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Your search found 75 Results

  1. 1
    337643

    The Global Gag Rule and fights over funding UNFPA: The issues that won't go away.

    Barot S; Cohen SA

    Guttmacher Policy Review. 2015 Spring; 18(2):27-33.

    The U.S. overseas program for family planning and reproductive health has been under attack from policymakers who are antiabortion and increasingly anti-family planning. The two most notorious of these attacks are the blocking of U.S. funding for the United Nations Population Fund and the enforcement of the global gag rule, which prohibits aid to foreign nongovernmental organizations that engage in abortion services or advocacy with non-U.S. funds. In an ongoing counterproductive cycle, these restrictions have come in and out of effect depending on the political party in power -- a struggle that is expected to heat up again with a socially conservative Congress.
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  2. 2
    354913
    Peer Reviewed

    Building capacities and producing citizens: The biopolitics of HIV prevention in Brazil.

    de la Dehesa R; Mukherjea A

    Contemporary Politics. 2012 Jun; 18(2):186-199.

    Capacity-building has become a mainstay of many AIDS and public health programmes. This article examines its impact on civil society organisations and claims-making around citizenship, as these have been articulated through heterogeneous policy networks doing HIV prevention work. Drawing on a growing literature on the Foucauldian notions of biopower and governmentality, the genealogy of capacity-building as a globalised technology of governmentality is traced, examining its uses both at the international level and in Brazil. Brazilian civil society organisations have undoubtedly been transformed by their participation in networks carrying out capacity-building projects. While recognising these effects, the conflicts and productive tensions inherent to such networks are highlighted.
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  3. 3
    325152

    Achieving contraceptive security in El Salvador.

    John Snow [JSI]. DELIVER

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2004 Nov. [4] p. (On Track)

    El Salvador has already reached several important milestones in its efforts to achieve contraceptive security-the guarantee that all people who wish to use contraceptives can choose, obtain, and use them at all times. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Salvadoran Ministry of Health (MOH) has recently worked to expand people's access to contraceptives, particularly through community-based distribution. It has also helped to improve product management in health facilities by training service providers and by implementing a contraceptive logistics management information system. El Salvador's next challenge on the pathway to contraceptive security is to become financially self-sufficient in procuring reproductive health commodities. USAID is progressively phasing out its contraceptive donations to the country, and is providing technical assistance to guarantee that the MOH will be able to accurately forecast contraceptive demand and manage its own budget for meeting that demand. (author's)
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  4. 4
    320602

    Constructing population control: Social and material factors in norm emergence and diffusion.

    Landolt LK

    Global Society. 2007 Jul; 21(3):393-414.

    To demonstrate that norms have independent causal power, constructivists de-emphasise material factors related to state interests and highlight social factors. Similarly, they conceptualise international organisations as autonomous from state influence, and focus on cases featuring non-state actors that stimulate a "tipping point" of norm diffusion among states in advance of state sponsorship. By contrast, this article utilises an historical materialist approach that admits both social and material data to examine the contrasting case of population control. It finds that US corporate foundations, eugenist demographers, feminist birth control activists and related NGOs conceptualised and promoted population control in the United States, at the United Nations, and across developing countries. However, the tipping point of norm diffusion occurred only after the United States publicly advocated population control. Indeed, material and social factors were inextricably bound together. (author's)
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  5. 5
    316420

    Defining perinatal mortality [editorial]

    Lancet. 2007 May 5; 369(9572):1492.

    Perinatal mortality is one of the least understood areas of maternal and newborn health. Last week, the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) released figures from 2005 showing that perinatal mortality rates (defined as fetal death after 22 weeks' gestation or infant death within 7 days of birth) have not changed since the early 1990s. The same trend applies to many countries in the WHO European region. Maternal risk factors for perinatal mortality are known. Those who are black, Asian, socially deprived, younger than 20 years or older than 40 years are most at risk, and yet the rate of perinatal mortality remains unacceptably high. The CEMACH report blames a lack of knowledge of the causes of death; more than half of the stillbirths they recorded were classified as "unexplained". This ignorance stems from a lack of research-perinatal autopsy rates in the UK decreased from 58% in 1993 to 39% in 2005, and in 2006 there were twice as many research studies published on infant mortality than on perinatal death. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    315687

    Medical organizations support condom use.

