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  1. 1

    [Toward a new international penal law: some general reflections at the end of the century] Vers un nouveau droit international pénal: quelques réflexions générales à la fin du siècle.

    Aznar Gomez MJ

    In: La protection des droits de l'Homme entre la législation interne et le droit international. Actes du colloque organisé par le Centre de Recherches sur la Coopération Internationale pour le Développement de la Faculté de Droit de Marrakech avec le concours de la Fondation Hanns-Seidel, les 21 et 22 janvier 2000. Rabat, Morocco, Revue Marocaine d'Administration Locale et de Developpement, 2001. 33-56. (Thèmes Actuels No. 26)

    In classic international law, since the individual is separated from the international sphere by the legal fiction of the State, while international law at the dawn of the twenty-first century no longer governs only co-existence among States or the pursuit of their common goals, but also collective interests proper to the international community as a whole, the protection of human rights today is no longer part of the domain reserved to States. At the present time, we find that the individual is the subject of rights and the State is the subject of new duty, namely the respect of human rights. It is possible to identify, through the practice of diplomacy and international jurisprudence, a few general rules, divided into those relating to substance and those relating to procedure. Among the rules relating to substance, it is possible to identify the principles of sovereignty and cooperation, the elementary rules of humaneness and the rule of individual criminal liability. In the area of international sanction mechanisms in international law, the first image we see is that of the courts of Nuremberg and Tokyo. The classic approach to the sanctioning of individuals has really changed only since the end of the 1980's. These sanctions had long been in the hands of the State. In all cases, at least on the normative level, they left in their hands the obligation to obey and to enforce international criminal law, which at the present time is conveyed, among other ways, through the action of international tribunals, bilateral cooperation through international criminal judiciary assistance and multilateral cooperation. Several humanitarian tragedies, such as those in the former Yugoslavia, Iraq and Rwanda, have called into question the effectiveness of these new enforcement and sanction procedures; however the participation of public opinion and non-governmental organizations (NGO's), the political and judicial action of the United Nations have reinforced it.
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  2. 2

    [International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Follow-up to the Cairo and Ouagadougou programs of action] Conference Internationale sur la Population et le Developpement (CIPD). Suivi des programmes d'action du Caire et de Ouagadougou.

    Dabo K

    POP SAHEL. 1999 Dec; (28):33-4.

    Following the adoption of the program of action of the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, the population policy-related texts and goals of the member states of the Permanent Interstate Committee Against Drought in the Sahel (CILSS) were reviewed and revised in the context of new program priorities with the technical assistance of FNUAP, CERPOD, and Futures Group International’s Policy Project. The Ouagadougou program of action, which replaces the N’Djamena program of action, is a global framework for cooperation and action in the areas of population and sustainable development in the Sahel. It integrates all major concerns of the Cairo, Beijing, and Copenhagen programs of action. Follow-up, evaluation, and coordination of the Ouagadougou program of action’s implementation at the regional level were made CERPOD’s responsibility by the appropriate CILSS ministerial committee, while its implementation at the national level will fall upon the shoulders of individual member countries benefiting from CERPOD and Policy Project technical support. CERPOD’s experience with follow-up activities is described. The organization is also leading research studies relevant to priority concerns outlined in the Cairo and Ouagadougou programs of action. A midterm evaluation of all Cairo and Ouagadougou action programs will be conducted in the year 2002.
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  3. 3

    [The role of community organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in solutions to population problems] Le role des organisations communautaires et des ON.G dans les solutions aux problemes de la population.

    Ghazouan MN


    The World Population Plan of Action is the result of international consensus regarding population problems and their implications for socioeconomic development. The objective of sustained development will not be met without sufficient human and material resources, some of which must be channeled to the developing countries through international organizations. Governments alone will not be able to meet the objectives of the Plan of Action within the next two decades; the participation of individuals and groups in the society will be needed. Local communities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can play an important role in definition of strategies to include the population in questions concerning their own development and welfare, in a process of microsocietal promotion. The movement may begin with conferences, sampling studies, group interviews, debates, and similar actions, or in larger undertakings such as creation of centers and organizations. NGOs play an important psychosocial role in assuring social cohesion. They allow individuals engaged in associative actions to withstand alienating pressures to conform, and they formulate social demands and articulate needs. Their programs allow them to project into the future. Various institutions serving homeless and otherwise disadvantaged youth in Morocco exemplify the role of NGOs in promoting social cohesion.
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  4. 4

    [On the way to Beijing: Dakar Conference] En route pour Pekin: Conference de Dakar.

    Bessis S

    VIVRE AUTREMENT. 1994 Oct; (Spec No):3.

    In November 1994 in Senegal, Dakar will host the regional conference on women. Its purpose is to develop a common action plan that Africa will present in Beijing. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and governments have already been preparing for this meeting. This conference had been organized by a series of meetings continent-wide, where governments and NGOs clarified their positions on the 3 themes: equality, development, and peace. The Ministry of Women and the Family has the task of preparing the Senegalese viewpoint of the operation. Senegalese authorities want to make the meeting in Dakar a success. They have decided to have expositions, cultural displays, a women's business forum, a village restaurant where representatives from each country will get to know the culinary wealth of other countries, and a gala event. Everyone is ready to discuss equality, women's access to decision making structures (especially in the education sector), and better distribution of income between the sexes. NGOs do not intend to sit back and do nothing at the conference, but intend to influence the editing of the action plan. Many women's and health-based NGOs are rising up against the gaps of the action plan which only consider women's biological and physical aspects but not their mental and psychological aspects. Participants should consider the disastrous effects of sexual abuse and early marriages. Are governments ready to reform their laws which tend to discriminate against women and institutionalize their low status? Do they have the political will to check the conservative forces, such as those that spoke out against women in the final report of the forum in Tunisia? The number of women in powerful posts in Africa is growing. They can certainly advance things more rapidly than in the recent past. Women at Dakar should work together to address conflicts in Africa. Women should insist that women participate in all peace negotiations.
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