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  1. 1
    152970

    Female genital mutilation: United Nations action.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug. [2] p.

    This paper provides a chronology on the issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) being tackled by the UN and its agencies since the early 1950s. In 1952, the UN Commission on Human Rights raised the issue of FGM for the first time. In 1980, the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women, in Copenhagen, appealed to African governments and Women's Organizations to seek solutions to the problem of female circumcision and infibulation. The WHO in 1982 made a formal statement of its position regarding FGM to the UN Human Rights Commission. In addition, it expressed unequivocal opposition to the medicalization of the practice in any setting, readiness to support national efforts aimed at eliminating the practice, and strongly advises health workers not to perform female circumcision under any conditions. Moreover, in 1995, the Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen refers to FGM, reinforcing the International Conference on Population and Development recommendations. The Platform of Action of the World Conference on Women in Beijing includes a section on the girl child and urged governments, international organizations and nongovernmental groups to develop policies and programs to eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child including FGM.
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  2. 2
    152968

    Female genital mutilation: WHO statement.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1996 Aug. [2] p.

    The WHO is concerned with the traditional practice of female genital mutilation (FGM); therefore, it has carried out activities that combat this practice. Over the last 15 years, these activities have included: preparation of informational material by staff members and consultants, particularly on the health consequences and the epidemiology of FGM; support to incorporate this material into appropriate training courses for various categories of health workers; technical and financial support to national surveys; convening and collaborating in conferences and seminars on FGM; holding consultations to clarify and unify approaches; and disseminating information on FGM. All these efforts have culminated in the adoption, by the World Health Assembly 1994, of Resolution WHA 47.10, urging governments to take measures to eliminate traditional practices harmful to the health of women and children, particularly FGM.
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  3. 3
    113707

    Visions and discussions on genital mutilation of girls: an international survey.

    Smith J

    The Hague, Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for International Cooperation, Development Cooperation Information Department, 1995. [6], 216, [1] p.

    The Netherlands Institute of Human Rights conducted an inventory of international, regional, and national documents, legislation, and rules on female genital mutilation (FGM) to generate an overview of existing FGM-related regulations. Chapter 2 of the study's report presents the various forms of FGM and the countries where FGM is practiced. It also examines religion, tradition, culture, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The chapter also presents the views and attitudes of various famous researchers and authors. The legal approach to FGM has been receiving increasing attention, reaching the level of considering FGM as a health issue. Chapter 3 reviews international and regional regulations as they apply to FGM. The views and initiatives of international and regional governmental and nongovernmental organizations, particularly those initiatives aiming to eradicate FGM, are addressed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses the countries of origin (e.g., Somalia), while chapter 6 discusses those of destination (e.g., Canada). Specifically, these chapters cover these countries' national legislation and their government's views on FGM. These chapters also address initiatives and programs of those national nongovernmental organizations involved in the eradication of FGM. The report concludes with a summary of the findings and various conclusions.
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