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  1. 1

    Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies: Strategic framework 2011-2015. In support of the Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive. 2nd ed.

    Inter-Agency Task Team for Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children

    [New York, New York], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2012. [108] p.

    We are at a turning point for delivering on the promise to end child and maternal mortality and improve health -- marked by bold new commitments. This strategic framework supports one such commitment, the 'Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive'. It offers guidance for preventing HIV infections and unintended pregnancies -- both essential strategies for improving maternal and child health, and eliminating new paediatric HIV infections. This framework should be used in conjunction with other related guidance that together address all four prongs of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This document focuses on strengthening rights-based polices and programming within health services and the community.
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  2. 2

    Fatal misconception: the struggle to control world population.

    Connelly M

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.

    Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Statement of the caucus, FHI Symposium Panel on Women and AIDS, September 12, 1994, Cairo, Egypt.

    International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD] (1994: Cairo). NGO Forum. Caucus for Women and AIDS

    In: Cairo and Beijing: defining the women and AIDS agenda, [compiled by] Family Health International [FHI]. AIDS Control and Prevention Project [AIDSCAP]. Arlington, Virginia, AIDSCAP, 1995. 7-8.

    Although the Program of Action developed by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development acknowledges the grave threat to women's health posed by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), there was insufficient discussion at the gathering of the steps that must be taken to curb the further spread of AIDS. Thus, the Caucus on Women and AIDS of the Nongovernmental Forum at the Conference developed the following recommendations: 1) reject the view of women as solely vectors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 2) create a compassionate community environment, including legal protection, conducive to the open discussion of AIDS by those most affected; 3) create partnerships between men and women around the prevention of AIDS; 4) give priority to the prevention of HIV transmission in the design and development of new contraceptive technologies; 5) ensure women's access to health care services that address AIDS, reproductive health, and family planning; 6) facilitate sociocultural changes that eliminate the stigmatization and fear surrounding AIDS and reduce the behaviors that place people at risk of infection; 7) make HIV/AIDS an integral part of all health and development programs; and 8) ensure that HIV/AIDS control strategies and programs are sensitive to their cultural context.
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  4. 4

    Glen Cove meeting of treaty organizations.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1999] 4 p.

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA), the UN Division for the Advancement of Women and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights convened at Glen Cove, New York in December 1996, to consider ways to promote and protect women's right to health, gender equality, and empowerment. Representatives from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and several UN agencies joined the UNFPA meeting. Discussions included gender issues, reproductive and sexual rights, violations of these rights and ways to integrate gender awareness to their work. NGOs' role is valuable in distributing information of rights and thus, they are recognized to participate in treaty monitoring and conference implementation. Moreover, UNFPA together with other UN agencies promotes reproductive and sexual rights through technical assistance and training programs in developing countries, and support for advocacy and research.
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  5. 5

    World Bank Grant No. 150RSA98.11, Adolescent Reproductive Health and Sexuality. Narrative report.

    Youth Development Trust

    [Unpublished] 1998 Nov. 10 p.

    The primary objective of the 1998-99 World Bank grant is to provide health and youth practitioners with new insights into adolescent health choices and behavior. This can be accomplished through the provision of technical assistance to the five nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) selected as partners in the program. The African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) has been appointed as technical consultant to the five NGOs and will facilitate the process of arriving at indicators for adolescent sexual and reproductive behavioral changes. This report provides a detailed outline of the activities undertaken by the NGO partners from 1998 up to the present including the financial report. The initial process undertaken by the AMREF is also outlined. The five NGO partners selected include Health Systems Development Unit, Youth for Christ, Children's Resource Center, Community Outreach Project, and National Association of Child Care Workers.
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  6. 6

    FY'99 third quarter report for the LINKAGES project (April 1, 1999 - June 30, 1999).

