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Public-private mix for TB care and control. Focus on Africa. Report of the fourth meeting of the Subgroup on Public-Private Mix for TB Care and Control, 12-14 September 2006, Nairobi, Kenya.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Stop TB Department, 2007. 27 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2007.378)The Subgroup on Public-Private Mix for DOTS Expansion (PPM Subgroup) was established by the global Stop TB Partnership's DOTS Expansion Working Group (DEWG) to help promote and facilitate active engagement of all relevant public and private health care providers in TB control. The members of the Subgroup include representatives from the private sector, academia, country TB programme managers, policy-makers, field experts working on the issue, international technical partners and donor agencies. At the first meeting of the Subgroup in November 2002, generic regional and national Public-Private Mix (PPM) strategies were developed and endorsed. The Subgroup's second meeting, which was held at the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia in New Delhi in February 2004, reviewed the growing evidence base emerging from numerous PPM initiatives. This meeting also broadened the scope of PPM to include the involvement of public sector providers not yet linked to national tuberculosis programmes (NTPs). Consequently, PPM has since stood for the engagement of all public and private health care providers through public-private, public-public and private-private collaboration in TB control. The third meeting of the Subgroup, held in Manila in April 2005, identified barriers and enablers for scaling up and sustaining PPM, and discussed how to mainstream PPM into regular TB control planning and implementation. The Subgroup's current fourth meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, in September 2006 had PPM for TB control in Africa as the main focus. The problems related to the HIV epidemic, human resources for health and health sector reforms pose special challenges to countries in Africa. The meeting examined how successful PPM approaches within Africa could be scaled up and how approaches applied in other regions could be adapted to African settings. Based on a global overview, the African experience in diverse country settings and field visits to examine working PPM models and after a great deal of deliberations and discussions, the Subgroup made recommendations which are presented in Section 6 of the report. A large part of the funding for the meeting was provided by USAID's Tuberculosis Control Assistance Program (TB CAP). (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 May 5; 369(9572):1492.Perinatal mortality is one of the least understood areas of maternal and newborn health. Last week, the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) released figures from 2005 showing that perinatal mortality rates (defined as fetal death after 22 weeks' gestation or infant death within 7 days of birth) have not changed since the early 1990s. The same trend applies to many countries in the WHO European region. Maternal risk factors for perinatal mortality are known. Those who are black, Asian, socially deprived, younger than 20 years or older than 40 years are most at risk, and yet the rate of perinatal mortality remains unacceptably high. The CEMACH report blames a lack of knowledge of the causes of death; more than half of the stillbirths they recorded were classified as "unexplained". This ignorance stems from a lack of research-perinatal autopsy rates in the UK decreased from 58% in 1993 to 39% in 2005, and in 2006 there were twice as many research studies published on infant mortality than on perinatal death. (excerpt)
International Breastfeeding Journal. 2006 Dec 12; 1:26.This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry, 2) an integrative research review, and 3) personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults. (author's)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:80-87.The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010. (author's)
Towards the creation of strategic partnerships: improving access to drugs for HIV / AIDS. Report of a consultative meeting, 30 June - 2 July 1997, Salle C, WHO, Geneva.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. 20 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/98.40)From January 1996, the UNAIDS Secretariat has been in consultation with key players in the pharmaceutical industry, NGOs, people living with HIV, UN, major bilateral donors, country representatives and National AIDS Programme Managers on issues relating to access to drugs for HIV/AIDS. This meeting, held on 30 June to 2 July 1997, was the climax of this consultative process. The meeting brought together people living with HIV/AIDS, NGO representatives, National AIDS Programme Managers and UN representatives. With a modified version of the Search Conference approach, the following questions were raised: What are the current and future issues on access to drugs for HIV/AIDS at country and global levels? What partnerships should be created at country level to address these issues? What should be the content of these partnerships at country level? What should the UN do at global and country level to support these partnerships? To foster regional exchange of experience as well as enhance regional specificity, participants were assigned groups on a regional basis. (excerpt)
