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  1. 1
    119141

    Culture and changing images of HIV / AIDS in Vietnam.

    Kelly P

    In: Resource material on HIV / AIDS in Vietnam, [compiled by] Care International in Vietnam. Hanoi, Viet Nam, CARE International in Vietnam, [1995]. 58-65.

    Although acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is relatively new to Viet Nam, socioeconomic realities such as increasing urbanization, demand for commercial sex, low condom use, injecting dug use, and expanded transportation movements presage a future epidemic unless immediate steps are taken. Viet Nam's National AIDS Committee, established in 1989, targets commercial sex workers, sexually transmitted disease clients, injecting drug users, youth, and blood donors. Problematic have been the government's designation of prostitution and drug addiction as "social evils" and the tendency to view AIDS as a foreign disease rather than one related to specific behaviors of the Vietnamese people. CARE Viet Nam has developed a model of the cycle of AIDS-related culture, values, attitudes, and behaviors. The values of paternalism must be replaced by empowerment-related values, including self-reliance, compassion, and honesty. The hegemonic views that women must be submissive and passively accept men's behavior and that it is men's nature to have sex with multiple partners can be modified through IEC. A televised soap opera serial being developed by CARE Viet Nam seeks to catalyze such change in AIDS-related attitudes and behaviors.
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  2. 2
    084436

    Secondary research review for Venezuela.

    Cisek C

    [Unpublished] 1990 Oct. iii, 29 p.

    This summary provides key background information for the design and development of a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) project in Venezuela. The country situation is described by providing a map; graphs illustrating population growth, age structure, total fertility rate, and infant mortality rate; the demographic characteristics of the population; the social situation; and leading economic indicators and factors. The population/family planning (FP) environment is then described in terms of the national population policy and goals, the legal and regulatory environment, the media, other international donor agencies and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of population, and the commercial contraceptive market. Available data are then presented on contraceptive usage by methods, the most available methods in the country, discontinuation, abortion, maternal age, needs, desired family size, and contraceptive awareness. The summary lists the following implications for project design from the point of view of the consumer: 1) the most recent data (1977) indicated an unmet need for FP, but more recent data must be obtained to access current demand; 2) more data are needed on the benefits and barriers to oral contraceptive and condom use; 3) data are needed on current use rates, sources of supply, and knowledge of correct use of oral contraceptives (OCs); 4) a significant target population exists for OCs and condoms; 5) marketing strategies should influence women to use modern contraceptives instead of abortion to limit family size. Project implications resulting from the market situation are that 1) despite the fact that commercial distribution networks within urban centers (83% of the population) are well-developed, contraceptives are not widely available at the retail level and are expensive; 2) obstacles to the commercial contraceptive industry exist at the importer, retailer, and consumer levels; and 3) most homes have radios and televisions, but all advertising must be government-approved, and the government has never approved contraceptive advertising. Appended to this document are charts showing 1) fertility rates by region, 2) urban and rural population growth, 3) an analysis of the urban population, 4) the incidence of abortion among current contraceptive users, 5) an analysis of the female population of reproductive age, 6) the age breakdown of women who desire no more children, 7) the contraceptive method used by women who desire no more children, and 8) desired family size.
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