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Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies: Strategic framework 2011-2015. In support of the Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive. 2nd ed.
[New York, New York], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2012.  p.We are at a turning point for delivering on the promise to end child and maternal mortality and improve health -- marked by bold new commitments. This strategic framework supports one such commitment, the 'Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive'. It offers guidance for preventing HIV infections and unintended pregnancies -- both essential strategies for improving maternal and child health, and eliminating new paediatric HIV infections. This framework should be used in conjunction with other related guidance that together address all four prongs of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This document focuses on strengthening rights-based polices and programming within health services and the community.
Finnish Official Development Aid for sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research. 2010; 45:143-170.Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP), Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Väestoliitto) engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finland's total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009), mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.
Development. 2010; 53(2):267-273.Successive post-independence governments have embraced women's empowerment in one form or another, either because of their own ideological positioning, or because of demands by their 'donor friends/partners' and/or organized domestic groups and NGOs. What has emerged is a varied landscape on women's rights and empowerment work comprising the state bureaucracy, multilateral and bilateral agencies, NGOs, and women's rights organizations, with their accompanying discourses. In the Ghanaian context, Nana Akua Anyidoho and Takyiwaa Manuh look at what the discourses of empowerment highlight, ignore or occlude, the convergences and divergences among them, and how they speak to or accord with the lived realities of the majority of Ghanaian women. Given that the policy landscape in Ghana is highly influenced by donors, they ask which discourses dominate, and how are they used for improving women's lives in ways that are meaningful to them.
Regional report on the implementation of the UNICEF guidelines for the protection of the rights of child victims of trafficking in South Eastern Europe: Assessment of the situation in Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
[Geneva, Switzerland], Terre des Hommes, . 115 p.Trafficking in human beings still remains a major human rights violation affecting South Eastern Europe. Although many efforts have been made and progress achieved in combating trafficking throughout Europe in general, and South Eastern Europe in particular, human beings are still victims of trafficking and children, as a particularly vulnerable group, represent an important proportion of the persons being trafficked.
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52. Addendum 1: International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Feb 27. 435 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1)The present report contains a detailed review of international, regional and national developments and best practices for ways and means of combating violence against women over the period 1994-2003. The report is not fully comprehensive, some regions or countries may have been reported on in greater detail than others, reflecting the information that was available to the Special Rapporteur. In order to provide a systematic analysis of global developments, the Special Rapporteur requested information on efforts to eliminate violence against women, its causes and consequences, from Governments, specialized agencies, United Nations organs and bodies, and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and academics. The Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude to all who kindly provided information, which contributed significantly in the preparation of her report. (excerpt)
Global Society. 2007 Jul; 21(3):393-414.To demonstrate that norms have independent causal power, constructivists de-emphasise material factors related to state interests and highlight social factors. Similarly, they conceptualise international organisations as autonomous from state influence, and focus on cases featuring non-state actors that stimulate a "tipping point" of norm diffusion among states in advance of state sponsorship. By contrast, this article utilises an historical materialist approach that admits both social and material data to examine the contrasting case of population control. It finds that US corporate foundations, eugenist demographers, feminist birth control activists and related NGOs conceptualised and promoted population control in the United States, at the United Nations, and across developing countries. However, the tipping point of norm diffusion occurred only after the United States publicly advocated population control. Indeed, material and social factors were inextricably bound together. (author's)
Human Rights Dialogue. 2003 Fall; (10):14-15.Historically, the popular understanding of torture has helped to maintain a gender-biased image of the torture victim: it is the male who pervades the political and public sphere and thus it is the male who is likely to be targeted by state violence and repression. Such an image, however, neglects women's experiences as victims and survivors of torture. Until recently, women's human rights organizations often did not pursue women's issues within the framework of the mainstream human rights treaties but instead concentrated on CEDAW. While this tendency is logical--CEDAW is an important and effective instrument for ensuring specifically women's rights--it is equally important to draw on the strengths of other human rights tools. (excerpt)
ARROWs for Change. 2004; 10(2):1-2.The 2004 global and regional roundtables reviewing and monitoring progress of the Cairo Programme of Action (POA) implementation concluded that this document remains a critical comprehensive UN document which outlines an agenda and framework linking human rights principles with population and development, poverty eradication, social justice, gender equality, women's empowerment, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and NGO participation. Ten years into the POA, progress in implementation in the Asia-Pacific region remains poor. ARROW's eight-country regional monitoring study revealed that one million women have died unnecessarily in childbirth, pregnancy and unsafe abortion since Cairo. Only China has attained the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. Nationally, the ICPD POA has not yet been clearly institutionalised in national development frameworks like women's development, health, population and in poverty. Although there has been significant progress in theregion in the area of violence against women and the creation of national machineries like ministries and commissions, women are still not able to exercise control over their reproductive and sexual lives due to the following barriers. (excerpt)
International Breastfeeding Journal. 2006 Dec 12; 1:26.This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry, 2) an integrative research review, and 3) personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults. (author's)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:80-87.The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010. (author's)
Proposal for the 2006 UNGA resolution on the rights of the Child-- text on violence against children.