Investing in people - eliminating poverty - includes related articles on Preparatory Committee's progress report and social development - World Summit for Social Development.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Dec; 31(4): p..A fifth of the world's population live in absolute poverty, earning scarcely 2 per cent of the world's income. The ill-effects of this economic deprivation are often compounded by ethnic tensions and warfare, which can lead to the local displacement of people and large refugee movements. There are some 17 million refugees and 20 million displaced persons in the world today, deprived of home, health and education, their lives and livelihoods destroyed. These people add not to their nations' productivity but to their overall economic burdens. "In the worst of instances, the survival of an entire society or nation is threatened because the essentials of life are beyond the reach of its people", concluded participants in the 46th Annual DPI/NGO Conference. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2): p..Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..Initiated by the Huairou Commission, the local-to-local dialogues represent an innovative global strategy which is grounded in local action. It is a method by which organizations engage in an on-going dialogue with local authorities to forge sustainable development. The Huairou Commission publicized the project through its global networks, GROOTS International, HIC Women and Shelter, International Council of Women (ICW), Women and Peace, Women Environment and Development Organization (WEDO), International women and Cities Network. This was the means by which organizations interested in moving in this direction decided to combine their local efforts with this global initiative. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..Since 1997, the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA) has actively promoted gender equality through its international task force on Women in Local Government. The task force has been addressing the political and professional under representation of women in decision making positions, and has developed both gender mainstreaming, and positive action in local government policy development and service provision. The IULA policy paper and the Worldwide Declaration on Women in Local Government is a result of broad consultations with IULA’s inter governmental and UN partners. In the coming years the Global Programme should result in IULA becoming the worldwide source of key information regarding women in local decision making. The overall programme objective is to promote equal representation of women in local government decision-making and the mainstreaming of gender in local government policy-making and service-provision through awareness raising, training programmes for women officials and production of materials to support the advancement of women. (excerpt)
Pathways. 2004 Oct; 4.The past few months in the Advocacy unit have been busy! We’ve held public forums in Seattle, Washington and Portland, Oregon, organized Advocacy Day on Capitol Hill with the Pathfinder Board of Directors, and continue to expand our newly revamped Advocacy E-Center. As always, our goal is to inform and educate the public debate on international family planning and reproductive health policies and programs. Two of our Pathfinder country representatives — Milka Dinev from Peru and Charles Thube from Kenya — were big hits as the keynote speakers at several public forums in Seattle and Portland. Through unique partnerships with the Sierra Club and Planned Parenthood Federation of America, environmental and domestic reproductive rights activists learned about our programs in Peru and Kenya, and the impact that U.S. policies are having on the delivery of services there. The forums focused on our recent research and participation in “Access Denied: U.S. Restrictions on International Family Planning,” a study of the impact of the global gag rule in several countries around the world. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Aug 20; 366(9486):613-615.The concept of health promotion as a public-health policy is of surprisingly recent vintage. Emerging in the mid-1970s, it was enthusiastically embraced at a 1978 conference sponsored by WHO and UNICEF at Alma Ata, Kazakhstan. There, almost all of the 134 nations represented reaffirmed health as a fundamental human right, and endorsed an ambitious new Declaration of “Health for all by 2000”. The Alma Ata conference is noteworthy for its recognition that health is a societal responsibility, but the great difficulty of providing primary health care to the extremely poor soon became apparent. Although world gross domestic product more than tripled between 1978 ($US 9.1 trillion, $2129 a head) and 2000 (31.5 trillion, $5198 a head), at the turn of the millennium there were still more than a billion people living on less than a dollar a day, with limited or no access to health care, clean water, or sanitation. Gross national income in then low-income countries, which account for 40% of the world’s population, was $430 a year, compared with $26 310 in high-income countries. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2003 Dec; 5(4):13.In recent years, many of the countries in the South have sought to promote South-South cooperation at bilateral and multilateral levels and several organizations of the U.N. system (particularly UNDPA and UNFPA) are giving increasing attention and support to this modality in promoting the global goals of poverty alleviation, empowerment of women and over-all socio-economic development. I believe that South-South cooperation can be particularly effective and cost-efficient in capacity building and program management in those areas where developing countries have acquired significant expertise and development. Population is one of these areas. The Partners in Population and Development (PPD) came into existence during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) as an intergovernmental alliance of nine developing countries that had a record of substantial success in reproductive health/population programs and were committed to sharing with other developing countries their knowledge and experience. It now comprises 19 countries representing 54 per cent of the world population, and its activities form part of the direct follow-up to the ICPD. Partners’ current members are: Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Egypt, The Gambia, India, Indonesia, Jordan Kenya, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. (excerpt)
[Intrafamily violence from the perspective of international conferences: the role of the United Nations] La violencia intrafamiliar desde la perspectiva de las conferencias internacionales: el papel de las Naciones Unidas.
