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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Effect of an armed conflict on human resources and health systems in Cote d'Ivoire: Prevention of and care for people with HIV/AIDS.

    Betsi NA; Koudou BG; Cisse G; Tschannen AB; Pignol AM

    AIDS Care. 2006 May; 18(4):356-365.

    In September 2002, an armed conflict erupted in Cote d'Ivoire which has since divided the country in the government-held south and the remaining territory controlled by the 'Forces Armees des Forces Nouvelles' (FAFN). There is concern that conflict-related population movements, breakdown of health systems and food insecurity could significantly increase the incidence of HIV infections and other sexually-transmitted infections, and hence jeopardize the country's ability to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Our objective was to assess and quantify the effect this conflict had on human resources and health systems that provide the backbone for prevention, treatment and care associated with HIV/AIDS. We obtained data through a questionnaire survey targeted at key informants in 24 urban settings in central, north and west Cote d'Ivoire and reviewed relevant Ministry of Health (MoH) records. We found significant reductions of health staff in the public and private sector along with a collapse of the health system and other public infrastructures, interruption of condom distribution and lack of antiretrovirals. On the other hand, there was a significant increase of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), some of which claim a partial involvement in the combat with HIV/AIDS. The analysis shows the need that these NGOs, in concert with regional and international organizations and United Nations agencies, carry forward HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, which ought to be continued through the post-conflict stage and then expanded to comprehensive preventive care, particularly antiretroviral treatment. (author's)
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  2. 2

    At ICPD+10 mark, UNFPA intensifies efforts to promote RH commodity security. [Approchant le dixième anniversaire de la CIPD, le FNUAP intensifie ses efforts pour promouvoir la sécurité de la santé de la reproduction]

    Abrams T

    Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):13.

    As the 10th anniversary of the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) approaches, there has been no letup in the UN Population Fund’s efforts to promote reproductive health commodity security around the world. Indeed, the Fund is actually intensifying its activities in this sector, leaving the distinct impression that it is all part of a coordinated and continuing response to the Program of Action of the September 1994 conference, and to the ICPD+5 update by the UN General Assembly in 1999. The impression would be neither casual nor accidental, because UNFPA is acting as the lead international agency that is trying to facilitate the creation and implementation of government strategies to meet the growing need for quality contraceptives, essential drugs and other reproductive health commodities. Special attention is also being devoted to assess future condom needs for HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) is accepted as assured in those countries where the strategy has been successfully integrated into the national health program. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Operational principles for good pharmaceutical procurement.

    Rankin J; Quick JD; Muziki S; Woldeyesus K; Fresle DA

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy Interagency Pharmaceutical Coordination Group, 1999. [22] p. (WHO/EDM/PAR/99.5)

    The aim of this document is to improve pharmaceutical procurement practices in countries served by the IPC members. These operational principles for good pharmaceutical procurement are not meant to regulate activities of international agencies, sovereign governments or private companies. They are presented strictly as a set of principles which can be reviewed and adapted by individual governments and public or private organizations in the process of developing their own internal procurement procedures. These objectives and principles are published by WHO’s Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM) on behalf of the IPC, after an extensive review by experts from international agencies, governments, the pharmaceutical industry, essential drugs supply agencies and universities. Pharmaceutical procurement occurs in many contexts. Although the operational principles presented here are in many respects applicable to all procurement settings and for most types of procurement situations, their primary target is pharmaceutical procurement for public sector health systems. It is recognized that public sector procurement may be managed in a variety of ways, ranging from total in-house systems, through various autonomous or semi-autonomous procurement agencies, to total privatization. These principles are applicable to each of those variations. The document is composed of four chapters. Chapter 1 consists of a brief problem statement which illustrates the need for improvements in procurement practices. Chapter 2 presents the four strategic objectives of pharmaceutical procurement which apply to any health system, whether it is public or private. Chapter 3 presents twelve operational principles for good pharmaceutical procurement, grouped into four categories (management; selection and quantification; financing and competition; supplier selection and quality assurance). Chapter 4 gives more information on the practical implementation of the twelve principles and some useful information on mechanisms to further improve the performance of the procurement system. A section of references and further reading is also included. (excerpt)
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