Geneva, Switzerland, NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2006 Oct 2. 4 p.The resolution should be used to ensure that States endorse the SG's Report and its recommendations (both the overarching and the setting-specific ones) and commit to its full implementation. The UNGA resolution needs to highlight and reinforce States' obligations to prohibit and condemn all forms of violence against children, including all corporal punishment, traditional practices and sexual violence. The resolution should establish the mandate of a Special Representative on Violence against Children for 4 years, to ensure systematic follow-up to the Study and to work with relevant UN agencies, special mechanisms, NGOs and civil society, children and others to prevent and eliminate violence against children. The resolution should call for voluntary contributions from governments to support the core costs of a small but functional secretariat. Voluntary contributions should ideally come from a wide range of countries, especially from those which have been involved throughout the Study process and hosted national and regional consultations and follow-up. North-South and East-West ownership needs to continue in order to ensure that VAC is recognized as a global problem and therefore addressed and tackled everywhere. Voluntary contributions can range in size. (excerpt)
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region [WHR], 2002 May 15.  p.On April 3, 2002, Steven Sinding, director-general designate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, delivered a speech to the Commission on Population and Development in New York. The speech summarizes priorities for evaluating progress made in the implementation of the Program of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Developement in Cairo in 1994. I am making this statement today as director-general designate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the world's leading voluntary family planning organization. IPPF and its member associations are committed to promoting the right of women and men to decide freely the number, timing, and spacing of their children and the right to the highest possible level of sexual and reproductive health. Founded in 1952, it is a federation linking autonomous national Family Planning Associations working in more than 180 countries around the world, initiating, promoting and providing sexual and reproductive health and rights-based services. Celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, IPPF is proud to have an opportunity to address this meeting of the Commission on Population and Development (CPD). (excerpt)
Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 2003 Dec 31; 9(4): p..Different international legal agreements have been arrived at by nations to deal with the global problem of discrimination against women, the most important of which is the Convention on the Elmination of All Eorms of Discrimination against Women (the Women's Convention). This paper discusses the importance of the Optional Protocol to the Women's Convention for Asian women, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1999. It provides for an individual complaint procedure against violations of women's rights and allows the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) to conduct special investigations into violations of women's rights. Asian countries have been very slow to ratify the Protocol. Many Asian women are not aware of the potential gains and protection that could come from international human rights law for women. To benefit from the Optional Protocol, women's groups and NGOs in Asia would have to promote the idea of individual complaints against their own governments through education and publicity. Their support to individual women to pursue their cases at the international level is deemed indispensable. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2): p..Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
Harvard International Review. 2005 Winter; 26(4):32-35.Part of every well-intentional dollar you send to a war-torn, underdeveloped country is funding the sport utility vehicle of a recent college graduate and the rest is perpetuating an ethnic war that is at the source of the famine you want to help fight. Even though this is a blatant exaggeration, it is one that holds an essential truth. Although humanitarian aid brings much needed short-term relief in moments of crisis, it often does more harm than good because of its lack of realistic planning. Unfortunately, the business of aid is rarely criticized for its tragic shortcomings because of the widespread favorable public opinion it enjoys. Under the guise of charity and responsibility, humanitarian aid is often the only type of foreign intervention that public opinion easily endorses. However, the provision of humanitarian aid should not be viewed simply as a success and used to absolve the guilt of the affluent international community that provides it. On the contrary, the necessity for urgent humanitarian assistance indicates the failure to act early and prevent the tragic circumstances that often lead to crises. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, International Council of AIDS Service Organizations [ICASO], 1998 Jun. 16 p.Over the past few years, the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) and its component networks and organizations have undertaken a process to determine how best to highlight human rights activities within the work it does on HIV/AIDS. This process included the ICASO Inter-Regional Consultation on Human Rights, Social Equity and HIV/AIDS, which was held in Toronto, Canada, in March 1998. This consultation constituted the first ever international meeting specifically focussing on HIV/AIDS and human rights, social equity and community networking issues. The plan described in this document is an important milestone in this process. It is part of ICASO’s ongoing efforts to provide a framework that will be useful in the work of community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. The consultation also formally endorsed the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Participants to the Consultation believe that the Guidelines provide a platform for the development of activities and initiatives, including advocacy education. Community-based organizations (CBOs) would need to prioritize and select specific issues they feel are critical to their efforts in prevention of HIV/AIDS, and in the care and support of those living and affected by HIV/AIDS. Section 2.0 of the document describes the links between human rights and HIV/AIDS. Section 3.0 outlines a framework for the work ICASO will be doing over the next several years in the area of human rights, social equity and HIV/AIDS. The framework consists of guiding principles, role statements, goals, objectives, activities and structures. The framework has been prepared primarily from a global perspective. Finally, Section 4.0 contains work-plans from three of the five regions of ICASO (Asia/Pacific, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean) showing how human rights issues will be incorporated into their work. (excerpt)
International Studies Quarterly. 2003 Jun; 47(2):247-274.How, why, and under what conditions are NGOs able to influence state's interests? To answer these questions, I examine the process through which women's organizations succeeded in placing front and center on the UN agenda two issues that had been perceived as exclusively private: violence against women and reproductive rights and health. I develop a theoretical framework drawing on both the agenda-setting and social movement literature. I suggest that NGOs attempt to influence states interests by framing problems, solutions, and justifications for political action. Whether they are successful in mobilizing support is contingent on the dynamic interaction of primarily two factors: ((1)) the political opportunity structure in which NGOs are embedded, comprising access to institutions, the presence of influential allies, and changes in political alignments and conflicts; and ((2)) the mobilizing structures that NGOs have at their disposal, including organizational entrepreneurs, a heterogenous international constituency, and experts. I find that in the beginning of the agenda-setting process, the influence of NGOs is rather limited, their frames are highly contested, and structural obstacles outweigh organizational resources. However, over time the influence of NGOs increases. As they establish their own mobilizing structures, they become capable of altering the political opportunity structure in their favor, and their frames gain in acceptance and legitimacy. (author's)
Development. 2005; 48(1):126-128.If current world trends do not change, the attainment of the millennium development goals (MDGs) will be seriously compromised. During the last decades, priority has been given to economic and commercial globalization, while little is done towards the vitally important issue of globalizing sustainable human development. Nuria Molina argues for institutional mechanisms to ensure greater global social justice, adjusting social imbalances worldwide and guaranteeing a more ethical functioning of the world’s economy. (author's)
Development. 2005; 48(1):115-121.Miquel de Paladella Salord discusses civil society’s concerns that the millennium development goals (MDGs) risk undermining the ability of the poor and marginalized and their communities to defend their fundamental human rights. He proposes that the MDGs offer an important opportunity to mobilize development actors from governments to grassroots organizations. (author's)
Human Rights Quarterly. 2004; 26:873-878.Leonard S. Rubenstein offers a thoughtful response to my article on how international monitoring and advocacy organizations that use a methodology of public shaming can best advance economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights. His article makes three basic points. First, he notes that such organizations can make useful contributions beyond exposing government misconduct and subjecting it to public opprobrium. Namely, he suggests that they can provide technical assistance to governments on implementing ESC rights and help with capacity building for national or local NGOs that seek such rights. Second, he contends that such international organizations need not be as concerned with advocating tradeoffs among competing ESC rights because fears of limited resources— a “zero-sum game”—are overblown. Third, he disagrees with my perceived preference for condemning “arbitrary” government conduct to the exclusion of violations of particular ESC rights. On the first point, I largely agree with him. On the second, I regretfully suspect he has an overly sanguine view of the problem. And on the third, I fear he has misunderstood me. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. Prepared for the 4th Meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, August 23-25, 2004. 5 p.To shed light on the different ways a human rights based approach (HRBA) is understood, this paper draws on the statements made by the UN system, and selected UN agencies, donor governments and international NGOs on how they define HRBAs and how they use them in their work. Because the UN and bilateral donor assistance agencies work under the broad umbrella of development, attention to “human rights based approaches” to development are also explored. The focus is however on how HRBAs are defined, and how they affect (or not) HIV/AIDS programming, and not on development policies per se. