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Finnish Official Development Aid for sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research. 2010; 45:143-170.Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP), Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Väestoliitto) engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finland's total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009), mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
Global Society. 2007 Jul; 21(3):393-414.To demonstrate that norms have independent causal power, constructivists de-emphasise material factors related to state interests and highlight social factors. Similarly, they conceptualise international organisations as autonomous from state influence, and focus on cases featuring non-state actors that stimulate a "tipping point" of norm diffusion among states in advance of state sponsorship. By contrast, this article utilises an historical materialist approach that admits both social and material data to examine the contrasting case of population control. It finds that US corporate foundations, eugenist demographers, feminist birth control activists and related NGOs conceptualised and promoted population control in the United States, at the United Nations, and across developing countries. However, the tipping point of norm diffusion occurred only after the United States publicly advocated population control. Indeed, material and social factors were inextricably bound together. (author's)
Lancet. 2007 May 5; 369(9572):1492.Perinatal mortality is one of the least understood areas of maternal and newborn health. Last week, the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) released figures from 2005 showing that perinatal mortality rates (defined as fetal death after 22 weeks' gestation or infant death within 7 days of birth) have not changed since the early 1990s. The same trend applies to many countries in the WHO European region. Maternal risk factors for perinatal mortality are known. Those who are black, Asian, socially deprived, younger than 20 years or older than 40 years are most at risk, and yet the rate of perinatal mortality remains unacceptably high. The CEMACH report blames a lack of knowledge of the causes of death; more than half of the stillbirths they recorded were classified as "unexplained". This ignorance stems from a lack of research-perinatal autopsy rates in the UK decreased from 58% in 1993 to 39% in 2005, and in 2006 there were twice as many research studies published on infant mortality than on perinatal death. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003.  p. (E/750/2003)Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2001 is intended to be a tool for donor and developing country Governments, multilateral organizations and agencies, private foundations and NGOs to monitor progress in achieving the financial resource targets agreed to at the ICPD. Development cooperation officers and policy makers in developing countries can use the report to identify the domestically generated resources and complementary resources from donors needed to finance population and reproductive health programmes. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2004 Aug 28; 364:742-744.In May, 2004, the 57th World Health Assembly endorsed WHO’s first strategy to accelerate progress toward reproductive health. All countries, except the USA, joined the consensus on the strategy, noting that achieving reproductive health for all is essential to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The strategy recommends action in five key areas: strengthening health-system capacity; improving information for setting priorities; mobilising political will; creating supportive legislative and regulatory frameworks; and strengthening monitoring, evaluation, and accountability. Although action on all five fronts is needed, we believe mobilising political will, including organising broad constituencies to support agendas for action and to hold governments accountable, is the prerequisite for success in the other four areas. (excerpt)
Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. , 75 p.The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
The blurred line between aiding progress and sanctioning abuse: United States appropriations, the UNFPA and family planning in the P.R.C.
New York Law School Journal of Human Rights. 2000; 17(3):1063-1104.This note discusses the trend in People's Republic of China programs, international standards of human rights, legislative trends, and the United States budget for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 as they apply to family planning programs. Specifically, this discussion shows why Congress should condition funding of these programs based on assurances of compliance with human rights standards. Part I presents an overview of the P.R.C. programs. Part II reviews internationally accepted standards of human rights concerning reproduction and population control, as well as China's violations of these rights. Part III describes UNFPA funding of the P.R.C.'s programs, emphasizing their latest 4-year program. Part IV discusses the legislative trend since 1985 of limiting or halting funding to the programs, and the current state of the federal budget regarding these appropriations. Part V discusses the global gag rule and the necessity of its removal. Part VI considers recently proposed legislation regarding funding family planning. Finally, the conclusion proposes a possible solution to the family planning dilemma in the face of both the continuing need for assistance and the continued existence of human rights abuses. (excerpt)
[Washington, D.C.], AED, 1999. , 11 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00007-00)This paper highlights the role of the LINKAGES Project in the promotion of improved breast-feeding and related complementary feeding, and maternal practices. The program is achieved through community-based activities, advocacy in national and global fora, collaborative activities with private and voluntary organization partners and cooperating agencies, and dissemination of quality technical information. The report also outlines the activities in one region and 10 countries in Africa. Their list of programs includes integration of breast-feeding into the various agencies, health ministries, reproductive health services, and refugee health programs. Aside from country program activities, LINKAGES also operates at the global level. It is performed through policy dialogue, participation in international conferences, research of broad interest to program managers, information dissemination, and collaboration with international partners. Furthermore, technical support is provided to integrate innovative approaches into their programs, strengthen staff capacity, and incorporating up-to-date technical information into their materials and training programs. They also collaborate with organizations working in child survival, reproductive health, and emergency response.
IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Oct; (5):1.Male awareness, involvement and responsibility are crucial for the well being and development of women. In most societies men still exercise a great deal of power, whether as policy makers in government or as decision makers within families. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 went further than any previous UN meeting in promoting gender quality and urging men's participation in making it a reality. Chapter 4 of the ICPD Programme of Action calls on governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to encourage and enable men to take responsibility for their sexual and reproductive behavior and for their social and family roles in order to ease the burden on women. It also urges increased efforts to involve men in family planning and responsible parenthood. (full text)
JOICFP NEWS. 1995 Jun; (252):7.In order to implement the goals set forth in the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in its programs, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) held a meeting of its Ad-hoc Advisory Panel on Gender, Population and Development on April 5 and 6, 1995, in New York. Akiko Domoto, a Member of Parliament in Japan and an activist on women's issues and population, was invited to chair part of the meeting of the 16-member panel, which meets every two years and was established in 1986 to advise UNFPA on policies, strategies, and programs designed to mainstream gender concerns in population activities. The panel is composed of population, gender, and development experts from both developing and developed countries. The meeting was comprised of seven sessions that covered issues such as information, education, and communication (IEC); reproductive health and family planning; and collaboration with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Domoto chaired the session on IEC and centered discussion on how to implement gender in these areas. The result of the meeting was a draft document of recommendations to UNFPA that included suggestions about collecting and analyzing gender-differentiated data, providing information and training to more fully utilize NGOs, and focusing on impacting men's attitudes and behavior in regard to reproductive health, family planning, and gender equality.
IPPF OPEN FILE. 1994 Apr; 1.The third preparatory committee (PrepCom III) for the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development will be held in New York during April 4-22. Nongovernmental organization (NGO) representatives will take the opportunity to lobby and brief government delegates on draft documents at this final such meeting before the conference convenes in September. Preparations thus far point to an increasing international recognition of individual needs. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) hopes PrepCom III will ensure that this recognition is reflected in the final recommendations to the conference and that government delegates work with NGOs to provide an appropriate framework for Cairo. A variety of IPPF and FPA staff will take part in the government and NGO forums, with IPPF Secretary General Halfdan Mahler addressing the opening session. On April 5, Dr. Mahler will release the new IPPF report on adolescent sexuality, Understanding Adolescents, highlighting the negative consequences of ignoring the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people. Programs need to treat young people with respect and dignity. The report profiles some programs which have been successful in locales around the world. IPPF hopes to convince decision makers that their political and financial commitment is needed to secure the health and well-being of today's and tomorrow's young people. Another report on the unmet need for family planning services among marginalized populations in Uganda, El Salvador, Ghana, Palestine, and the Philippines will be presented at a reception hosted by Dr. Sai and Dr. Mahler.