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  1. 1
    286697

    A global event on population in 2004?

    Singh JS

    Population 2005. 2002 Jun-Jul; 4(2):15.

    Should the United Nations organize an international population conference in 2004, continuing the series of decennial intergovernmental events that began with the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974 and continued with the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984 and the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994? The three previous events were initiated by the U.N. Population Commission, now called the Commission on Population and Development. But this time around, the commission has not been able to make up its mind on whether a global event in 2004 will be useful or feasible. In addition to the usual arguments about “the conference fatigue” and the high costs of U.N. conferences, another argument is being advanced by those who are not in favor of a global conference in 2004. They fear that a global conference in 2004 may open up the debate on the concepts of reproductive health, reproductive rights and empowerment of women that were clearly defined and accepted at Cairo. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    275204

    The USAID population program in Ecuador: a graduation report. [El Programa de USAID para la población de Ecuador aprueba su examen final. Informe]

    Coury JP; Lafebre A

    Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 2001 Oct. [68] p. (POPTECH Publication No. 2001–031–006; USAID Contract No. HRN–C–00–00–00007–00)

    For nearly 30 years, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided assistance for population, family planning, and reproductive health programs in Ecuador. Throughout the early years, USAID worked with both private and public sector institutions to establish a broad base for national awareness of and support for family planning and for the introduction of contraceptive services. USAID led all other donors in this sector in terms of financial, technical, and contraceptive commodity assistance. Upon reflection of the accomplishments of the USAID population program during these years and considering its most recent Strategic Objective of “increased use of sustainable family planning and maternal child health services,” it is apparent that the Agency was successful in this endeavor and has adequately provided for the graduation of its local partners, particularly those in the private sector, where USAID had directed the major focus of its assistance over the past decade. During the last and final phase of assistance, 1992–2001, the USAID strategy focused primarily on assuring the financial and institutional sustainability of the two largest local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that provide family planning services. USAID/Ecuador worked in partnership with the Asociación Pro-bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE), which is the Ecuadorian affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the Centro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF)—institutions that provide contraceptive and other reproductive health services. At the same time, in order to assure that the necessary tools were in place for future program monitoring, planning, and evaluation, USAID assistance was provided to the Centro de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo Social (CEPAR). (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    170312

    Civil society, NGOs, and development in Ethiopia. A snapshot view.

    Clark J

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Social Development Department, NGO and Civil Society Unit, 2000 Jun. v, 21 p.

    This paper presents an overview of the potential role of nongovernmental organizations and other civil society actors in meeting Ethiopia's immense development challenges as the country moves to institutionalize fundamental changes in governmental structure and economic orientation.
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  4. 4
    134157

    FPAN 21st Central Council meeting emphasises on sustainability.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1998 Mar-Apr; 18(2):1-2.

    Nepal's Minister of Health at the 21st Central Council Meeting of the Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN) noted that Nepal was experiencing major migration problems due to its open borders between China and India. Migration problems have been exacerbated by both refugees from Bhutan and the forced return migration of Nepalese-origin Indians from some Indian states. Internal migration from the hills to the teral region is also aggravating population-related problems in the country. FPAN needs to educate and provide family planning services to the rural poor population which is in need of services, yet can neither support nor educate itself. With family planning already effectively practiced among the educated and affluent, focus should be upon reaching the rural poor with the family planning program. The FPAN president urged the government of Nepal to integrate population into development programs and stressed that program success and sustainability depend upon the level of community involvement. The council meeting was held to review progress made in 1997, and to decide upon policies, programs, and directives for the future.
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  5. 5
    128639

    Sustainability of the FP-MCH program of NGOs in Bangladesh. Future Search Workshop, July 15-18, 1995, Centre for Development Management, Rajendrapur, Bangladesh.

    Fowler C

    Dhaka, Bangladesh, Pathfinder International, 1995. [10], 38, 51 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 388-0071-A-00-7082-10)

    This report summarizes the activities of a workshop held July 15-18, 1995, in Bangladesh, on the sustainability of Bangladesh's family planning/maternal-child health (FP/MCH) program among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The workshop included representatives of the FP/MCH program, donor agencies, USAID cooperating agencies (CAs), NGOs, family planning clients, and technical experts (64 individuals). The aim was to determine a common vision of sustainability by 2010; to identify common features of this vision; and to identify Action Plans that stakeholders might adopt to ensure the actualization of the vision. The report includes a summary, introduction, objectives, inaugural session notes, technical presentations on USAID's vision, lessons learned from sustainability initiatives in Latin America, sustainability planning approaches and tools, and a future search workshop on sustainability. Stakeholders' evaluations of the workshop were listed in about 16 different statements. The appendices include the agenda, the list of participants, the national vision, USAID's vision, lessons learned from international settings and applicability to Bangladesh, tools to help plan for sustainability, and the workshop evaluation form. Many of the lessons learned were applicable to Bangladesh, with the exception of the question of appropriateness of charging all clients. The Quality-Expansion-Sustainability Management Information System and Management Development Assessment Tool were developed with staff from USAID's CAs in Bangladesh. Eight stakeholders participated in the Future Search Workshop and prepared Action Plans which are included in the appendix. The main features were lower donor dependency, community participation, and cost recovery. Promising features included quality of care, income generation, women's empowerment, collaboration, strengthening management skills, and endowment funds.
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  6. 6
    099406

    Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.

    Bangladesh

    [Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.

    The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
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  7. 7
    099433

    The Philippines: country report on population. International Conference on Population and Development, 5-13 September 1994, Cairo, Egypt.

    Philippines. Commission on Population

    [Manila], Philippines, Commission on Population, 1994. [4], 40 p.

    The country report on population prepared by the Philippines for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a discussion of the 3 interdependent strategies which will be used to achieve development: total human resource development, international competitiveness, and sustainable development. Since the Philippines envisions development proceeding primarily from the initiatives of individuals, families, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), cooperatives, etc., empowerment of the people is a major objective of the government. To this end, the family is seen as the focal point for analysis of needs and resource use and for mobilization. The problems which beset the Philippines today and which are exacerbated by rapid population growth are pervasive poverty, a heavy debt burden, high unemployment and underemployment, a decrease in productive land, environmental degradation, and a poor economic performance. The country report considers the relationship between population, economic growth, and sustainable development in terms of the demographic situation and the economic situation. The report provides a history of the development of population policy and population programs in the country. The concerns of the population program are the environment and development, transitional population growth, the population structure, urbanization, migration, the status of women, maternal and child health and family planning (FP), and data collection and analysis. Various components of the implementation of the population program are described including political and national support, the national implementation strategy, the integration of population and development and assessment of integration efforts, responsible parenthood/FP, and the assessment of FP service delivery. Mechanisms for program monitoring and evaluation are presented along with an assessment of program efficiency, and the financial aspects of the program are discussed. After touching on the relevance of the World Population Plan of Action, the report puts forth the national 9-point action plan for the future which has the following goals: 1) to integrate population and development planning; 2) to strengthen the responsible parenthood/FP program; 3) to strengthen population education and the adolescent fertility program; 4) to increase the participation of women; 5) to build capabilities and develop institutions; 6) to decentralize administration; 7) to develop a sustainable financial plan; 8) to increase NGO and people's organization participation; and 9) to develop a reliable data base. The appendices present the demographic, health, and economic indicators for 1960-90 in tabular form and provide an outline of population policies, legislation, and incentives.
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