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Forced Migration Review. 2007 Dec; (29):72.The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to support the work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness. (excerpt)
Primary health care in complex humanitarian emergencies: Rwanda and Kosovo experiences and their implications for public health training. [Soins de santé primaire dans le cadre d'urgences humanitaires complexes : les expériences du Rwanda et du Kosovo, et leurs implications dans le domaine de la formation en santé publique]
Croatian Medical Journal. 2002; 43(2):148-155.In a complex humanitarian emergency, a catastrophic breakdown of political, economic, and social systems, often accompanied by violence, contributes to a long-lasting dependency of the affected communities on external service. Relief systems, such as the Emergency Response Units of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have served as a sound foundation for fieldwork in humanitarian emergencies. The experience in emergencies gained in Rwanda in 1994 and Kosovo in 1999 clearly points to the need for individual adjustments of therapeutic standards to preexisting morbidity and health care levels within the affected population. In complex emergencies, public health activities have been shown to promote peace, prevent violence, and reconcile enemies. A truly democratic and multiprofessional approach in all public health training for domestic or foreign service serves as good pattern for fieldwork. Beyond the technical and scientific skills required in the profession, political, ethical, and communicative competencies are critical in humanitarian assistance. Because of the manifold imperatives of further public health education for emergency assistance, a humanitarian assistance competence training center should be established. Competence training centers focus on the core competencies required to meet future needs, are client-oriented, connect regional and international networks, rely on their own system of quality control, and maintain a cooperative management of knowledge. Public health focusing on complex humanitarian emergencies will have to act in prevention not only of diseases and impairments but also of political tension and hatred. (author's)
The Inter-Agency Network on education in emergencies. [Le Réseau inter-agences d'éducation d'urgence]
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Jan; (22):8-10.The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) builds on the work of its members - UN agencies, NGOs, practitioners, donors and researchers - to ensure the right to education in emergencies and post-crisis reconstruction. Guinea in 1996 highlighted the then state of education in emergencies. An already under-resourced education system was coming under strain due to the presence of large numbers of refugees from neighbouring Sierra Leone and Liberia. As refugee and Guinean students competed for limited places in state schools and Guinea struggled to pay teachers' salaries, a large number of international NGOs established a complementary network of schools in the refugee camps. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2002 Oct; (15):10-11.Wilmot Wungko, a former Liberian refugee, spoke on behalf of millions of children around the world caught up in wars not of their making. Addressing the UN Security Council in a special meeting on children and armed conflict in May 2002, he articulated the need for greater support for children of war – and the particular case of refugee and displaced children. Children make up approximately half of the world’s estimated 38 million refugees and IDPs. Children, including adolescents, are the most vulnerable populations in situations of armed conflict. In the past decade over two million children have been killed in wars and another five million have been wounded or disabled. Twenty million children have been forced from their homes, including seven million who have become refugees in another country. Because of war, entire generations of children grow up without ever seeing the inside of a schoolroom and without receiving proper nutrition or vaccinations. Other children are recruited to be combatants and become witnesses to and forced perpetrators of extreme violence. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2003. 5 p.My testimony today will highlight the protection challenges facing women and children in refugee settings, mention a few of the barriers to implementing effective protection programs, and briefly discuss two legislative solutions that address some of these problems. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Sep. 61 p. (Croatia Vol. 15, No. 6(D))Between 300,000 and 350,000 Serbs left their homes in Croatia during the 1991-95 war. This report describes the continued plight of displacement suffered by the Serbs of Croatia and identifies the principal remaining impediments to their return. The most significant problem is the difficulty Serbs face in returning to their pre-war homes. Despite repeated promises, the Croatian government has been unwilling and unable to solve this problem for the vast majority of displaced Serbs. In addition, fear of arbitrary arrest on war-crimes charges and discrimination in employment and pension benefits also deter return. Human Rights Watch believes that these problems are a result of a practice of ethnic discrimination against Serbs by the Croatian government. The report concludes with a list of recommendations to the government of Croatia and the international community to deal with these persistent problems and finally make good on the promise of return. (author's)
Washington, D.C., National Academies Press, 2003. xii, 57 p.The present monograph--on rebuilding the health sector in East Timor following the nation's struggle for independence--is the second in this series. It provides an overview of the state of the health system before, during, and after reconstruction and discusses achievements and failures in the rebuilding process, using an informative case study to draw conclusions for potential improvements to the process in other post-conflict settings. Other topics under consideration in the series include reviews of current knowledge on psychosocial issues, reproductive health, malnutrition, and diarrheal diseases, as well as other case studies. (excerpt)
Women and Environments International. 2003 Spring; (58-59):43-47.Hands Across the Divide (HAD) is a newly formed NGO linking women of northern Turkish-speaking Cyprus and southern Greek-speaking Cyprus. It is unique, the first of its kind in Cyprus, and the first bi-communal Cypriot organization to gain international recognition. So total is the Cypriot partition, that it is legally impossible to register a bi-communal organization in Cyprus as a single organization. So the women of HAD went to London to register. Despite all the barriers to communication across the Green Line, the women of HAD are carrying out joint actions for peace. While the northern HAD women are sharing in the massive demonstrations in the north, the Greek Cypriot members of Hands Across the Divide have started their own action in the south. Cyprus now faces entry to the European Union bringing new urgency to the question of reunification and peace. (excerpt)
Returning Afghans. No place like home. An international programme is helping qualified Afghans to go home.
