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Lancet. 2004; 364:1801-1813.Major advances have been made during the past decade in the way the international community responds to the health and nutrition consequences of complex emergencies. The public health and clinical response to diseases of acute epidemic potential has improved, especially in camps. Case-fatality rates for severely malnourished children have plummeted because of better protocols and products. Renewed focus is required on the major causes of death in conflict-affected societies—particularly acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, neonatal causes, and malnutrition—outside camps and often across regions and even political boundaries. In emergencies in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly southern Africa, HIV/AIDS is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Stronger coordination, increased accountability, and a more strategic positioning of non-governmental organisations and UN agencies are crucial to achieving lower maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates in complex emergencies and therefore for reaching the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. (author's)
Lancet. 2000 Jul 8; 356(9224):144.This article reports the efforts of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative in controlling malaria deaths worldwide. It is shown that the RBM partnership meeting could substantially decrease malaria morbidity and mortality and may bring broader health benefits. Although RBM has been criticized for its narrow focus, Richard Allan of WHO believes that strengthening surveillance, vector control, diagnostic services, and treatment protocols will reinforce emergency health systems. The RBM strategy involves nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that work in emergencies with WHO and the RBM inter-agency technical support network. Overall, it is noted that agencies clearly identified the need for WHO to provide improved standardized advice and information, technical assistance on the ground, and training for field staff. Furthermore, expansions of technical support network and field courses for NGO staff are also key initiatives planned.
European Population Conference. Proceedings. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland. Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. 429 p.This volume contains country statements and statements by international and nongovernmental organizations for the 1993 European Population Conference that was jointly organized by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECC), the Council of Europe (CE), and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The conference aimed to review, examine, and analyze key population-related issues in the region's countries, to evaluate the implementation of population-related policies, and to prepare a set of recommendations on key population-related issues and policies. The five conference priorities were international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation in the field of population. Conference attendants included representatives from European countries, Argentina, Australia, Egypt, the Holy See, Japan, New Zealand, UN agencies, and 61 nongovernmental organizations. European countries and the world face the challenges of population growth, population impact on the environment, unsustainable modes of production and consumption, and human survival. Countries are inextricably linked, and international cooperation and solidarity are necessary. Developing countries, with the highest rates of population growth, are faced with generating adequate levels of sustainable economic and social development and with devoting sufficient resources to enable demographic transition. Europe's challenges include international migration and continuation of support in development and population programs for countries undergoing political and economic transition. Old national and ethnic rivalries have surfaced and now facilitate armed conflicts and serious political crises. Changes have occurred in fertility, the status of women, and the family. AIDS and drug abuse are causes for concern. This volume identifies 15 recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. ix, 149 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/152)This UN review covers an appraisal of plans of action for the entire period of 1974-94, due to the expected new Plan of Action to be adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994 in Cairo. Plans of action were adopted at Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico city in 1984. Reviews of plan implementation were conducted in 1979, 1984, and 1989. This review covers the major topics of the Plan of Action and follows the structure of the Program of Action of the 1994 Conference. Chapters 1-9 and 15 focus on socioeconomic development and population, women, the family, population growth and demographic structure, human reproduction, mortality, population distribution, and internal and international migration. Chapters 10 and 11 focus on information, education, and communication, data collection and analyses, research, provision of services, management of program operation, creation of awareness, and evaluation of actions. Chapters 12-14 focus on government, the international community, nongovernmental organizations, scholars, the private sector, and the media. Each topic is presented with a discussion of the following issues: trends, salient issues, significance of issues, actions considered by the Plan of Action, government measures, measures taken by the international community, and an assessment of the implementation of the Plan of Action. The World Population Plan of Action presents principles and objectives that justify action on population issues, guide criteria, and determine the expected results of action. The Plan rejects any form of coercion. Couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children; have responsibility for taking into account the needs of their living and future children; and have responsibilities toward the community.
Population and development. Volume 1. Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
In: International migration policies and the status of female migrants. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants, San Miniato, Italy, 28-31 March 1990, compiled by United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1995. vii, 100 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/149)The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held in Cairo, Egypt, during September 5-13, 1994. It was the fifth population conference organized under the auspices of the UN. A general debate was held at the ICPD on population and related issues, and their implications for social and economic development, with a program of action ultimately adopted by consensus to guide national and international action on population and development over the next 20 years. This document contains the program of action as well as the oral and written statements and reservations on the program. The program is divided into the following chapters: the preamble; principles; interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women; the family, its roles, rights, composition, and structure; population growth and structure; reproductive rights and reproductive health; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; partnership with the non-governmental sector; and follow-up to the conference.