    Academy for Educational Development [AED]. Breastfeeding, Complementary Feeding, and Maternal Nutrition Program [LINKAGES]

    [Washington, D.C.], AED, 1999. [3], 11 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00007-00)

    This paper highlights the role of the LINKAGES Project in the promotion of improved breast-feeding and related complementary feeding, and maternal practices. The program is achieved through community-based activities, advocacy in national and global fora, collaborative activities with private and voluntary organization partners and cooperating agencies, and dissemination of quality technical information. The report also outlines the activities in one region and 10 countries in Africa. Their list of programs includes integration of breast-feeding into the various agencies, health ministries, reproductive health services, and refugee health programs. Aside from country program activities, LINKAGES also operates at the global level. It is performed through policy dialogue, participation in international conferences, research of broad interest to program managers, information dissemination, and collaboration with international partners. Furthermore, technical support is provided to integrate innovative approaches into their programs, strengthen staff capacity, and incorporating up-to-date technical information into their materials and training programs. They also collaborate with organizations working in child survival, reproductive health, and emergency response.
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  7. 7

    You are the vanguard of Cairo. NGO / Youth Fora.

    Clinton HR

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):6-7.

    Everyone has a role to play in realizing the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. The concerns of young people presented at the Youth Forum will hopefully be kept at the forefront of Cairo+5 deliberations. Innumerable women around the world in every country struggle daily to care for and education their children, to gain greater control over their lives, and to contribute to the progress being made in their communities and countries. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) and youth fora of the Cairo+5 proceedings demonstrate that the discussions about global challenges and their solutions are no longer being held and decided upon solely by government officials and policy-makers behind closed doors. Rather, NGOs have finally taken their proper place in the debate, to help ordinary citizens be heard on the critical issues which affect their lives. Efforts must also continue to be made to reach out to young people, as well as fathers, sons, and husbands.
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  8. 8

    A wake-up call. NGO / Youth Fora.

    Inayatullah A

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):8.

    The client first, informed choice, and quality of care approach to reproductive health is being applied around the world, energized by individuals, communities, and organizations. There has been unprecedented support during the Cairo+5 global review process of the centrality of youth in the process, for by 2000, approximately 1 billion people aged 15-24 years will either be in or entering their reproductive years, the largest generation ever in this age cohort. These young people face considerable reproductive health risks and poor access to information and services. In addition, 25% of children are assaulted or abused, and 20% live in poverty. The Youth Forum recommendations will help to ensure that the reproductive health and social development needs of the world's youth are properly met. However, to fully implement the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, donor governments need to meet their funding commitments.
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  9. 9

    A question of women.

    Shepard DJ

    EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 10; 1, 7.

    Women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked hard to successfully advance women's concerns in Habitat II's Global Plan of Action because women must have safe, secure settlements in order to achieve social and economic advances. The NGOs considered it vital that the Plan of Action call for greater reinvestment of businesses in communities, reduction of the negative impact of structural adjustment programs, opportunities for women to receive small loans with flexible collateral, and prevention of the sexual and economic exploitation of women. The most important consideration for some advocates is how implementation of the Plan of Action will be funded. Women still have not achieved the right to equal inheritance, and the Plan of Action calls for an equal right to inheritance for women but not the right to inherit equal amounts as men. The women attending Habitat are also seeking recognition of the facts that women and men use cities differently and that the needs of women are often overlooked. Advocates believe it is vitally important to help women articulate what changes they desire.
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  10. 10

    Review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action. 1994 report.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. ix, 149 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/152)

