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Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2008 Sep; 26(3):251-2.Add to my documents.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
Global Society. 2007 Jul; 21(3):393-414.To demonstrate that norms have independent causal power, constructivists de-emphasise material factors related to state interests and highlight social factors. Similarly, they conceptualise international organisations as autonomous from state influence, and focus on cases featuring non-state actors that stimulate a "tipping point" of norm diffusion among states in advance of state sponsorship. By contrast, this article utilises an historical materialist approach that admits both social and material data to examine the contrasting case of population control. It finds that US corporate foundations, eugenist demographers, feminist birth control activists and related NGOs conceptualised and promoted population control in the United States, at the United Nations, and across developing countries. However, the tipping point of norm diffusion occurred only after the United States publicly advocated population control. Indeed, material and social factors were inextricably bound together. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.Population dynamics and reproductive health are central to development and must be an integral part of development planning and poverty reduction strategies. Promoting the goals of the United Nations Conferences, including those of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), is vital for laying the foundation to reduce poverty in many of the poorest countries. At the ICPD in 1994, the international community agreed that US $17 billion would be needed in 2000 and $18.5 billion in 2005 to finance programmes in the area of population dynamics, reproductive health, including family planning, maternal health and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as programmes that address the collection, analysis and dissemination of population data. Two thirds of the required amount would be mobilized by developing countries themselves and one third, $6.1 billion in 2005, was to come from the international community. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):1-4.The UN Population Fund issued its annual State of World Population Report Sept. 15, focusing on progress achieved 10 years after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. It records broad gains in government acceptance of the ICPD Program of Action, and notes significant improvements in the quality and reach of family planning programs, and in the development of safe motherhood and HIV prevention efforts. But inadequate resources, gender bias and gaps in serving the poor and adolescents are undermining further progress, according to the report, The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty. In its review of achievements and constraints nearly half way to the 2015 completion target date, the report examines actions taken across the related areas of population and poverty, environmental protection, migration and urbanization; discrimination against women and girls; and key reproductive health issues including access to contraception, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and the needs of adolescents and people in emergency situations. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2003 Dec; 5(4):13.In recent years, many of the countries in the South have sought to promote South-South cooperation at bilateral and multilateral levels and several organizations of the U.N. system (particularly UNDPA and UNFPA) are giving increasing attention and support to this modality in promoting the global goals of poverty alleviation, empowerment of women and over-all socio-economic development. I believe that South-South cooperation can be particularly effective and cost-efficient in capacity building and program management in those areas where developing countries have acquired significant expertise and development. Population is one of these areas. The Partners in Population and Development (PPD) came into existence during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) as an intergovernmental alliance of nine developing countries that had a record of substantial success in reproductive health/population programs and were committed to sharing with other developing countries their knowledge and experience. It now comprises 19 countries representing 54 per cent of the world population, and its activities form part of the direct follow-up to the ICPD. Partners’ current members are: Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Egypt, The Gambia, India, Indonesia, Jordan Kenya, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. (excerpt)
The USAID population program in Ecuador: a graduation report. [El Programa de USAID para la población de Ecuador aprueba su examen final. Informe]
Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 2001 Oct.  p. (POPTECH Publication No. 2001–031–006; USAID Contract No. HRN–C–00–00–00007–00)For nearly 30 years, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided assistance for population, family planning, and reproductive health programs in Ecuador. Throughout the early years, USAID worked with both private and public sector institutions to establish a broad base for national awareness of and support for family planning and for the introduction of contraceptive services. USAID led all other donors in this sector in terms of financial, technical, and contraceptive commodity assistance. Upon reflection of the accomplishments of the USAID population program during these years and considering its most recent Strategic Objective of “increased use of sustainable family planning and maternal child health services,” it is apparent that the Agency was successful in this endeavor and has adequately provided for the graduation of its local partners, particularly those in the private sector, where USAID had directed the major focus of its assistance over the past decade. During the last and final phase of assistance, 1992–2001, the USAID strategy focused primarily on assuring the financial and institutional sustainability of the two largest local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that provide family planning services. USAID/Ecuador worked in partnership with the Asociación Pro-bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE), which is the Ecuadorian affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the Centro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF)—institutions that provide contraceptive and other reproductive health services. At the same time, in order to assure that the necessary tools were in place for future program monitoring, planning, and evaluation, USAID assistance was provided to the Centro de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo Social (CEPAR). (excerpt)
