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Interdependent. 2006 Summer; 4(2):23-26.Nam Phund, who is only 11, begins her work day at 3 am when the night's harvest of shrimp arrives, hours before dawn breaks over the Gulf of Thailand. That's when 13-year-old Fa goes to work, too. She doesn't know exactly how long she works, peeling shrimp for a seafood processing factory, but she says the day has come and gone and the sky is dark again when she goes home. Fa and Nam Phund can't tell time. They can't read. They are among the tens of thousands of migrant workers from Myanmar who have fled the political repression and economic meltdown of a country once known as Burma, and they are not entitled to an education in Thailand. Instead, they work beside their mothers, or alone, on their feet for 14 hours a day or more. The stories of migrant workers in Thailand would not be unfamiliar to Americans, because many of the factors that have brought poor Asians here, often in family groups, are similar to the conditions that propel Mexicans and others to cross the southern United States border. Prosperous Thailand is a magnet, drawing the poor and hopeless from neighboring Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar. The booming Thai seafood processing industry needs workers and will pay brokers--many of them no more than illegal traffickers--to find that labor. The reservoir is large. The migrants are willing to do the work Thais no longer want, in the fishing industry, in homes, agriculture and restaurants. Cambodians, in particular, are often turned into beggars on Bangkok streets, under the control of begging syndicates. (excerpt)
World Health. 1998 Nov-Dec; 51(6):30.The private sector has an important role to play in the global, regional and national response to AIDS. It is in the private sector's own interest to actively combat the expanding epidemic because it affects employees, customers and others in their communities. By working in partnership with the public and nongovernmental sectors, companies can help to make their efforts more effective and bring benefits to all parties concerned. UNAIDS, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, is well aware that the fight against AIDS cannot succeed without a broad-based effort involving all members of society, including the private sector. An important part of the mission of UNAIDS is therefore to promote and brokers partnerships among the public, private and nongovernmental sectors of society that can help create a more coordinated, effective and sustainable response to HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Towards the creation of strategic partnerships: improving access to drugs for HIV / AIDS. Report of a consultative meeting, 30 June - 2 July 1997, Salle C, WHO, Geneva.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. 20 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/98.40)From January 1996, the UNAIDS Secretariat has been in consultation with key players in the pharmaceutical industry, NGOs, people living with HIV, UN, major bilateral donors, country representatives and National AIDS Programme Managers on issues relating to access to drugs for HIV/AIDS. This meeting, held on 30 June to 2 July 1997, was the climax of this consultative process. The meeting brought together people living with HIV/AIDS, NGO representatives, National AIDS Programme Managers and UN representatives. With a modified version of the Search Conference approach, the following questions were raised: What are the current and future issues on access to drugs for HIV/AIDS at country and global levels? What partnerships should be created at country level to address these issues? What should be the content of these partnerships at country level? What should the UN do at global and country level to support these partnerships? To foster regional exchange of experience as well as enhance regional specificity, participants were assigned groups on a regional basis. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 May; (23):48-49.The conceptual apparatus in forced migration and population resettlement research is being continuously enriched. One important – but still relatively unknown – development was introduced recently into the resettlement policies of the World Bank, African Development Bank and Asian Development Bank. This new thinking is set out in the revised (January 2002) World Bank Operational Policy (OP) 4.12 on resettlement. This significantly defines the ‘restricting of access’ to indigenous and other people in parks and protected areas as ‘involuntary displacement’ even when physical displacement and relocation are not required. The justifying rationale is that restrictions impose impoverishment risks and these risks lead to severe deprivations. Significantly, this new definition has come from major international agencies themselves involved in instituting ‘restricted access’ regimes. As the definition has been adopted, the world’s major development agencies have moved towards policy consensus that restricted access is a form of displacement. (excerpt)
Development. 2005; 48(1):126-128.If current world trends do not change, the attainment of the millennium development goals (MDGs) will be seriously compromised. During the last decades, priority has been given to economic and commercial globalization, while little is done towards the vitally important issue of globalizing sustainable human development. Nuria Molina argues for institutional mechanisms to ensure greater global social justice, adjusting social imbalances worldwide and guaranteeing a more ethical functioning of the world’s economy. (author's)