In: Memorias del Encuentro Continental sobre Violencia Intrafamiliar, [compiled by] United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]. Mexico City, Mexico, UNIFEM, 1996. 17-18.The interest and the efforts of the United Nations Organization with regard to the subject of violence and, in particular, intrafamiliar violence has been manifested on very different occasions. The United Nations' Decade for Women (1976-1985) significantly contributed to bring to light the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the issue was debated in 1985 in the Seventh United Nations Conference on Crime Prevention and Treatment of Delinquents. In 1985, the United Nations General Assembly invited the member States to act to prevent violence within the home and suggested measures by which the judicial system could deal with the problem in a just and humanitarian way. (excerpt)
2003-2004 NGO report to UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board on the state of the HIV / AIDS pandemic.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2004. 8 p.It is the responsibility of the non-governmental and PLWHA community-based organizations serving on the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board to be absolutely forthright and frank in our observations on the state of the global AIDS pandemic. The pandemic exists for failure of individuals, communities, states, nations, and international bodies to act soon enough, with seriousness of effort and with application of all means available. A solution is to renew our commitment each day, in every sector of every nation, to fight back with the force of true public-private partnerships, about which we hear so much, but of which we see so remarkably little evidence. The contributions of the most heavily -affected communities are essential to the success of efforts to stop HIV/AIDS where it burns the hottest: in poor and vulnerable communities around the world. But the dollars to support these efforts are languishing in treasury accounts of governments in both North and South. In this report, the five regional NGO/CBO delegates and five alternates of the PCB have put forward the highlights in our regional epidemic issues, progress in coordination of response, and policy recommendations to UNAIDS. It is our intention to provoke debate and to contribute to making this PCB meeting a memorable event, generating renewed vigor, through UNAIDS and member states, in commitment and action to stop AIDS. (excerpt)
Prostitution: a contempory form of slavery - CATW presentation to the United Nations Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery.
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. 1998 May 1;  p..The Coalition is an international non-governmental organization with regional headquarters and networks in Asia, Latin America, North America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. The Coalition works against all practices of sexual violence and exploitation, including but not limited to rape, incest, intimate violence, prostitution, sex trafficking, sex tourism, mail order bride markets, sexual harassment, pornography, involuntary sterilization and childbearing, female genital mutilation, and temporary marriage or marriage of convenience for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The focus of our work is on sexual exploitation, which we define as the sexual violation of a person's human dignity, equality, and physical or mental integrity and as a practice by which some people (primarily men) achieve power and domination over others (primarily women and children) for the purpose of sexual gratification, financial gain, and/or advancement. The Coalition recognizes that, in order to carry out their practices and achieve their goals, sexual exploiters are facilitated by and make use of long standing social hierarchies, especially the domination of men over women, of adults over children, of rich over poor, of racial and ethnic majorities over racial and ethnic minorities, and of and so called "First World "over so-called "Third World" countries. (excerpt)
Global AIDSLink. 2001 Aug-Sep; (69):14, 16.After recognizing the need to include the experiences of all regions, countries and communities addressing the fight against HIV/AIDS, the United Nations embarked on a unique process to include hundreds of NGOs in UNGASS. They instituted a unique accreditation process for this session and then witnessed an unprecedented number of non- ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council) accredited organizations take part in the Special Session. Since most AIDS-focused organizations are not members of ECOSOC, many of these NGOs would have been unable to participate in the UN events under the traditional set of regulations. Nearly a thousand individuals representing a host of NGOs from around the world participated in UNGASS, making this one of the largest events of its type at the UN. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., National Academies Press, 2003. xii, 57 p.The present monograph--on rebuilding the health sector in East Timor following the nation's struggle for independence--is the second in this series. It provides an overview of the state of the health system before, during, and after reconstruction and discusses achievements and failures in the rebuilding process, using an informative case study to draw conclusions for potential improvements to the process in other post-conflict settings. Other topics under consideration in the series include reviews of current knowledge on psychosocial issues, reproductive health, malnutrition, and diarrheal diseases, as well as other case studies. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1998. 87 p. (WHO/TB/98.250)Tuberculosis (TB) is common in many prisons worldwide and treatment is often ill-informed and inadequate. In this perspective, the WHO and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have joined forces to produce guidelines for the control of TB in prisons. This document presents the results of the collaborative effort of WHO and ICRC. The guidelines, based on recent experience, outline the many obstacles to effective diagnosis and treatment and it gives useful guidance as to how to overcome these obstacles. Outlined into three parts, these guidelines are primarily for prison authorities, policy- makers and decision-makers in relevant ministries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and donor agencies, and National TB Program staff. Part I provides background information on TB and prisons, of particular relevance to prison authorities and decision-makers in relevant ministries. Part II provides guidelines for the control of TB in prisons, of particular relevance to prison health staff. Finally, Part III gives guidance to national prison authorities and NGOs on how to establish a prison TB control program.
Asian Forum Newsletter. 2001 Jun-Jul; 9.This article highlights the paper "Legislative Responses to Violence Against Women (VAW)," by Talat Jafri, gender, population and development specialist, UNIFEM. In the paper, Jafri noted that VAW impacts women's health, whether the damage is psychological, physical or, in the extreme scenario, death. Many forms of VAW have serious, sometimes fatal consequences in regards to reproductive health, whether VAW occurs within the family such as domestic violence or within the community in general such as trafficking and forced prostitution. The negative economic impact of globalization and certain cultural practices have been attributed to the occurrence of these criminal acts. In this perspective, the nongovernmental organizations and UN Population Fund have been implementing development programs to address VAW, women trafficking, and other such issues. Moreover, parliamentarians are committed in removing legal, social and cultural barriers that prevent women's full participation in the society. Such commitment includes effort in supporting for legislation, policy making, implementation and resource allocation for women's empowerment to achieve equality and equity and prevention of VAW. Overall, key elements of VAW eradication include research and documentation of causes and results, community commitment and participation, institutional change and partnerships, adequate resources allocation, and pilot programs and evaluation.
FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1995 Sep-Oct; 15(5):2-3.The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) was held in Beijing, China; delegations from 181 countries attended the opening ceremony. Due to illness, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali was unable to attend, and UN undersecretary Ismat Kittani delivered his statement. The speech emphasized the importance of the full and active support of China to the effectiveness of the United Nations as a universal forum; the new partnership between government and non-governmental organizations; and the recognition of the dignity and worth of women and of their essential contribution, on an equal basis with men, to life. The challenge was to harness the energy, ideas, and skills of women in rebuilding war-torn societies and promoting conditions of economic and social development. Chen Mahua, head of the Chinese delegation, was elected president of the FWCW. She urged that the common goals of equality, development, and peace be kept in mind while developing strategy; she reminded participants that the various objectives set forth in the Nairobi strategy had yet to be realized and that women worldwide were facing poverty, starvation, illiteracy, poor health care, and violence; and she expressed hope that participants would put aside differences to unite. Gertrude Mongella, secretary general of the FWCW, described the platform for action as a document for the world and the embodiment of aspirations, hopes, and actions for women. Women, men, and youth would have to work together. Secretary general of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Ingar Brueggemann called for political commitment from the leaders of the world; nongovernmental organizations would have the responsibility to push government for enabling legislation and allocation of resources. IPPF was pleased with the inclusion in the platform of commitments to eliminate discrimination against the girl child and violence against women, particularly marginalized women immigrants, displaced and refugee women, and women in areas of armed conflict.
