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AIDSLINK. 1997 May-Jun; (45):13.AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia.
[Unpublished] 1990 Oct. iii, 29 p.This summary provides key background information for the design and development of a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) project in Venezuela. The country situation is described by providing a map; graphs illustrating population growth, age structure, total fertility rate, and infant mortality rate; the demographic characteristics of the population; the social situation; and leading economic indicators and factors. The population/family planning (FP) environment is then described in terms of the national population policy and goals, the legal and regulatory environment, the media, other international donor agencies and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of population, and the commercial contraceptive market. Available data are then presented on contraceptive usage by methods, the most available methods in the country, discontinuation, abortion, maternal age, needs, desired family size, and contraceptive awareness. The summary lists the following implications for project design from the point of view of the consumer: 1) the most recent data (1977) indicated an unmet need for FP, but more recent data must be obtained to access current demand; 2) more data are needed on the benefits and barriers to oral contraceptive and condom use; 3) data are needed on current use rates, sources of supply, and knowledge of correct use of oral contraceptives (OCs); 4) a significant target population exists for OCs and condoms; 5) marketing strategies should influence women to use modern contraceptives instead of abortion to limit family size. Project implications resulting from the market situation are that 1) despite the fact that commercial distribution networks within urban centers (83% of the population) are well-developed, contraceptives are not widely available at the retail level and are expensive; 2) obstacles to the commercial contraceptive industry exist at the importer, retailer, and consumer levels; and 3) most homes have radios and televisions, but all advertising must be government-approved, and the government has never approved contraceptive advertising. Appended to this document are charts showing 1) fertility rates by region, 2) urban and rural population growth, 3) an analysis of the urban population, 4) the incidence of abortion among current contraceptive users, 5) an analysis of the female population of reproductive age, 6) the age breakdown of women who desire no more children, 7) the contraceptive method used by women who desire no more children, and 8) desired family size.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. xiii, 730 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 2)This inventory contains information about externally-assisted population projects and programs in developing countries which were funded, initiated, or implemented by international organizations in 1993. The description of individual country programs begins with demographic facts, which were gleaned, in general, from the UN Population Division's "World Population Prospects: The 1992 Revisions. For the most part, the demographic data apply to 1990. In addition to Population Division data, facts are provided for each country on agricultural population density (per hectare of arable land) and the gross national product per capita. Country descriptions continue with a table of population policy indicators (population growth, fertility level, contraceptive usage, mortality, spatial distribution, internal migration, immigration, and emigration). Projects are then listed for each country according to the source of assistance: multilateral, from the UN system; bilateral, which involves direct assistance from individual governments or their agencies; regional, which includes all organizations located and operational only within a specific geographic area; and nongovernmental or other, such as universities, research or training institutes, and corporations. Assistance is defined to include grants, loans, technical and operational support, training, and provision of equipment and supplies. Listings of research projects are based on an assessment of the value of the information for the donor community and the governments of developing countries. Dollar values are indicated, when possible. Information for regional (involving assistance to several countries within a given region under one program), interregional (activities in specific countries located in more than one geographical region), and global (not limited to specific countries, groups of countries, or regions) programs is organized similarly, but no population policy indicators are given. The inventory ends with a list of addresses and an index.