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Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52. Addendum 1: International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Feb 27. 435 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1)The present report contains a detailed review of international, regional and national developments and best practices for ways and means of combating violence against women over the period 1994-2003. The report is not fully comprehensive, some regions or countries may have been reported on in greater detail than others, reflecting the information that was available to the Special Rapporteur. In order to provide a systematic analysis of global developments, the Special Rapporteur requested information on efforts to eliminate violence against women, its causes and consequences, from Governments, specialized agencies, United Nations organs and bodies, and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and academics. The Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude to all who kindly provided information, which contributed significantly in the preparation of her report. (excerpt)
Journal of International Women's Studies. 2007 Nov; 9(1):212-233.This essay analyzes the contributions of three Young Women's Christian Association leaders who chaired the nongovernmental organization forum planning committees during the UN Decade for Women (1975-1985). It assesses the effectiveness of their leadership and addresses questions of distribution and uses of power within women's international NGOs and in relationship to the global feminist community. (author's)
Gender and child protection policies: Where do UNHCR's partners stand? A report by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Jul. 15 p.The purpose of this study is to gauge what kind of policies, tools and accountability mechanisms are in place at partner organizations with respect to gender equality and child/youth protection. The aim is to find out if and what specific policies exist and the level of partner interaction with UNHCR to implement AGDM through information sharing and training. This report is not meant to evaluate UNHCR partners' policies and tools. Rather, it is meant to make a contribution to UNHCR and partners' work by documenting progress and good practice as well as obstacles and challenges they face in mainstreaming. As pertinent, these survey findings are to be taken into consideration within the overall context of strengthening UNHCR's multi-year AGDM global rollout by enhancing its impact through the promotion of relevant policy and accountability mechanisms development with its key partners. (excerpt)
One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2): p..Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
International Studies Quarterly. 2003 Jun; 47(2):247-274.How, why, and under what conditions are NGOs able to influence state's interests? To answer these questions, I examine the process through which women's organizations succeeded in placing front and center on the UN agenda two issues that had been perceived as exclusively private: violence against women and reproductive rights and health. I develop a theoretical framework drawing on both the agenda-setting and social movement literature. I suggest that NGOs attempt to influence states interests by framing problems, solutions, and justifications for political action. Whether they are successful in mobilizing support is contingent on the dynamic interaction of primarily two factors: ((1)) the political opportunity structure in which NGOs are embedded, comprising access to institutions, the presence of influential allies, and changes in political alignments and conflicts; and ((2)) the mobilizing structures that NGOs have at their disposal, including organizational entrepreneurs, a heterogenous international constituency, and experts. I find that in the beginning of the agenda-setting process, the influence of NGOs is rather limited, their frames are highly contested, and structural obstacles outweigh organizational resources. However, over time the influence of NGOs increases. As they establish their own mobilizing structures, they become capable of altering the political opportunity structure in their favor, and their frames gain in acceptance and legitimacy. (author's)
[Intrafamily violence from the perspective of international conferences: the role of the United Nations] La violencia intrafamiliar desde la perspectiva de las conferencias internacionales: el papel de las Naciones Unidas.
In: Memorias del Encuentro Continental sobre Violencia Intrafamiliar, [compiled by] United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]. Mexico City, Mexico, UNIFEM, 1996. 17-18.The interest and the efforts of the United Nations Organization with regard to the subject of violence and, in particular, intrafamiliar violence has been manifested on very different occasions. The United Nations' Decade for Women (1976-1985) significantly contributed to bring to light the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the issue was debated in 1985 in the Seventh United Nations Conference on Crime Prevention and Treatment of Delinquents. In 1985, the United Nations General Assembly invited the member States to act to prevent violence within the home and suggested measures by which the judicial system could deal with the problem in a just and humanitarian way. (excerpt)
In: Cairo and Beijing: defining the women and AIDS agenda, [compiled by] Family Health International [FHI]. AIDS Control and Prevention Project [AIDSCAP]. Arlington, Virginia, AIDSCAP, 1995. 7-8.Although the Program of Action developed by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development acknowledges the grave threat to women's health posed by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), there was insufficient discussion at the gathering of the steps that must be taken to curb the further spread of AIDS. Thus, the Caucus on Women and AIDS of the Nongovernmental Forum at the Conference developed the following recommendations: 1) reject the view of women as solely vectors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 2) create a compassionate community environment, including legal protection, conducive to the open discussion of AIDS by those most affected; 3) create partnerships between men and women around the prevention of AIDS; 4) give priority to the prevention of HIV transmission in the design and development of new contraceptive technologies; 5) ensure women's access to health care services that address AIDS, reproductive health, and family planning; 6) facilitate sociocultural changes that eliminate the stigmatization and fear surrounding AIDS and reduce the behaviors that place people at risk of infection; 7) make HIV/AIDS an integral part of all health and development programs; and 8) ensure that HIV/AIDS control strategies and programs are sensitive to their cultural context.