JOICFP NEWS. 1995 Jun; (252):7.In order to implement the goals set forth in the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in its programs, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) held a meeting of its Ad-hoc Advisory Panel on Gender, Population and Development on April 5 and 6, 1995, in New York. Akiko Domoto, a Member of Parliament in Japan and an activist on women's issues and population, was invited to chair part of the meeting of the 16-member panel, which meets every two years and was established in 1986 to advise UNFPA on policies, strategies, and programs designed to mainstream gender concerns in population activities. The panel is composed of population, gender, and development experts from both developing and developed countries. The meeting was comprised of seven sessions that covered issues such as information, education, and communication (IEC); reproductive health and family planning; and collaboration with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Domoto chaired the session on IEC and centered discussion on how to implement gender in these areas. The result of the meeting was a draft document of recommendations to UNFPA that included suggestions about collecting and analyzing gender-differentiated data, providing information and training to more fully utilize NGOs, and focusing on impacting men's attitudes and behavior in regard to reproductive health, family planning, and gender equality.
CEDPA NETWORK. 1995 Jan; 1-2.The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) that was held in Cairo during September adopted a 20-year Programme of Action endorsing the empowerment of women as the foundation of sustainable development. 178 countries and more than a 1000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), including the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), from 100 countries attended the conference and the parallel NGO forum. The final document sets out specific steps for achievement of universal access to a full range of voluntary, quality family planning and reproductive health services for women and men; provision of services for the special needs of adolescents; closure of the gender gap in education; and empowerment of women via education, health care, and economic options. The CEDPA network of alumnae from 30 countries had worked over the 3 years prior to the conference for the inclusion of women's priorities in policies and to achieve consensus among the government and NGO caucuses. 14 alumnae, including Peggy Curlin (CEDPA President and US delegate), were appointed to their countries' delegations and directly influenced the Programme of Action. The NGO Forum provided a place to exchange experiences and expertise; CEDPA mounted an exhibit, "Empowering Women." The network's theme was "Access, Choice, and Participation." With support from the United Nations Population Fund, CEDPA developed a manual, "After Cairo: A Handbook on Advocacy for Women Leaders," which has been distributed at training sessions and workshops and was translated into French (with support from the US Agency for International Development in Mali) for distribution at the Dakar conference in November in preparation for the World Conference on Women. CEDPA and The Global Committee for Cairo honored the secretary-general of the conference, Dr. Nafis Sadik, for her leadership of the ICPD and UNFPA, and Aziza Hussein, co-chair of the NGO steering committee, at a luncheon; Dr. Sadik received the Global Committee for Cairo Award. Planning the implementation of the Programme of Action has already begun among CEDPA partners and network NGOs. Advocacy networks have already been organized in India and Kenya, with support from CEDPA, to monitor and promote the Programme of Action.
POPULI. 1995 Jan; 22(12):5-7.The Arab Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2005, which will be presented at the September 1995 Beijing Conference, was agreed on by delegates in Amman, Jordan, at the Arab Regional Preparatory Meeting for the Fourth World Conference on Women. The Plan is considered a breakthrough for Arab women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which lobbied for the inclusion of 3 chapters concerned with the environment, violence against women, and communications and media. Priority concerns of Arab women, which are addressed in the Plan, include 1) safeguarding their right to participate in decision-making structures and mechanisms; 2) alleviating their poverty; 3) ensuring equal opportunity at all levels of education; 4) ensuring equal access to health services; 5) strengthening their capabilities to enter the labor market and achieve self-reliance; 6) overcoming the impact on women of war, occupation, and armed conflict, and ensuring their participation in peace negotiations; 7) ensuring their participation in natural resource management and environmental protection; and 8) eliminating violence against women, and effectively utilizing communications channels to bring about changes in women's roles in society and to achieve equality between the sexes. The meeting also called for a follow-up meeting to be held prior to the Beijing Conference and made a declaration of solidarity with Algerian women who are the victims of political violence. The declaration met with some opposition from the Sudanese. Although the role of Islamic fundamentalists in the violence against women was acknowledged, Islam was emphasized as a religion of love, openness, and moderation. The meeting, which was organized by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, the League of Arab States, and the Center for Arab Women for Training and Research, was attended by NGOs, experts, officials, and government delegations from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Sudan, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.