles into urban development strategies and programs would make it possible to achieve the two main aims announced by the UN in the context of Habitat II: adequate housing for all and sustainable human settlements. The inventory drawn up by AIS is the result of observations made during their practical experience at local level and with regard to their principles. This inventory on housing and the urban scene can be drawn up at four levels: local, national, geopolitical regional, and global. The proposals of AIS are organized around eight themes: partnership; institutional framework; specific methods and policies; AIS projects and interventions; national policies on housing, habitat, and the city; strategies and interventions by national institutions; the international system; and relations with other actors such as municipalities, researchers, experts and professionals, administrations, companies and the economic sector, cooperation agencies, international institutions, residents' associations, popular movements, and trade unions.
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  3. 3

    All India Women's Conference Seminar on Habitat II and Human Settlement.

    ROSHNI. 1996 Jan-Jun; 1-3.

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the All India Women's Conference and the UN Information Center's Regional Seminar on Human Settlement which was held in 1996. The conference was attended by about 100 persons and 20 speakers. The main topics were megacities and infrastructure deficits; governance, poverty, and employment; and the role of women and nongovernmental organizations in human settlements. The article identifies 24 recommendations on community participation by women: the availability of drinking water and sanitation, access to schools and health care, provision of sanitary facilities, training programs for women in basic health care and hygiene, toilet facilities in slums and rural areas, housing provision for the poor, income generation programs for women, shelter to the homeless, available housing, equity in political representation and elections, sustainable development, rural development, resettlement of slum dwellers, improvements in quality of life, female ownership of housing, networking, and integrated approaches to the concept of habitat, among others. This regional conference followed up the Global Habitat II Conference. Provision of housing and shelters to millions worldwide will require creative programs, adequate financial support, and dedication to the ideals of Habitat II.
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  4. 4

    A report of the NGO Advocacy Network for Women (KIDOG) on its participation in the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, HABITAT II NGO Forum, Istanbul, Turkey, May 30 - June 14, 1996.

    Futures Group International. POLICY Project

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1996. [2], 9, [12] p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-3078-C-00-5023-00)

    This report describes the participation of the Turkish NGO (nongovernmental organization) Advocacy Network for Women (KIDOG) in the UN's Habitat II NGO Forum, which took place May 30-June 14, 1996. KIDOG originated in the participation of 11 NGOs in a two-day advocacy workshop sponsored by The Futures Group International in Turkey in July 1995. In the fall of 1995, the 11 NGOs requested technical assistance in networking, advocacy, and strategic planning. In March 1996, eight additional groups joined KIDOG during another advocacy workshop. Using participatory techniques, KIDOG members decided that their participation in the NGO Forum would involve 1) provision of information about the status of women and reproductive health in Turkey and 2) seeking support for the Network agenda and an increase in Network membership. KIDOG's contributions to the NGO Forum included distributing KIDOG booklets and posters, developing a computer-based presentation on women and reproductive health, sponsoring an exhibit booth, hosting site visits, and conducting workshops on the following topics: 1) NGO initiatives in reproductive health, 2) domestic violence, 3) informal education for women, and 4) sustainable development. When KIDOG members evaluated their participation in the NGO Forum, they agreed that KIDOG's most important contribution was serving as a model for collaborative work, which is a new phenomenon in Turkey. KIDOG members plan to continue their organized advocacy activities.
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