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  1. 1
    276381

    Civil society, community participation and empowerment in the era of globalization.

    Waring M

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 May. [8] p. (Spotlight No. 1)

    In the early days of the second wave of the women’s movement, we had our own stories of community participatory development. In 1978 we knew of Lois Gibbs and the women of the Love Canal region of New York whose houses were built on twenty thousand tons of toxic waste; the entire neighbourhood was sick. Gibbs identified that men, women, and children in the area suffered from many conditions—cancer, miscarriages, stillbirths, birth defects, and urinary tract diseases. She collected the evidence. Through petitions, public meetings and use of the media, the Love Canal community took on the School Board, the State and Federal governments, and finally the President. They were rehoused and compensated, and left a legacy to the USA in the form of the Environmental Protection Agency. Similarly, the work of Maria Mies and her students in the early 1980s in Cologne introduced us to ‘action research’. Their research involved women across the city in the collection of evidence of domestic violence sufficient to convince the police and city councillors of the urgent need for the first shelters for battered women. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    186931

    Making development organizations accountable: the organizational, political and cognitive contexts.

    Kardam N

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 44-60.

    Most of the development literature considers accountability either as a political or an organizational issue and few consider it as a cognitive issue. All three must be examined in order to acquire a broader understanding of accountability. Accountability has to do with the organizational characteristics (goals, procedures, staffing, incentive systems) of all agencies involved, as well as with the political context, that is, the political commitment of the stakeholders to a project, whether the options of 'exit' and 'voice' are available and whether democratic accountability exists. Finally, accountability cannot be discussed without understanding the 'discourse' underlying a particular policy area, in our case gender policy. How do different stakeholders define 'gender issues'? On what basis should resources be allocated to women? The perceived cause of gender constraints will also determine what solutions are proposed. To what extent is there agreement between different stakeholders on the nature of the issue and the proposed solutions? These are some of the questions we might ask as we explore gendered institutions. Therefore, I will begin by analysing the conditions that limit and promote accountability within these three major categories: the organizational context, the political context and the cognitive context. (excerpt)
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