Economist. 2002 Feb 23-Mar 1; 47.A new program established by the International Office for Migration is helping qualified Afghans to go home. So far, over 3100 Afghans from 26 countries have registered under the program, which matches candidates with jobs in ministries, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. The program pays the expenses for each refugee's journey and adds $200 to the monthly salary paid by returning Afghan's new employers. It is noted that the most eager to go back are Afghans based in Iran and Pakistan. On the other hand, those who are settled in the US, Australia or France are confronted with a difficult decision for they have experienced the luxury of living in a place where salaries compensate their needs, where there is sufficient water, and where they have the advantage of foreign citizenship. Meanwhile, ministries and local nongovernmental organizations that are competing with international organizations' higher salaries are eager to draw from the program's candidate pool. However, despite the goodwill of the Afghan diaspora, matching the demand and supply is not easy. Teachers are in high demand, yet problems still arise from salary issues as well hiring Afghan teachers.
Weak UN presence and ongoing violence compound Burundi's internal refugee crisis. [Press release]. [La faible présence de l'ONU et la violence continue aggravent la crise des réfugiés internes burundais] [Communiqué de presse]
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2001 Jan 17. 2 p.According to this press release from the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, a weak UN has failed an estimated half million internal refugees in Burundi. A report entitled "Out of Sight, Out of Mind" urges the UN to appoint a strong and competent leader to coordinate protection and assistance to the displaced people. Furthermore, the report urges all parties in Burundi's ongoing peace process to continue to negotiate for a cease-fire. It is noted that the fighting is hampering already limited efforts to provide humanitarian relief. Moreover, the report recommends that the UN should work with international nongovernmental organizations to strengthen relationships with their local counterparts. Lastly, reproductive health services are especially needed to help those women who have suffered the trauma of rape and sexual violence, and to educate Burundians about the dangers of HIV/AIDS.
Journal of International Development. 1998; 10:699-713.This paper examines the relationship between forced migration and environmental change in West Africa, through an analysis of the changing institutional context through which resource use and management decisions are made. The paper draws on the work of Leach and Mearns (1991), who have highlighted how institutions shape the ways in which different groups of people gain access to and control over resources, and in doing so, affect environmental outcomes. This approach is used to illuminate two apparently paradoxical case studies of refugee influxes in Senegal and the Republic of Guinea, where despite significant increases in the population of host areas, degradation of natural resources has remained limited. It is argued that flexible local institutions have been able to adapt to the presence of refugees, providing regulated access to natural resources, and so reducing destructive behavior. (author's)
Ensuring the reproductive rights of refugees and internally displaced persons: legal and policy issues.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 2000 Dec; 26(4):167-73.More than 26 million refugees, asylum-seekers and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are registered worldwide with the UN agencies, while millions still remain uncounted. In addition, girls and women make up about 50% of refugee and internally displaced populations, although the gender composition of refugee groups varies between regions and countries. These women and girls were at high risk of rape, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe delivery, and sexually transmitted diseases. This article examines the international legal framework for the reproductive rights of refugees and IDPs, as well as some aspects of UN and nongovernmental organization policies relevant to refugees' reproductive health. Three interrelated fields of international law come to bear on a discussion of the reproductive rights of refugees and IDPs: general international human rights law; refugee and humanitarian laws. These laws protect the rights of women against violence and all forms of discrimination. While international law requires countries that have ratified the relevant treaties to provide refugees and IDPs with sexual and reproductive health services, in practice UN agencies and nongovernmental organizations usually have to help provide these services.