Development. 2005; 48(1):30-34.Despite the skepticism and questioning of many civil society groups about the millennium development goals (MDGs), Bharati Sadasivam argues that the conversation on the MDGs has the potential to be one of the most rewarding interactions between the UN and civil society, provided both sides rise to the challenge they pose to each other. (author's)
Africa Insight. 2002 Dec; 32(4):21-27.It is against this background that I attempt in this paper to ascertain the influence of globalisation on social values, focusing specifically on the human rights non-government organisations in Nigeria. In other words, this study seeks to establish a relation- ship between globalisation and the phenomenal growth of human rights NGOs in the past 15 years in Nigeria. The study makes use of a combination of documentary and questionnaire methods in describing a sample of 14 human rights NGOs in Nigeria. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1994. , 9 p.Commonly known as the World Bank, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was conceived in July 1944 at the UN Monetary and Financial Conference held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, US, with the goal of promoting economic development which benefits poor people in developing countries. As of July 1994, the IBRD had 178 member countries. The World Bank is the largest single source of external funding for health, as well as for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in developing countries. Working together with other UN agencies. bilateral donors, and nongovernmental organizations, the bank makes credits and loans available to developing country governments for a broad array of health projects. Providing support for such projects is a central element of the bank's efforts to reduce poverty and its consequences. In 1993, the bank lent $1.8 billion for 25 health, nutrition, and population projects. By the end of fiscal 1994, it will have lent more than $500 million for HIV/AIDS prevention in developing countries. Funds for HIV/AIDS prevention support program management, training, education and communication programs, surveillance, research, supplies, and drug procurement and information. Free-standing AIDS projects, HIV/AIDS work in social sector projects, the Sahel and southeast Asia regional initiatives, the bank's work with nongovernmental organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention and care, health and structural adjustment, and the economic impact of AIDS are discussed.
In: Women and education in sub-Saharan Africa: power, opportunities, and constraints, edited by Marianne Bloch, Josephine A. Beoku-Betts, B. Robert Tabachnick. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998. 25-46. (Women and Change in the Developing World)This document, the second chapter in a book on women and education in sub-Saharan Africa, traces the evolution of various agents of national development to reveal their positions and areas of convergence and divergence. First, consideration of feminist scholarship traces its evolution from a concern with the economic condition of women, explicated via varying perspectives, to a current broader emphasis on how the patriarchy oppresses women in most societies, which represents an important convergence of feminist perspectives. Second, the analysis of evolution within states is supported by tables on years of schooling by age, sex, and region that illustrate the educational disparities suffered by women in Africa where feminist theories have not affected the patriarchal nature of the states. Third, examination of the evolution within international development agencies shows a similar lack of influence of feminist theory as the agencies decide which programs to support and how to view women (as mothers). This neglect even occurs in progressive donor agencies, is supported by a concern with efficiency before equity, and is especially problematic in light of the adverse effect of the current African economic crisis on women. Fourth, an overview of the work of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) indicates that they are the most productive in the provision of emancipatory education for women but operate under close state scrutiny with limited funds. Progressive donor agencies and increased female political participation will be key to bridging the gap between feminist NGOs and states.
JOURNAL OF FAMILY WELFARE. 1994 Dec; 40(4):16-21.In her address to the inaugural session of the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the First Lady of Egypt described our world as one which has both positive and negative aspects. She referred to advances in technology, environmental degradation, economic development, changes in social systems, a crisis in values, political trends toward greater democratization, urbanization, and population growth. She considered it essential to understand the changes in the world in order to appreciate how these forces determine the quality of life for humans. She pointed out that NGOs have always served a number of important functions and were among the first to recognize population issues and the important role of women. In Egypt, NGOs began work as early as 1930 and have played an important role in the delivery of family planning services. The challenge which faces NGOs is to work within the value system of a given society to stimulate and motivate that society towards necessary change. The First Lady pointed to increases in levels of education but lamented the shortfalls in literacy which still exist. She also decried the poverty of education that causes young girls and women to suffer by being valued less than their male counterparts. Despite all of these problems, she expressed her belief that the world community will attain its goal of stabilizing population through the multifaceted approach being forwarded by the ICPD.