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Finnish Official Development Aid for sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research. 2010; 45:143-170.Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP), Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Väestoliitto) engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finland's total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009), mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.
International Affairs. 2006 Mar; 82(2):269-284.This article attempts to lay out a set of broad theoretical questions, illustrated with material from two visits to sub-Saharan Africa, including interviews with government officials and international organization representatives in Botswana and Malawi, about 70 interviews with staff from AIDS NGOs across sub-Saharan Africa, and an initial effort at mapping the universe of organizations responding to Africa's AIDS pandemic. The article focuses on four issues: (1) the nature of the organizations responding to AIDS in Africa; (2) the relation of AIDS governance to existing patterns of African governance, including the possibilities of syncretism and, conversely, a stand-off between the organizational models created by AIDS NGOs and existing patterns of authority and cooperation in African societies; (3) the problems and possibilities of 'cultural match' between existing repertoires of 'collective action schemas' and those proffered by NGOs and international organizations;1 and (4) the slippery matter of the play of power, money and identity in a field of power with very unequal players. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2005 Apr; 19(1): p..When a reporter first met seven-year-old Bongani in a hardscrabble shantytown near Johannesburg in 2003, it was evident the child was dying. He was too weak for school, stunted and racked by diarrhoea. There was little question that he, like his deceased parents, was infected with the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. It seemed equally certain that he would soon lie in a tiny grave next to theirs -- joining the 370,000 South Africans who died from the disease that year. But when the journalist, Mr. Martin Plaut of the BBC, returned a year later, he found a healthy, laughing Bongani poring over his lesson book. “The transformation,” Mr. Plaut wrote last December, “was remarkable.” That transformation -- and the difference between life and death for Bongani and a growing number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Africa -- has resulted from access to anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) that attack the virus and can dramatically reduce AIDS deaths. For years high costs severely limited their use in Africa. The Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that only about 50,000 of the 4 million Africans in urgent need of the drugs were able to obtain them in 2002. But with prices dropping in the face of demands for treatment access and competition from generic copies of the patented medications, the politics and economics of AIDS treatment have finally begun to shift. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] . Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, Georgia.  p.HIV infection with clinical progression to AIDS appears to be among the most severe human infectious diseases documented to date. As of 1st September 1989, the cumulative total of cases of AIDS reported from 152 countries was 177,965 cases of which 30,978 (17.4%) have been reported from Africa. However, it is known that the reporting of AIDS cases from Africa is incomplete and the proportion may be higher. The AIDS situation has been recognized as a global emergency and the World Health Organization has been given the mandate to coordinate global efforts to prevent the infection and control the disease. The World Health Assembly and the United Nations General Assembly have called upon all countries to establish national AIDS prevention and control programmes in line with the Global Strategy. The WHO has developed several guidelines and strategies to assist the development of national AIDS prevention and control programmes. The Global AIDS Strategy has three objectives: (1) to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); (2) to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection; and (3) to unify national and international efforts against AIDS. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Oct; 81(10):776.At a special session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York on 22 September, WHO declared the failure to expand access to antiretrovirals in the developing world a global health emergency. The announcement was made together with UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria. (excerpt)
AIDS on the agenda: adapting development and humanitarian programmes to meet the challenge of HIV / AIDS.
AIDS Analysis Africa. 2003 Jun-Jul; 14(1):9-10.The opportunity which mainstreaming presents to development agencies is to build on the ways in which their ordinary work contributes, indirectly, to the overall response to HIV and AIDS. They can do this by ensuring that their core work -- such as promoting food security, improving water supplies and sanitation, or extending credit -- reduces susceptibility to HIV infection and vulnerability to the impacts of AIDS. For example, development work which empowers people, particularly women and girls, and addresses gender inequality and poverty, makes them less susceptible to HIV infection. And work which strengthens communities, and enables poor households to improve their livelihood security, also makes people and societies less vulnerable to the impacts of AIDS. (excerpt)
Stevens Point, Wisconsin, Noel Group, .  p.Nyumbani Village will be successful because: 4 years experience with Ntokozweni 11 years experience with Nyumbani Globally responsible companies want to get involved Support exists from broad coalition of partners. (excerpt)
Zimbabwe AIDS directory -- 1995: non-governmental organisations, AIDS service organisations, support groups, funders, resources.
Harare, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe AIDS Network, 1995. ix, 126 p.As the AIDS epidemic has unfolded in Zimbabwe, a number of organizations have developed AIDS programs for awareness and prevention and to help people cope with HIV infection. This Directory aims to provide information on the nongovernmental organizations (NGO), AIDS service organizations, support groups and donors involved in AIDS work in Zimbabwe. It also identifies information sources and materials available internationally, particularly those available free or at low cost, and with special relevance for Africa. Entries are listed alphabetically by name and acronym. It is hoped that the Directory will assist many organizations within the NGO community and beyond to identify resources and improve links with sister organizations, donors, and others responding to the demands of the AIDS epidemic. Most importantly, it is hoped that it will help people directly affected by or infected with HIV/AIDS to gain better access to services and support.
AIDS ILLUSTRATED. 1996 Oct; 2(1):9.War and AIDS-related mortality in Uganda have created an estimated 1.2 million orphans in the country. Child welfare advocates and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have therefore been working together for the past 4 years under an umbrella organization to coordinate efforts for vulnerable children. The Uganda Community-Based Association for Child Welfare (UCOBAC), links people and organizations involved in child advocacy, facilitates relations between the government and NGOs, and helps to strengthen the capacity of NGOs to identify and implement projects. UCOBAC emphasizes community-based initiatives which allow children to remain in their own communities instead of being institutionalized. One example of such an approach is a vocational skills training program in Rakai district established to help young orphans trying to make it on their own. More than 300 youths had benefitted from the program as of December 1994 and plans are underway to expand the program to 10 more districts. UCOBAC is also training communities and NGOs to identify and implement viable projects, and helps child welfare organizations by serving as a network for sharing information. UCOBAC came into existence in October 1990 with 93 members, including 57 local NGOs, 17 international NGOs, and 19 individual members. The organization has since established local offices in 35 of Uganda's 39 districts. UNICEF has thus far provided about US$130,000 for UCOBAC activities and will continue to fund local NGO initiatives through UCOBAC. UCOBAC, however, is giving priority to becoming financially independent of UNICEF within a couple of years. Future projects include an inventory of NGO child welfare projects, a child welfare resource library, and networking workshops with NGOs and government policymakers.