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Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
Global Society. 2007 Jul; 21(3):393-414.To demonstrate that norms have independent causal power, constructivists de-emphasise material factors related to state interests and highlight social factors. Similarly, they conceptualise international organisations as autonomous from state influence, and focus on cases featuring non-state actors that stimulate a "tipping point" of norm diffusion among states in advance of state sponsorship. By contrast, this article utilises an historical materialist approach that admits both social and material data to examine the contrasting case of population control. It finds that US corporate foundations, eugenist demographers, feminist birth control activists and related NGOs conceptualised and promoted population control in the United States, at the United Nations, and across developing countries. However, the tipping point of norm diffusion occurred only after the United States publicly advocated population control. Indeed, material and social factors were inextricably bound together. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2001. xii, 98 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 1999 is the thirteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund's annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries I and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. In light of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and, at the request of the Commission on Population and Development, UNFPA updated its reporting system and began collecting data on domestic resource expenditures in developing countries in addition to data on international population assistance. This report contains information on international assistance from 1990 to 1999 and domestic resource flows to population activities from 1997 to 1999. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2002 Dec; 28(4):707-733.We begin by briefly describing the shift in population policies. We then set out two theoretical frameworks expected to account for national reactions to the new policy: first, the spontaneous spread of new cultural items and the coalescence of a normative consensus about their value, and second, the directed diffusion of cultural items by powerful Western donors. We then describe our data and evaluate its quality. Subsequently, we analyze the responses of national elites in our five study countries to the Cairo agenda in terms of discourse and implementation. In our conclusion, we evaluate these responses in terms of the validity of the two theoretical frameworks. (excerpt)
The blurred line between aiding progress and sanctioning abuse: United States appropriations, the UNFPA and family planning in the P.R.C.
New York Law School Journal of Human Rights. 2000; 17(3):1063-1104.This note discusses the trend in People's Republic of China programs, international standards of human rights, legislative trends, and the United States budget for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 as they apply to family planning programs. Specifically, this discussion shows why Congress should condition funding of these programs based on assurances of compliance with human rights standards. Part I presents an overview of the P.R.C. programs. Part II reviews internationally accepted standards of human rights concerning reproduction and population control, as well as China's violations of these rights. Part III describes UNFPA funding of the P.R.C.'s programs, emphasizing their latest 4-year program. Part IV discusses the legislative trend since 1985 of limiting or halting funding to the programs, and the current state of the federal budget regarding these appropriations. Part V discusses the global gag rule and the necessity of its removal. Part VI considers recently proposed legislation regarding funding family planning. Finally, the conclusion proposes a possible solution to the family planning dilemma in the face of both the continuing need for assistance and the continued existence of human rights abuses. (excerpt)
FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1994; 10(2):1.During an interview, Dr. Nafis Sadik, the chairman of the upcoming International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, emphasized that each country would be able to determine its own policy. Recommendations of the Programme of Action of the ICPD could be followed based on the needs and conditions of each country without coercion or interference with laws, precepts, culture, or moral codes. Efforts to slow population growth and to achieve sustainable development, which are reinforcing, are the themes of the conference. Goals of the conference include 1) empowerment of women; 2) freedom of choice in family planning; 3) strengthening of family planning and reproductive health programs; 4) reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality; 5) universal completion of primary education, especially for girls; and 6) universal access to family planning information and services. National governmental organizations (NGOs) were involved in preparations for the conference at Precom sessions in New York, where the Programme of Action was drafted with 90% agreement among participants. NGOs will also be important in later implementation and application of the program. In spite of high profile disagreement over a small portion of the draft, there is strong consensus on the need for additional financial resources for population programs. Developing countries now contribute 75% of the funding; the draft recommends an increase in external donor contributions from 25% to 33%.