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 May.  p. (Spotlight No. 1)In the early days of the second wave of the women’s movement, we had our own stories of community participatory development. In 1978 we knew of Lois Gibbs and the women of the Love Canal region of New York whose houses were built on twenty thousand tons of toxic waste; the entire neighbourhood was sick. Gibbs identified that men, women, and children in the area suffered from many conditions—cancer, miscarriages, stillbirths, birth defects, and urinary tract diseases. She collected the evidence. Through petitions, public meetings and use of the media, the Love Canal community took on the School Board, the State and Federal governments, and finally the President. They were rehoused and compensated, and left a legacy to the USA in the form of the Environmental Protection Agency. Similarly, the work of Maria Mies and her students in the early 1980s in Cologne introduced us to ‘action research’. Their research involved women across the city in the collection of evidence of domestic violence sufficient to convince the police and city councillors of the urgent need for the first shelters for battered women. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2002 Oct; (15):10-11.Wilmot Wungko, a former Liberian refugee, spoke on behalf of millions of children around the world caught up in wars not of their making. Addressing the UN Security Council in a special meeting on children and armed conflict in May 2002, he articulated the need for greater support for children of war – and the particular case of refugee and displaced children. Children make up approximately half of the world’s estimated 38 million refugees and IDPs. Children, including adolescents, are the most vulnerable populations in situations of armed conflict. In the past decade over two million children have been killed in wars and another five million have been wounded or disabled. Twenty million children have been forced from their homes, including seven million who have become refugees in another country. Because of war, entire generations of children grow up without ever seeing the inside of a schoolroom and without receiving proper nutrition or vaccinations. Other children are recruited to be combatants and become witnesses to and forced perpetrators of extreme violence. (excerpt)
Expert group meeting: "Application of Human Rights to Reproductive and Sexual Health". Recommendations.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 9 p.In 1996, in Glen Cove, New York, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in collaboration with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (then, Center for Human Rights) and the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) organized a meeting on “Human rights approaches to women’s health, with a focus on sexual and reproductive health and rights”. The purpose was to contribute to the work of the treaty bodies in interpreting and applying human rights standards to issues relating to women’s health and to encourage collaboration in the development of methodologies and indicators for use by both treaty bodies and the UN agencies to promote, implement and monitor women’s human right to health, in particular reproductive and sexual health. It was also designed to provide an opportunity for the human rights treaty bodies to consider the gender dimensions of human rights from the perspective of their respective treaties and to take account of the conclusions of recent United Nations conferences in the treaty monitoring process. This meeting was the first occasion on which members of the six treaty bodies met to focus on the interpretation and application of human rights in relation to a specific thematic issue. Five years later, in 2001, the UNFPA and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights organized a follow-up meeting in Geneva, 25-27 June, to assess progress, obstacles and opportunities in integrating reproductive rights into the work of the treaty bodies and to elaborate further measures and strategies to be used by treaty bodies in the monitoring and strengthening of reproductive and sexual health. The meeting defined actions and recommendations to ensure better implementation of treaty obligations at domestic level so as to promote and ensure enjoyment by women and men of reproductive and sexual health. The purpose of the meeting was to consider how to make The meeting was to consider how to make the monitoring work of the treaty bodies more effective in assisting States Parties to give full effect to their treaty obligations and in particular those which are relevant to women’s rights, including their right to reproductive and sexual health. It affirmed that to the vast majority of women in the world, the issues dealt with over the three days are central to their well-being and to their full and equal enjoyment of human rights. Many of the risks to women’s sexual and reproductive health are caused by failure to respect the full equality of women, by attitudes and by practices which reinforce women’s subordinate status. Issues such as forced marriage, early pregnancy, sexual violence, trafficking, female genital mutilation, and others, have negative consequences for sexual and reproductive health. (excerpt)
In: Women and civil war. Impact, organizations, and action, edited by Krishna Kumar. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 165-181.This chapter examines women's organizations in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina. It describes their emergence, activities, and programs and the changes in their activities over time. It then assesses the impact of these organizations in addressing gender issues associated with the conflict. Finally, it discusses the nature of assistance provided to them by the international community and the areas of tension between them. The chapter is based largely on the information obtained during interviews conducted by the author with the leaders and staff of women's organizations, staffs of international organizations, representatives of the donor agencies that support women's organizations, and a cross section of Bosnian women. Five organizations were selected as case studies to illustrate different activities and the types of development and expansion that have taken place in the past few years. (excerpt)