ENTRE NOUS. 1998 Spring; (38):11.The Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium consists of CARE, the International Committee of the Red Cross, John Snow Research and Training, Marie Stopes International, and the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The consortium hosted a technical meeting in New York in April 1997 for field workers and representatives of nongovernmental organizations and UN agencies. The consortium's "Refugee Reproductive Health: Guide to Needs Assessment and Evaluation" has been field-tested in more than 12 refugee sites during the past year. Feedback from the evaluation was used to prepare five reproductive health tools for use in refugee situations: questions for refugee leaders, group discussion questions for refugee men and women, health facility questionnaire and checklist, and two surveys. The participants of the technical meeting revised the tools which will soon be made available. In several countries with significant refugee populations, the consortium plans to review reproductive health programs to determine what progress has been made and what barriers still exist. Potential sites for the study are Armenia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guinea, Kenya, Lebanon, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, the Thai/Burma border, the former Yugoslavia, and Zaire.
European Population Conference. Proceedings. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland. Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. 429 p.This volume contains country statements and statements by international and nongovernmental organizations for the 1993 European Population Conference that was jointly organized by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECC), the Council of Europe (CE), and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The conference aimed to review, examine, and analyze key population-related issues in the region's countries, to evaluate the implementation of population-related policies, and to prepare a set of recommendations on key population-related issues and policies. The five conference priorities were international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation in the field of population. Conference attendants included representatives from European countries, Argentina, Australia, Egypt, the Holy See, Japan, New Zealand, UN agencies, and 61 nongovernmental organizations. European countries and the world face the challenges of population growth, population impact on the environment, unsustainable modes of production and consumption, and human survival. Countries are inextricably linked, and international cooperation and solidarity are necessary. Developing countries, with the highest rates of population growth, are faced with generating adequate levels of sustainable economic and social development and with devoting sufficient resources to enable demographic transition. Europe's challenges include international migration and continuation of support in development and population programs for countries undergoing political and economic transition. Old national and ethnic rivalries have surfaced and now facilitate armed conflicts and serious political crises. Changes have occurred in fertility, the status of women, and the family. AIDS and drug abuse are causes for concern. This volume identifies 15 recommendations.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD CHALLENGES. 1994; (1):28-30.From 1963 to 1987, the Palestinian Family Planning (FP) and Protection Association (FPA) set up 11 urban clinics and branches. As the result of a needs survey in 1985, the FPA was planning to provide more services in rural areas. The political situation and the 1987 start of the Intifada, however, made delivery of even existing services more difficult and helped create a pronatalist atmosphere which was fueled by religious opposition to FP. In order to continue its work, the FPA took advantage of interagency cooperation with the nongovernmental organizations which had existing health clinics and which agreed to provide contraceptives in exchange for a percentage of the sales revenue. The role of the FPA was to provide the supplies and to train staff in service provision. The FPA also used this cooperative system to funnel FP information, education, and communication to women's groups. Through these efforts the FPA reached 60% more new clients in 1992 than it had in 1991. This successful cooperative method had its roots in the efforts the FPA had made since the 1970s to provide FP services in the maternal and child care clinics for refugees set up by the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA). In 1993, the FPA received funding to open its own clinic in Gaza (where 75% of the people are refugees). The FPA is also actively seeking the involvement of religious leaders in discussions about the incorporation of FP in refugee health programs. Meanwhile, in 1990, the UNRWA began to offer FP as part of its maternal health program and to refer clients to the FPA where they were served free of charge. When the UNRWA began to provide FP services directly, the FPA provided the training for the UNRWA personnel. By remaining flexible, the FPA has been able to use appropriate channels to deliver its own expertise to women in need. Creative new approaches will continue to be called for to reach the thousands of women who remain in need of FP services.