Population Research and Policy Review. 2004 Feb; 23(1):25-54.Using population assistance data, this study divides donor trends for population assistance into five distinct epochs: until the mid-1960s, the population hysteria of the 1960s and 1970s, Bucharest Conference and beyond, the 1984 Mexico City conference, and the 1990s. A number of decisive events, as well as changing views of the population problem, characterise each period and have affected the sums of population assistance from donor nations. Taking a long-term view of global population assistance, the research shows that four factors account for most of the historical funding trends from primary donors: the association between population assistance and foreign aid, the role of alarmists and doomsayers in the public debate over population issues, individuals in a position of power within donor governments, and decennial international population conferences. (author's)
Integration: International Review of Population and Reproductive Health. 1999 Spring; (59):16-18.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has been providing technical assistance to countries to help them alleviate serious reproductive health and population problems and related issues such as high levels of fertility and maternal and infant mortality, rapid increase of population and persistently high risk of sexually transmitted diseases particularly among the youth. The multidisciplinary technical team called Country Support Team (CST) has made outstanding achievements in technical assistance. Organized and coordinated by UNFPA, CST consists of experts from the regional commissions of the United Nations Tea for Central such as ESCAP and ones from specialized agencies like ILO, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA and UNIFEM. They are hired by these UN agencies but loaned to UNFPA to work as CTS experts. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 113-135.The remarkable originality and achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, have sometimes been disregarded in the years since. Most fair-minded people acknowledge that ICPD succeeded in its main aims. But for those of us who participated in earlier population conferences and in the preparations for Cairo, it can be said to have succeeded beyond our wildest dreams -- in terms of its intent and programmatic content at least. In addition, it helped mobilize the population, health, women's rights and allied communities to shape a broad agenda for the population and related development fields for the next two decades. Of the three international conferences organized by the United Nations to help build world consensus on the need to address population issues, ICPD was by far the most successful, measured by numbers attending, levels and quality of delegates, international media attention, and the quality of the final consensus -- and an important watershed. After long preparation and vigorous debate, more than 180 countries agreed to adopt the 16-chapter ICPD Programme of Action. The 115-page document outlines a 20-year plan to promote sustainable, human-centred development and a stable population, framing the issues with broad principles and specific actions. The Cairo Programme of Action was not simply an updating of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), agreed to at Bucharest and revised at Mexico City, but an entirely fresh and original programme, calling for a major shift in strategies away from demographic goals and towards more individual human welfare and development ones. ICPD was the largest intergovernmental conference on population ever held: 11,000 representatives from governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and intergovernmental agencies participated, 4,000 NGOs held a parallel forum, and there was unprecedented media attention. ICPD was not just a single event, but an entire process culminating in the Cairo meeting. There were six expert group meetings, and regional conferences in Bali, Dakar, Geneva, Amman and Mexico City. There were many formal and informal NGO meetings and three official Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meetings. Other crucial influences came from the 1987 Safe Motherhood Conference, the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, and the 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 95-112.This chapter will seek to review and assess, both globally and nationally, UNFPA's experience thus far in encouraging and building partnerships, analysing and reflecting on some of the successes as well as on the constraints and challenges that exist in broadening partnerships. It will also attempt to explore some specific measures that may be taken to nurture and protect effective partnerships that will endure over time. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2001. xii, 98 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 1999 is the thirteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund's annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries I and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. In light of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and, at the request of the Commission on Population and Development, UNFPA updated its reporting system and began collecting data on domestic resource expenditures in developing countries in addition to data on international population assistance. This report contains information on international assistance from 1990 to 1999 and domestic resource flows to population activities from 1997 to 1999. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2002 Dec; 28(4):707-733.We begin by briefly describing the shift in population policies. We then set out two theoretical frameworks expected to account for national reactions to the new policy: first, the spontaneous spread of new cultural items and the coalescence of a normative consensus about their value, and second, the directed diffusion of cultural items by powerful Western donors. We then describe our data and evaluate its quality. Subsequently, we analyze the responses of national elites in our five study countries to the Cairo agenda in terms of discourse and implementation. In our conclusion, we evaluate these responses in terms of the validity of the two theoretical frameworks. (excerpt)
Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. , 75 p.The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.
Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
The Egyptian NGO platform document, submitted to the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo 5 to 13 September, 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. , 80 p.This document was prepared in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in order to present the consensus of 450 Egyptian nongovernmental organization (NGOs) on the following: 1) the 6 major issues proposed in the draft program of action for ICPD approval (population and sustainable development, population and the environment, enhancing women's role in society, reproductive health, family and health education, and population policies and migration); 2) Egypt's policy in regard to population and development; and 3) the role of Egyptian NGOs in the field of population and development and their vision of the future. In addition, the Egyptian NGO National Steering Committee used this opportunity to organize the NGOs in preparation for co-hosting and participating in the international NGO Forum to be held concurrently with the ICPD; to establish a network for communication, coordination, and consensus building among NGOs operating at the local, provincial, national, and international levels; and to create an organization of Egyptian NGOs which will exist beyond the ICPD. The document concludes with 8 recommendations to governments of developed countries; 5 to international organizations; 19 to the Egyptian government concerning sustainable development, 14 on the role of women in society, 7 on reproductive health and rights, 7 on family education, and 15 on population policies and immigration; and 8 to NGOs.
In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 317-9.Five years after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, the UN met again to review how nations were implementing the ICPD Program of Action in the field of population and development. This process included an International Forum held in The Hague in February 1999, followed by a preparatory committee of the Commission on Population and Development (PrepCom) in March 1999. The process to review the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action was to culminate in a special session of the UN General Assembly in June 1999. Anwarul K. Chowdhury, Bangladesh's Permanent Representative to the UN, who chaired the PrepCom, prepared a draft document, which will serve as a basis for negotiation during the special session. The draft calls on countries to achieve specific benchmarks that were not part of the ICPD Program of Action. These include targets for access to and choice of family planning and contraceptive methods; a decrease in maternal mortality; and a decrease in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The working document also stresses the needs of adolescents and proposes that 20% of reproductive health programs be allocated for adolescents.
[International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Follow-up to the Cairo and Ouagadougou programs of action] Conference Internationale sur la Population et le Developpement (CIPD). Suivi des programmes d'action du Caire et de Ouagadougou.
POP SAHEL. 1999 Dec; (28):33-4.Following the adoption of the program of action of the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, the population policy-related texts and goals of the member states of the Permanent Interstate Committee Against Drought in the Sahel (CILSS) were reviewed and revised in the context of new program priorities with the technical assistance of FNUAP, CERPOD, and Futures Group International’s Policy Project. The Ouagadougou program of action, which replaces the N’Djamena program of action, is a global framework for cooperation and action in the areas of population and sustainable development in the Sahel. It integrates all major concerns of the Cairo, Beijing, and Copenhagen programs of action. Follow-up, evaluation, and coordination of the Ouagadougou program of action’s implementation at the regional level were made CERPOD’s responsibility by the appropriate CILSS ministerial committee, while its implementation at the national level will fall upon the shoulders of individual member countries benefiting from CERPOD and Policy Project technical support. CERPOD’s experience with follow-up activities is described. The organization is also leading research studies relevant to priority concerns outlined in the Cairo and Ouagadougou programs of action. A midterm evaluation of all Cairo and Ouagadougou action programs will be conducted in the year 2002.
Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):33-7.This article on the European response to the challenge of implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) opens by acknowledging that the European Commission (EC) is placing gender and reproductive health on its agenda but that progress has been slow. Next, the article introduces the advocacy groups that seek to promote an enhanced understanding of the population, development, reproductive health paradigm in the EC. The third section considers whether the "new" alliance called for by the ICPD between governments at all levels and nongovernmental organizations is working. One positive example given is the dialogue established between NGOs and the UK All Parliamentary Group on Population, Development, and Reproductive Health. It is noted, however, that more national-level agenda-setting and mobilization are needed to implement the ICPD goals. Next, the article reviews the "old" population/development tension and concerns about the continued existence of demographically-driven, coercive family planning programs and a dearth of development NGOs working with population NGOs. The article explores this problem in the next section and asserts that the population/development tension was not magically dissolved by the ICPD and that neither population nor development NGOs have all the answers but should share resources and engage in more dialogue. The article concludes that continued progress in implementing the ICPD goals will require a careful look at successful partnerships; finding ways to support an exchange of knowledge, views, and experiences; and fostering a working climate of openness.
AL-AHRAM. 1994 Jun 9-15;  p.In January 1994, 215 women attending an international conference on reproductive health and justice held in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) raised concerns about coercive population policies and fertility control measures targeted at women in developing countries. Similar concerns were voiced in Egypt during a 2-day workshop also organized in preparation for the ICPD. While supporters of Egypt's National Program for Family Planning (NPFP) are content with progress, critics expressed concern over the quality of the services offered. Proponents point to the increased prevalence of contraception (from 10% to 50%) in Egypt since the NPFP was founded in the 1960s and credited the increase to the successful introduction of the IUD. Debate arose, however, over whether physicians who insert the device have a monopoly over contraceptive decision-making and are responsible for allowing widespread misconceptions about oral contraception to persist. Workshop participants also debated the NPFP licensing of Norplant implants and injectable contraceptives before these methods achieved international approval and claimed that these methods may not be appropriate in Egypt. One workshop presentation described women's reproductive rights during various stages of the life cycle, and many debates arose about female genital mutilation. Maternal morbidity and mortality were described as major violations of reproductive rights, and participants agreed that health and sex education are vital to improved health practices.
Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1996. viii, 166 p.This document is a pocket edition of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Part 1 of the booklet contains the text of the Programme of Action. Chapter 1 contains the Preamble, and chapter 2 describes the principles upon which the Programme of Action is based. For each of the major headings in the remaining 14 chapters, the basis of action, objectives, and specific actions are presented. Chapter 3 covers the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. Chapter 4 deals with gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The fifth chapter looks at the roles, rights, composition, and structure of the family, and chapter 6 is concerned with population growth and structure. Chapter 7 discusses issues related to reproductive rights and reproductive health, while chapter 8 concentrates on health, morbidity, and mortality. The ninth chapter is devoted to population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration, and chapter 10 focuses on international migration. The relationship of population, development, and education is considered in chapter 11, and research issues are included in chapter 12. Chapters 13-15 relay what is needed in the areas of national action, international cooperation, and partnerships with the nongovernmental sector, respectively, and the final chapter reviews the necessary national, regional, and international follow-up activities. Part 2 of the booklet reproduces the oral and written statements and reservations about the Programme of Action submitted by various countries.