Gender and Development. 2002 Mar; 10(1):60-8.As trafficking worldwide has become increasingly more sophisticated and widespread, some governments are implementing new legislation, hosting international conferences, and signing new and existing conventions. The UN and other Inter-Governmental Organizations are dedicating substantial resources to developing more effective solutions. However, the relative absence of government initiatives and assistance for trafficking victims, means that it is nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who have taken up the challenge of organizing locally, nationally, and internationally to advocate for and meet the needs of victims, despite their limited resources. This article provides an overview of NGO activity against trafficking in women for sexual exploitation. It is based on an exploratory study undertaken by the Change Anti-Trafficking Programme in 2001. The article explores why NGOs are well-placed to work with women victims of trafficking, and their responses to the growing phenomenon in countries of origin and destination. It presents a regional overview of NGO initiatives, and concludes by discussing some of the main obstacles faced by NGOs in combating trafficking for sexual exploitation, and women's and children's vulnerability to slavery-like practices. (author's)
[Unpublished]  4 p.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA), the UN Division for the Advancement of Women and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights convened at Glen Cove, New York in December 1996, to consider ways to promote and protect women's right to health, gender equality, and empowerment. Representatives from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and several UN agencies joined the UNFPA meeting. Discussions included gender issues, reproductive and sexual rights, violations of these rights and ways to integrate gender awareness to their work. NGOs' role is valuable in distributing information of rights and thus, they are recognized to participate in treaty monitoring and conference implementation. Moreover, UNFPA together with other UN agencies promotes reproductive and sexual rights through technical assistance and training programs in developing countries, and support for advocacy and research.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug.  p.This paper provides a chronology on the issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) being tackled by the UN and its agencies since the early 1950s. In 1952, the UN Commission on Human Rights raised the issue of FGM for the first time. In 1980, the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women, in Copenhagen, appealed to African governments and Women's Organizations to seek solutions to the problem of female circumcision and infibulation. The WHO in 1982 made a formal statement of its position regarding FGM to the UN Human Rights Commission. In addition, it expressed unequivocal opposition to the medicalization of the practice in any setting, readiness to support national efforts aimed at eliminating the practice, and strongly advises health workers not to perform female circumcision under any conditions. Moreover, in 1995, the Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen refers to FGM, reinforcing the International Conference on Population and Development recommendations. The Platform of Action of the World Conference on Women in Beijing includes a section on the girl child and urged governments, international organizations and nongovernmental groups to develop policies and programs to eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child including FGM.
Women's initiatives and activities worldwide. NGO's at the 42nd Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women speaks out, optional protocol to CEDAW, and Womenwatch.
IWTC GLOBALNET. 1998 Mar 10; (105):2 p..The activities surrounding the 42nd Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women is discussed. It emphasized on the implementation of four areas of concern from the Beijing Platform for Action; namely, women's rights, violence against women, women and armed conflict, and the girl child. A protocol on violence against women is necessary because of the shortcomings that have to be strengthened by an international treaty. However, the discussion of the 'Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women' resulted in disagreement.
GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT. 1998 Nov; 6(3):17-26.The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) has been at the forefront of the campaign to end violence against women. The Fund's premise is that there can be no sustainable communities or development without the attainment of peace and women's human rights. The UNIFEM Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate Violence Against Women was established in 1997, and, to date, has supported 59 projects in 49 countries related to the human rights abuse of women within families, war crimes against women, violations of women's bodily integrity (e.g., female genital mutilation), economic discrimination and exploitation, and political and legal discrimination. Program strategies include education, capacity building, violence prevention, the reversal of ingrained attitudes, and action-oriented research. In addition, regional awareness campaigns are conducted to introduce the issue of violence against women to the agendas of world governments. Finally, a learning component for the Fund analyzes the results of Fund initiatives and identifies ways of shaping more effective strategies for combating violence against women. Future areas of work include strengthening enforcement mechanisms in response to violence against women, upgrading the capacity to use international legal instruments, and facilitating information exchange.
EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 Jun 7; 5.The head of the UN Development Fund for Women's delegation at Habitat II, Achola Pala Okeyo, held a press conference to voice her concern that the women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) attending the conference were not receiving enough visibility. Issues raised at the press conference included the important role played by the NGOs in taking the Habitat agenda to the grassroots level, the promotion of cooperative ownership of houses and equal inheritance rights, and the lack of input sought from "everyday" women in planning and development efforts in their communities. Okeyo noted that the Habitat conference was the first organized attempt to bring women's NGOs together since the women's conference in Beijing and that women were disappointed at their lack of progress in attaining equal rights.
EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 10; 1, 7.Women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked hard to successfully advance women's concerns in Habitat II's Global Plan of Action because women must have safe, secure settlements in order to achieve social and economic advances. The NGOs considered it vital that the Plan of Action call for greater reinvestment of businesses in communities, reduction of the negative impact of structural adjustment programs, opportunities for women to receive small loans with flexible collateral, and prevention of the sexual and economic exploitation of women. The most important consideration for some advocates is how implementation of the Plan of Action will be funded. Women still have not achieved the right to equal inheritance, and the Plan of Action calls for an equal right to inheritance for women but not the right to inherit equal amounts as men. The women attending Habitat are also seeking recognition of the facts that women and men use cities differently and that the needs of women are often overlooked. Advocates believe it is vitally important to help women articulate what changes they desire.
THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY. 1995; 16(3):477-93.This article gives a brief history of how women's groups internationally have shaped UN and World Conferences for Women, the changes in the relationship between women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the UN over time, and effective strategies for putting the women's agenda on international agendas. The article focuses on three recent UN conferences: the Rio conference on the environment, the Vienna conference on human rights, and the Cairo conference on population. The UN Decade for Women reshaped the international women's movement by including new players and by increasing the number and types of women's groups, particularly in developing countries. Women's NGOs learned how to operate on a global scale and to gain attention. New NGO alliances and networks were formed that were cross-regional and crossed North-South divisions. An increasing number of women's groups contributed to national and international policy-making situations. Women's groups were successful in receiving international and national recognition because of the effort expended to become well prepared in collecting, knowing, and analyzing their facts and in building broad-based coalitions. The key strategies that were used in participating effectively in the conference preparatory process and formal policy-making groups involved five types of activities: 1) NGOs mounted global campaigns on a variety of issues having to do with women's rights and women's involvement in the process; 2) NGOs held multiple strategic planning meetings and built coalitions and consensus at all levels; 3) women's NGOs drafted policy documents, resolutions, treaties, protocols, conventions, and platform documents; 4) women's NGOs gained seating on official delegations by publishing reports, holding meetings, and lobbying and nominating women as representatives; and 5) women's NGOs formed caucuses that met at a daily time and place for holding dialogues with official delegates and policy-makers.
The Hague, Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for International Cooperation, Development Cooperation Information Department, 1995. , 216,  p.The Netherlands Institute of Human Rights conducted an inventory of international, regional, and national documents, legislation, and rules on female genital mutilation (FGM) to generate an overview of existing FGM-related regulations. Chapter 2 of the study's report presents the various forms of FGM and the countries where FGM is practiced. It also examines religion, tradition, culture, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The chapter also presents the views and attitudes of various famous researchers and authors. The legal approach to FGM has been receiving increasing attention, reaching the level of considering FGM as a health issue. Chapter 3 reviews international and regional regulations as they apply to FGM. The views and initiatives of international and regional governmental and nongovernmental organizations, particularly those initiatives aiming to eradicate FGM, are addressed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses the countries of origin (e.g., Somalia), while chapter 6 discusses those of destination (e.g., Canada). Specifically, these chapters cover these countries' national legislation and their government's views on FGM. These chapters also address initiatives and programs of those national nongovernmental organizations involved in the eradication of FGM. The report concludes with a summary of the findings and various conclusions.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 1995 Jun. , 36 p.This guide was prepared to provide journalists who will be covering the United Nations (UN) Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing with accessible and accurate background data on the status of women. Presented are brief summaries of the most salient research findings in the critical areas of concern identified for action by conference participants: poverty, education, health, violence, peace, economics, advancement mechanisms, human rights, mass media, environment, and female children. Also included is an overview of demographic trends, female education, female labor force participation, reproductive health, and women in public life. Finally, "The World's Women 1995" data sheet presents statistics from 161 countries related to these five topics.