    This UN review covers an appraisal of plans of action for the entire period of 1974-94, due to the expected new Plan of Action to be adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994 in Cairo. Plans of action were adopted at Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico city in 1984. Reviews of plan implementation were conducted in 1979, 1984, and 1989. This review covers the major topics of the Plan of Action and follows the structure of the Program of Action of the 1994 Conference. Chapters 1-9 and 15 focus on socioeconomic development and population, women, the family, population growth and demographic structure, human reproduction, mortality, population distribution, and internal and international migration. Chapters 10 and 11 focus on information, education, and communication, data collection and analyses, research, provision of services, management of program operation, creation of awareness, and evaluation of actions. Chapters 12-14 focus on government, the international community, nongovernmental organizations, scholars, the private sector, and the media. Each topic is presented with a discussion of the following issues: trends, salient issues, significance of issues, actions considered by the Plan of Action, government measures, measures taken by the international community, and an assessment of the implementation of the Plan of Action. The World Population Plan of Action presents principles and objectives that justify action on population issues, guide criteria, and determine the expected results of action. The Plan rejects any form of coercion. Couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children; have responsibility for taking into account the needs of their living and future children; and have responsibilities toward the community.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Engendering world conferences: the international women's movement and the United Nations.

    Chen MA

    THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY. 1995; 16(3):477-93.

    This article gives a brief history of how women's groups internationally have shaped UN and World Conferences for Women, the changes in the relationship between women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the UN over time, and effective strategies for putting the women's agenda on international agendas. The article focuses on three recent UN conferences: the Rio conference on the environment, the Vienna conference on human rights, and the Cairo conference on population. The UN Decade for Women reshaped the international women's movement by including new players and by increasing the number and types of women's groups, particularly in developing countries. Women's NGOs learned how to operate on a global scale and to gain attention. New NGO alliances and networks were formed that were cross-regional and crossed North-South divisions. An increasing number of women's groups contributed to national and international policy-making situations. Women's groups were successful in receiving international and national recognition because of the effort expended to become well prepared in collecting, knowing, and analyzing their facts and in building broad-based coalitions. The key strategies that were used in participating effectively in the conference preparatory process and formal policy-making groups involved five types of activities: 1) NGOs mounted global campaigns on a variety of issues having to do with women's rights and women's involvement in the process; 2) NGOs held multiple strategic planning meetings and built coalitions and consensus at all levels; 3) women's NGOs drafted policy documents, resolutions, treaties, protocols, conventions, and platform documents; 4) women's NGOs gained seating on official delegations by publishing reports, holding meetings, and lobbying and nominating women as representatives; and 5) women's NGOs formed caucuses that met at a daily time and place for holding dialogues with official delegates and policy-makers.
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  12. 12

    Population and development. Volume 1. Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis

    In: International migration policies and the status of female migrants. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants, San Miniato, Italy, 28-31 March 1990, compiled by United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. vii, 100 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/149)

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held in Cairo, Egypt, during September 5-13, 1994. It was the fifth population conference organized under the auspices of the UN. A general debate was held at the ICPD on population and related issues, and their implications for social and economic development, with a program of action ultimately adopted by consensus to guide national and international action on population and development over the next 20 years. This document contains the program of action as well as the oral and written statements and reservations on the program. The program is divided into the following chapters: the preamble; principles; interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women; the family, its roles, rights, composition, and structure; population growth and structure; reproductive rights and reproductive health; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; partnership with the non-governmental sector; and follow-up to the conference.
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  13. 13

    Challenges from Cairo [editorial]

    Tamburlini G

    KANGAROO. 1994 Dec; 3(2):190-4.

    The Plan of Action approved at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development seeks to ensure access to reproductive health care services to all couples through a process of female empowerment. However, this goal conflicts with current social and economic policies in many countries as well as with hegemonic international development strategies based on structural adjustment. The full realization of the goals outlined in Cairo and Beijing will depend on the willingness of the international community to ensure the development of broader conceptualizations of human rights as well as the strengthening of community-based initiatives. Critical will be implementation of a multisectoral approach and coordinated networking at the peripheral level. Channels to express needs and demands must be developed in countries burdened with cultural obstacles or disrupted by political strife. If health care systems are to achieve targeted improvements in maternal mortality, they must both demonstrate an interest in mothers as women with needs of their own and seek to involve men in reproductive health decisions. Although the development of a broader range of contraceptive options remains critical, the most important reproductive technology issue concerns improvements in the quality of the user-provider interaction.
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