CANADIAN STUDIES IN POPULATION. 1995; 22(2):181-5.A significant achievement of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was the considerable work of consciousness-raising about population and its relationship to other key issues. ICPD participants reached a consensus on a 99-page document, with only a few countries having reservations about only parts of the document. 90% of the text had been agreed upon before ICPD, but the text's sections on abortion were worked out during the conference, thus the issue of abortion received much press coverage. The document stresses in almost every chapter the interrelationships of underdevelopment, poverty, environmental degradation, low status and lack of education among women, and inadequate reproductive and other health services including family planning. It called for the approach to population and development to be fully integrated. ICPD did not discuss population control but the need to address the interrelated factors that, if pursued comprehensively, will likely result in lower fertility. The text dedicates a whole chapter to international migration. Nongovernmental organizations played a key role in the text. The biggest accomplishment of ICPD was the implicit assumption that women, when informed and having the needed services, will tend to make sound and enlightened choices about their fertility that benefit themselves, their family, and society in general. Canadians contributed in a meaningful way to ICPD. Canada had a representative in seven of eight special groups charged to thrash out tough issues. Canadians were largely responsible for guiding consensus on quality's being as important as quantity in family planning programs. They were active in promoting agreement on the concept of reproductive health. Canada is involved in the UN Population Commission, the agency overseeing follow-up to ICPD. Canadian demographers have formed a Contact Group on Population and Development to facilitate their involvement in population and development activities.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. ix, 149 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/152)This UN review covers an appraisal of plans of action for the entire period of 1974-94, due to the expected new Plan of Action to be adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994 in Cairo. Plans of action were adopted at Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico city in 1984. Reviews of plan implementation were conducted in 1979, 1984, and 1989. This review covers the major topics of the Plan of Action and follows the structure of the Program of Action of the 1994 Conference. Chapters 1-9 and 15 focus on socioeconomic development and population, women, the family, population growth and demographic structure, human reproduction, mortality, population distribution, and internal and international migration. Chapters 10 and 11 focus on information, education, and communication, data collection and analyses, research, provision of services, management of program operation, creation of awareness, and evaluation of actions. Chapters 12-14 focus on government, the international community, nongovernmental organizations, scholars, the private sector, and the media. Each topic is presented with a discussion of the following issues: trends, salient issues, significance of issues, actions considered by the Plan of Action, government measures, measures taken by the international community, and an assessment of the implementation of the Plan of Action. The World Population Plan of Action presents principles and objectives that justify action on population issues, guide criteria, and determine the expected results of action. The Plan rejects any form of coercion. Couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children; have responsibility for taking into account the needs of their living and future children; and have responsibilities toward the community.
AFRICAN POPULATION NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jul-Dec; (68):1-2.In June 1995, the Joint United Nations Economic Commission for Africa/OAU/ADB Secretariat, in cooperation with the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), organized a workshop on the implementation of the Dakar/Ngor Declaration and the Cairo Program of Action. Major recommendations from the workshop are summarized. Recommendations were addressed to African governments, African nongovernmental organizations (NGO), and regional and international institutions. Salient recommendations are: African governments should recommence long-term economic and social development planning, they should take steps to ensure the implementation and evaluation of national population programs, and countries should set realistic targets based upon the careful analysis of their demographic and socioeconomic conditions. NGOs should increase their efforts to favor groups with limited access to population programs, develop gender-sensitive approaches, and step up campaigns to remove legal barriers on adolescents' access to reproductive health services.
Population and development. Volume 1. Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
In: International migration policies and the status of female migrants. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants, San Miniato, Italy, 28-31 March 1990, compiled by United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. vii, 100 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/149)The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held in Cairo, Egypt, during September 5-13, 1994. It was the fifth population conference organized under the auspices of the UN. A general debate was held at the ICPD on population and related issues, and their implications for social and economic development, with a program of action ultimately adopted by consensus to guide national and international action on population and development over the next 20 years. This document contains the program of action as well as the oral and written statements and reservations on the program. The program is divided into the following chapters: the preamble; principles; interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women; the family, its roles, rights, composition, and structure; population growth and structure; reproductive rights and reproductive health; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; partnership with the non-governmental sector; and follow-up to the conference.