    Alford S

    Washington, D.C., Advocates for Youth, 2005. [2] p. (Issues at a Glance)

    Clinical considerations for the pediatrician: Help ensure that all adolescents have knowledge of and access to contraception, including barrier methods and emergency contraception supplies. Pediatricians should actively support and encourage the use of reliable contraception and condoms by adolescents who are sexually active or contemplating sexual activity. In the interest of public health, restrictions and barriers to condom availability should be removed. Schools are an appropriate site for the availability of condoms in a community program because they contain large adolescent populations. Health professionals have an obligation to provide the best possible care to respond to the needs of their adolescent patients. This care should, at a minimum, include comprehensive reproductive health services, such as sexuality education, counseling...[and] access to contraceptives. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    312818

    Gender, human rights and socioeconomic impact of AIDS in Brazil.

    de Oliveira RM

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:80-87.

    The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010. (author's)
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  8. 8
    311654

    Second generation female condom available [letter]

    Nakari T

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2006 Nov; 14(28):179.

    The female condom has been on the market for over ten years but despite a clear need it has not yet been adopted for wider use. In 2005 only 14 million female condoms were distributed compared to 6-9 billion male condoms around the world. However, studies in many countries have shown that the female condom is well accepted among both women and men, and that there is demand for it. One of the problems in achieving its widespread distribution in national programmes has been its cost. In an effort to address the problem of cost, the Female Health Company has developed a second generation female condom, FC2. This new version of the female condom has similar physical characteristics to the original female condom but is made of synthetic nitrile utilising a manufacturing process which allows greater efficiencies, particularly at higher volumes. The new device has been shown in studies to be equivalent to the original female condom and has the potential for wider acceptability and utilisation since it is expected to be more affordable for individuals and programmes. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    309779

    Colombia: Offering expertise to a sister organization in Ethiopia, Part 2.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2001 Sep; (9):[2] p..

    Representatives from the Asociación Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Colombiana (PROFAMILIA) in Colombia visited the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) in the second half of a technical assistance exchange project. FGAE is expanding its institutional focus from family planning to sexual and reproductive health with a special emphasis on young people. Representatives from the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) and the IPPF Africa Regional Office visited PROFAMILIA/Colombia in March 2001 to see PROFAMILIA's youth programs and services first-hand. The exchange was the first half of a technical assistance project that is funded by the IPPF "i3" Youth Program (Innovate, Indicate, Inform). IPPF/WHR had identified PROFAMILIA as a "best practices" FPA which could offer its expertise in developing youth programs to the FPA in Ethiopia. Zhenja, the IPPF/WHR Communications Manager, was there to facilitate the visit and identify needs for technical assistance. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    309776

    Belize: Efficient services with a human face.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2001 Jul; (6):[2] p..

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region staff visited Belize in June 2001 to work with the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) on sustainability and management aspects of its strategic plan for sexual and reproductive health care. The slogan they developed was Efficient Services with a Human Face." IPPF/WHR Senior Program Advisors Lucella and Humberto were in Belize in June 2001 to work with IPPF/WHR's affiliate there, the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA), on the sustainability and management aspects of its strategic plan. BFLA recently received a grant from the Summit Foundation to construct a new headquarters that will allow for expanded services. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    309775

    Guatemala: Orienting affiliates on the design and implementation of a state-of-the-art management system.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2001 Jun; (5):[2] p..

    A three-person team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region conducted a training workshop in Guatemala for several affiliates on the design and implementation of the Integrated Management System and also received feedback on the system. A three-person team from IPPF/WHR recently conducted a training workshop in Antigua, Guatemala for several IPPF/WHR affiliates on the design and implementation of the highly anticipated Integrated Management System (IMS). The workshop was an opportunity both to orient the participants to the new system as well as to get their feedback on the IMS and the extent to which it meets their needs. WHR team members included Leslie, Director of MIS, María Cristina, Regional Supplies Officer, and Rupal, Evaluation Officer. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    309774

    Trinidad and Guyana: Increasing sustainability by expanding services in the Caribbean.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2001 May; (4):[2] p..

    A team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region traveled to Trinidad to conduct a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten affiliates who have programs on HIV prevention and youth. Then they went to Guyana to provide technical assistance and training for a sustainability model. Lucella, IPPF/WHR's Senior Program Advisor for the Caribbean, was recently in Trinidad as a member of a team conducting a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten IPPF/WHR affiliates. The following week she traveled to Guyana with another team from WHR, one that provided training in the use of the S2000ä Financial Model, a cash flow forecasting tool developed by the EFS (Endowment Fund for Sustainability). (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    309773

    Colombia: Offering expertise to a sister organization in Ethiopia, Part 1.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2001 Apr; (3):[2] p..

