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Lancet. 2004; 364:1801-1813.Major advances have been made during the past decade in the way the international community responds to the health and nutrition consequences of complex emergencies. The public health and clinical response to diseases of acute epidemic potential has improved, especially in camps. Case-fatality rates for severely malnourished children have plummeted because of better protocols and products. Renewed focus is required on the major causes of death in conflict-affected societies—particularly acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, neonatal causes, and malnutrition—outside camps and often across regions and even political boundaries. In emergencies in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly southern Africa, HIV/AIDS is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Stronger coordination, increased accountability, and a more strategic positioning of non-governmental organisations and UN agencies are crucial to achieving lower maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates in complex emergencies and therefore for reaching the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. (author's)
Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. , 75 p.The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
Lancet. 2000 Jul 8; 356(9224):144.This article reports the efforts of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative in controlling malaria deaths worldwide. It is shown that the RBM partnership meeting could substantially decrease malaria morbidity and mortality and may bring broader health benefits. Although RBM has been criticized for its narrow focus, Richard Allan of WHO believes that strengthening surveillance, vector control, diagnostic services, and treatment protocols will reinforce emergency health systems. The RBM strategy involves nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that work in emergencies with WHO and the RBM inter-agency technical support network. Overall, it is noted that agencies clearly identified the need for WHO to provide improved standardized advice and information, technical assistance on the ground, and training for field staff. Furthermore, expansions of technical support network and field courses for NGO staff are also key initiatives planned.
European Population Conference. Proceedings. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland. Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. 429 p.This volume contains country statements and statements by international and nongovernmental organizations for the 1993 European Population Conference that was jointly organized by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECC), the Council of Europe (CE), and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The conference aimed to review, examine, and analyze key population-related issues in the region's countries, to evaluate the implementation of population-related policies, and to prepare a set of recommendations on key population-related issues and policies. The five conference priorities were international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation in the field of population. Conference attendants included representatives from European countries, Argentina, Australia, Egypt, the Holy See, Japan, New Zealand, UN agencies, and 61 nongovernmental organizations. European countries and the world face the challenges of population growth, population impact on the environment, unsustainable modes of production and consumption, and human survival. Countries are inextricably linked, and international cooperation and solidarity are necessary. Developing countries, with the highest rates of population growth, are faced with generating adequate levels of sustainable economic and social development and with devoting sufficient resources to enable demographic transition. Europe's challenges include international migration and continuation of support in development and population programs for countries undergoing political and economic transition. Old national and ethnic rivalries have surfaced and now facilitate armed conflicts and serious political crises. Changes have occurred in fertility, the status of women, and the family. AIDS and drug abuse are causes for concern. This volume identifies 15 recommendations.
Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1996. viii, 166 p.This document is a pocket edition of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Part 1 of the booklet contains the text of the Programme of Action. Chapter 1 contains the Preamble, and chapter 2 describes the principles upon which the Programme of Action is based. For each of the major headings in the remaining 14 chapters, the basis of action, objectives, and specific actions are presented. Chapter 3 covers the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development. Chapter 4 deals with gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The fifth chapter looks at the roles, rights, composition, and structure of the family, and chapter 6 is concerned with population growth and structure. Chapter 7 discusses issues related to reproductive rights and reproductive health, while chapter 8 concentrates on health, morbidity, and mortality. The ninth chapter is devoted to population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration, and chapter 10 focuses on international migration. The relationship of population, development, and education is considered in chapter 11, and research issues are included in chapter 12. Chapters 13-15 relay what is needed in the areas of national action, international cooperation, and partnerships with the nongovernmental sector, respectively, and the final chapter reviews the necessary national, regional, and international follow-up activities. Part 2 of the booklet reproduces the oral and written statements and reservations about the Programme of Action submitted by various countries.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. ix, 149 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/152)This UN review covers an appraisal of plans of action for the entire period of 1974-94, due to the expected new Plan of Action to be adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994 in Cairo. Plans of action were adopted at Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico city in 1984. Reviews of plan implementation were conducted in 1979, 1984, and 1989. This review covers the major topics of the Plan of Action and follows the structure of the Program of Action of the 1994 Conference. Chapters 1-9 and 15 focus on socioeconomic development and population, women, the family, population growth and demographic structure, human reproduction, mortality, population distribution, and internal and international migration. Chapters 10 and 11 focus on information, education, and communication, data collection and analyses, research, provision of services, management of program operation, creation of awareness, and evaluation of actions. Chapters 12-14 focus on government, the international community, nongovernmental organizations, scholars, the private sector, and the media. Each topic is presented with a discussion of the following issues: trends, salient issues, significance of issues, actions considered by the Plan of Action, government measures, measures taken by the international community, and an assessment of the implementation of the Plan of Action. The World Population Plan of Action presents principles and objectives that justify action on population issues, guide criteria, and determine the expected results of action. The Plan rejects any form of coercion. Couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children; have responsibility for taking into account the needs of their living and future children; and have responsibilities toward the community.
Population and development. Volume 1. Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
In: International migration policies and the status of female migrants. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants, San Miniato, Italy, 28-31 March 1990, compiled by United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. vii, 100 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/149)The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held in Cairo, Egypt, during September 5-13, 1994. It was the fifth population conference organized under the auspices of the UN. A general debate was held at the ICPD on population and related issues, and their implications for social and economic development, with a program of action ultimately adopted by consensus to guide national and international action on population and development over the next 20 years. This document contains the program of action as well as the oral and written statements and reservations on the program. The program is divided into the following chapters: the preamble; principles; interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women; the family, its roles, rights, composition, and structure; population growth and structure; reproductive rights and reproductive health; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; partnership with the non-governmental sector; and follow-up to the conference.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. xiii, 730 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 2)This inventory contains information about externally-assisted population projects and programs in developing countries which were funded, initiated, or implemented by international organizations in 1993. The description of individual country programs begins with demographic facts, which were gleaned, in general, from the UN Population Division's "World Population Prospects: The 1992 Revisions. For the most part, the demographic data apply to 1990. In addition to Population Division data, facts are provided for each country on agricultural population density (per hectare of arable land) and the gross national product per capita. Country descriptions continue with a table of population policy indicators (population growth, fertility level, contraceptive usage, mortality, spatial distribution, internal migration, immigration, and emigration). Projects are then listed for each country according to the source of assistance: multilateral, from the UN system; bilateral, which involves direct assistance from individual governments or their agencies; regional, which includes all organizations located and operational only within a specific geographic area; and nongovernmental or other, such as universities, research or training institutes, and corporations. Assistance is defined to include grants, loans, technical and operational support, training, and provision of equipment and supplies. Listings of research projects are based on an assessment of the value of the information for the donor community and the governments of developing countries. Dollar values are indicated, when possible. Information for regional (involving assistance to several countries within a given region under one program), interregional (activities in specific countries located in more than one geographical region), and global (not limited to specific countries, groups of countries, or regions) programs is organized similarly, but no population policy indicators are given. The inventory ends with a list of addresses and an index.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.