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Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52. Addendum 1: International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Feb 27. 435 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1)The present report contains a detailed review of international, regional and national developments and best practices for ways and means of combating violence against women over the period 1994-2003. The report is not fully comprehensive, some regions or countries may have been reported on in greater detail than others, reflecting the information that was available to the Special Rapporteur. In order to provide a systematic analysis of global developments, the Special Rapporteur requested information on efforts to eliminate violence against women, its causes and consequences, from Governments, specialized agencies, United Nations organs and bodies, and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and academics. The Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude to all who kindly provided information, which contributed significantly in the preparation of her report. (excerpt)
Ensuring the reproductive rights of refugees and internally displaced persons: legal and policy issues.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 2000 Dec; 26(4):167-73.More than 26 million refugees, asylum-seekers and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are registered worldwide with the UN agencies, while millions still remain uncounted. In addition, girls and women make up about 50% of refugee and internally displaced populations, although the gender composition of refugee groups varies between regions and countries. These women and girls were at high risk of rape, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe delivery, and sexually transmitted diseases. This article examines the international legal framework for the reproductive rights of refugees and IDPs, as well as some aspects of UN and nongovernmental organization policies relevant to refugees' reproductive health. Three interrelated fields of international law come to bear on a discussion of the reproductive rights of refugees and IDPs: general international human rights law; refugee and humanitarian laws. These laws protect the rights of women against violence and all forms of discrimination. While international law requires countries that have ratified the relevant treaties to provide refugees and IDPs with sexual and reproductive health services, in practice UN agencies and nongovernmental organizations usually have to help provide these services.
The Hague, Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for International Cooperation, Development Cooperation Information Department, 1995. , 216,  p.The Netherlands Institute of Human Rights conducted an inventory of international, regional, and national documents, legislation, and rules on female genital mutilation (FGM) to generate an overview of existing FGM-related regulations. Chapter 2 of the study's report presents the various forms of FGM and the countries where FGM is practiced. It also examines religion, tradition, culture, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The chapter also presents the views and attitudes of various famous researchers and authors. The legal approach to FGM has been receiving increasing attention, reaching the level of considering FGM as a health issue. Chapter 3 reviews international and regional regulations as they apply to FGM. The views and initiatives of international and regional governmental and nongovernmental organizations, particularly those initiatives aiming to eradicate FGM, are addressed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses the countries of origin (e.g., Somalia), while chapter 6 discusses those of destination (e.g., Canada). Specifically, these chapters cover these countries' national legislation and their government's views on FGM. These chapters also address initiatives and programs of those national nongovernmental organizations involved in the eradication of FGM. The report concludes with a summary of the findings and various conclusions.