    Representatives from the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Regional Office visited the Asociación Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Colombiana (PROFAMILIA) in March 2001 to see PROFAMILIA's youth programs and services. The exchange was the first half of a technical assistance project; PROFAMILIA was identified as a "best practices" organization that could offer its expertise to FGAE. Representatives from PROFAMILIA/Colombia visited the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) in August 2001 for the second half of a technical assistance exchange project. The project, which in March 2001 allowed for FGAE representatives to visit Colombia, is funded by the IPPF "i3" Youth Program (Innovate, Indicate, Inform). FGAE is expanding its institutional focus from family planning to sexual and reproductive health with a special emphasis on young people. PROFAMILIA was identified as a "best practices" organization to provide technical assistance on youth programs. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    309772

    Haiti: Development of management and logistics resources to improve quality of care.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2001 Apr; (2):[2] p..

    A four-person team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region visited Haiti to provide technical assistance, focusing on project management and reporting, logistics and budgeting. A four-person team from IPPF/WHR was in Haiti on March 4th - 9th to work with two of the country's largest family planning organizations, PROFAMIL and FOSREF. Team members included Eva, a Program Advisor and resource development specialist; Rebecca, an Evaluation Officer; María Cristina, the Regional Supplies Officer; and Marcos, a Financial Advisor. IPPF/WHR monitors PROFAMIL's IPPF Vision 2000 Project to improve quality of care and increase access to SRH services. On this technical assistance visit, the IPPF/WHR team focused on project management and reporting, logistics, and budgeting. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    309766

    Ecuador: Building a health center dedicated to Ecuadorian youth.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2002 Jul; (14):[2] p..

    Alejandra, senior program officer, and Rebecca, evaluation officer, traveled to Ecuador in June 2002 to monitor the implementation of two adolescent projects funded by the Hewlett and Turner foundations. We spent the first two days of our trip in Guayaquil, where IPPF/WHR's affiliate, APROFE, has its main offices and clinics. This organization has begun providing services tailored to the needs of youth for the first time. Their idea was to build a separate space for youth with funds from the Hewlett Foundation to allow the clients to have access to health care providers who are specially trained to meet their needs as young people. It will also provide them with greater privacy. Unfortunately, there have been some construction delays for the new youth center. APROFE is therefore providing youth services in a section of the main clinic's office which has been refurbished as a youth clinic. I was struck by how friendly and colorful the office looked. There were lots of posters and signs painted by the youth. We also saw the blueprints for the youth center, which APROFE hopes to have completed by December. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    309765

    Haiti: Improving proposal writing and evaluation skills in Haiti.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2002 Feb; (13):[2] p..

    Several NGOs and government agencies, including IPPF/WHR's affiliate PROFAMIL, are working hard to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of women, men, and youth in Haiti. Recently, IPPF/WHR has sought to support these efforts by strengthening the capacity of PROFAMIL and other agencies to develop and implement results-oriented projects that can become sustainable. A four-person team from IPPF/WHR traveled to Haiti in January 2002 to conduct a project design and proposal writing workshop with representatives from several local NGOs, including PROFAMIL, FOSREF, VDH, UNFPA, and the ministries of Health and Education. Participants came armed with statistics and other information on a specific problem that their organization would like to address, as well as intervention ideas. First, participants developed conceptual models for their project ideas; then they wrote actual proposals to seek funding. Participants used tools, such as a conceptual model and a logical framework, to assist them in the project design and proposal-writing process, with a particular emphasis on integrating monitoring and evaluation plans into their proposed interventions. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    303289

    NGO perspectives on access to HIV-related drugs in 13 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. 32 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/98.25)

    The aim of this document is to point out the most important ways in which NGOs concerned with HIV/ AIDS and with the persons who have this infection in Latin America and the Caribbean help facilitate access to HIV-related drugs. During the XIth Conference on AIDS, the slogan "No greed, access to all!" was heard. The immediate reason was that the new AIDS drugs, the protease inhibitors, had a high price. This does not, of course, mean that access to all other AIDS-related drugs was easy. It was not, and it is not, especially for persons in developing countries. Thus, although lack of access to AIDS-related drugs is an old subject in developing countries, this topic aroused renewed interest when it affected developed countries. Access to treatment has become a global issue and has given rise to a new phase of global solidarity. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    297793

    The evaluation of UNESCO Brazil's contribution to the Brazilian AIDS Programme: final report. [Evaluación del aporte de UNESCO Brasil al programa brasileño de lucha contra el SIDA: informe final]

    Stern E

    Brasilia, Brazil, UNESCO, 2005 Jul. [140] p. (BR/2005/PI/H/19)

    This report focuses on the evaluation of the AIDS II programme, as implemented by the UNESCO office in Brazil. The AIDS epidemic has been addressed with particular vigour in Brazil, which is widely recognised as a country that has developed a distinctive and successful model of policy coordination and implementation with regard to HIV/AIDS. In addition to substantial national investment, Brazil has enjoyed co-financing from international sources especially the World Bank. In the course of three programmes - AIDS I (1994-1998), AIDS II (1998-2003) and AIDS III (2003-2007) - the World Bank committed some $365 million, matching a Brazilian Treasury contribution of $325 million. AIDS II with a total resource of $300 million is the largest of these programmes. Since the mid-1990s the UNESCO office in Brazil has grown in terms of funds managed - from some $4.5 million to $108.0 million in 2004, and in staff and activities. The overwhelming proportion of budgetary growth has come from 'extra-budgetary' resources. These are mainly Technical Cooperation agreements with the Brazilian government and with international bodies such as the World Bank. UNESCO was the 'implementing agency' along with UNODC for the AIDS II programme since its launch in 1998. In 2002, the Executive Board of UNESCO accepted a recommendation in an earlier evaluation of UNESCO programmes in Brazil2 that the AIDS II activities of UNESCO be evaluated. This evaluation was subsequently commissioned by the Brasilia office of UNESCO. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    297609

    Responses to AIDS challenges in Brazil: limits and possibilities. [Respuestas a los desafíos del SIDA en Brasil: límites y posibilidades]

    Castro MG; da Silva LB

    Brasilia, Brazil, UNESCO, 2005 Jun. 680 p.

    UNESCO and the National Program on STD/AIDS, of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, once again establish a partnership to carry out an activity, which records and cooperates towards implementing one of the most successful Brazilian public policies in health, worldwide acknowledged: those oriented to the fight against AIDS. This publication, basically addressed to tackle the dynamics of those agencies participating in AIDS-related governance in Brazil, lists and itemizes practices and representations of collective civil society units, at different territories. Furthermore, it records contemporaneous debates, assessments, criticisms and suggestions, aiming at adjusting the path. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    290790

    Advocacy news.

    Hesse C

    Pathways. 2004 Oct; 4.

    The past few months in the Advocacy unit have been busy! We’ve held public forums in Seattle, Washington and Portland, Oregon, organized Advocacy Day on Capitol Hill with the Pathfinder Board of Directors, and continue to expand our newly revamped Advocacy E-Center. As always, our goal is to inform and educate the public debate on international family planning and reproductive health policies and programs. Two of our Pathfinder country representatives — Milka Dinev from Peru and Charles Thube from Kenya — were big hits as the keynote speakers at several public forums in Seattle and Portland. Through unique partnerships with the Sierra Club and Planned Parenthood Federation of America, environmental and domestic reproductive rights activists learned about our programs in Peru and Kenya, and the impact that U.S. policies are having on the delivery of services there. The forums focused on our recent research and participation in “Access Denied: U.S. Restrictions on International Family Planning,” a study of the impact of the global gag rule in several countries around the world. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    286913

    Working in partnership to boost reproductive health commodity security. [Trabajar en sociedad para mejorar la seguridad de los productos de salud reproductiva]

    Abrams T

    Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):10-11.

    As USAID, through its sub-contracted American NGO John Snow Incorporated (JSI), continues to phase out support to developing countries for reproductive health commodities— contraceptives and essential drugs—the UN Population Fund and interested donor bodies are concerned with how best to marshal and direct commodity assistance for the future. The current focus is on nine countries in the Latin American region: Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. To ensure a smooth transition and to help these countries to eventually achieve reproductive health commodity security, or RHCS, USAID and JSI are working closely with partners, including UNFPA, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Bank. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    285398

    Promoting the participation of indigenous women in World Bank-funded social sector projects: an evaluation study in Mexico. [Promoción de la participación de las mujeres indígenas en los proyectos del sector social fundados por el Banco Mundial: estudio de evaluación en México]

    Trasparencia

    Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], Promoting Women in Development [PROWID], 1999. 4 p. (Report-in-Brief; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. FAO-A-00-95-00030-00)

    Mexico has long been one of the World Bank’s primary clients and is currently its largest cumulative borrower, with loan commitments of up to $5.5 billion approved for 1997-99 (World Bank 1996). During the past 15 years, the focus of the Bank’s lending program in Mexico has shifted away from structural adjustment towards poverty reduction, a strategy that emphasizes investment in health and education. As elsewhere around the world, gender differences in these sectors in Mexico are prevalent with regard to access to and control over resources and decision-making. Given the multiple roles that women play in production, reproduction, child rearing, and household maintenance, social sector projects that target women generate economic and social benefits both for individuals and countries as a whole. Consequently, the Bank has increasingly funded projects that aim to strengthen the participation and position of women in development. The Bank’s publications, official policies, and project guidelines also acknowledge the importance and benefits of promoting women’s roles and empowerment (Women’s Eyes on the World Bank, U.S. 1997; World Bank 1994, 1995, 1997). However, little has been done to evaluate what resources and opportunities are needed to improve the actual standing and participation of women in both Bank-funded programs and society as a whole. While the Bank launched a Gender Action Plan for Central America and Mexico in 1996, this Plan does not clearly define gender impact and assumes that strategies aimed at communities will affect men and women in similar ways. Further, the Bank’s effectiveness in applying its own guidelines on gender and community participation to policy, project design, and implementation on the ground has not been systematically assessed. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    187047
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementing ILO Child Labour Convention 182: lessons from Honduras. [Aplicación del Convenio 182 sobre prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil de la OIT: lecciones en Honduras]

    Groves L

    Development in Practice. 2004 Feb; 14(1-2):171-182.

    This article explores the implementation of Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Honduras. It highlights key lessons learned from a joint Save the Children Fund-UK and Ministry of Labour project. These lessons are of relevance to similar projects addressing the application of child labour legislation and to projects focusing on institutional strengthening and children's participation. The article examines the centrality of partnership and ownership, and the value of child-centred approaches. It also explores the capacity of NGOs to engage in national and regional-level government, and the importance of linking national and regional and local-level initiatives. (author's)
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  24. 24
    282114

    The contemporary response of the Brazilian government, the civil society and UNESCO to the HIV / AIDS epidemic. CCO Meeting, New York, New York, October 2003. [Respuesta contemporánea del gobierno brasileño, la sociedad civil y la UNESCO a la epidemia de VIH/SIDA. Reunión del Comité de Organizaciones Copatrocinadoras, Nueva York, Nueva York, octubre de 2003]

    UNESCO

    Brasilia, Brazil, UNESCO / Brazil, 2004. [10] p. (BR/2004/PI/H/1)

    Brazil has handled HIV/AIDS problems with much innovation and effectiveness, thereby creating good practices that other countries can learn from. As a universal organization, with a mandate encompassing the whole world, UNESCO must seek solutions wherever it can. Today, preventive education to fight HIV/AIDS is at the top of its agenda. Hence we must draw lessons from Brazil's experience so that your example can save lives and help development elsewhere: in Latin America, in Asia, in Africa, in Europe. We must learn from Brazil. We must learn fast. And we must apply what we learn quickly and effectively. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    279953
    Peer Reviewed

    Response to Leonard S. Rubenstein.

    Roth K

    Human Rights Quarterly. 2004; 26:873-878.

    Leonard S. Rubenstein offers a thoughtful response to my article on how international monitoring and advocacy organizations that use a methodology of public shaming can best advance economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights. His article makes three basic points. First, he notes that such organizations can make useful contributions beyond exposing government misconduct and subjecting it to public opprobrium. Namely, he suggests that they can provide technical assistance to governments on implementing ESC rights and help with capacity building for national or local NGOs that seek such rights. Second, he contends that such international organizations need not be as concerned with advocating tradeoffs among competing ESC rights because fears of limited resources— a “zero-sum game”—are overblown. Third, he disagrees with my perceived preference for condemning “arbitrary” government conduct to the exclusion of violations of particular ESC rights. On the first point, I largely agree with him. On the second, I regretfully suspect he has an overly sanguine view of the problem. And on the third, I fear he has misunderstood me. (excerpt)
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